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Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(280): 6235-6246, set.-2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1343873


Objetivo: analisar os casos de Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita notificados no Brasil durante o período de 1990 a 2016. Método: estudo transversal realizado no Brasil, cuja amostra foi de 122 casos notificados com Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita. Os dados foram disponibilizados pelo Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde. A coleta de dados foi realizada durante os meses de fevereiro e março de 2021. O tratamento dos dados se deu por análise estatística uni-variada. Resultados: observa-se prevalência no Estado de São Paulo cuja capital apresentou o maior número destas notificações. O ano em que houve prevalência do diagnóstico foi em 2008 e o mês de maior notificação foi dezembro. Todos os pacientes apresentavam idade menor que um ano, sexo feminino, com confirmação final para a doença por meio de critérios laboratoriais, e evolução para a cura. Conclusão: a idade apresentou significância no estudo. A terapêutica mostrou-se eficiente para um melhor prognóstico de cura, bem como a vacinação como medida preventiva.(AU)

Objective: to analyze the cases of Congenital Rubella Syndrome notified in Brazil from 1990 to 2016. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil, whose sample consisted of 122 cases notified with Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Data were made available by the Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde. Data collection was conducted during February and March 2021. The data were processed using univariate statistical analysis. Results: prevalence was observed in the state of São Paulo, whose capital city had the highest number of these notifications. The year in which there was prevalence of the diagnosis was 2008, and the month of greatest notification was December. All patients were less than one year old, female, with final confirmation of the disease through laboratory criteria, and progression to cure. Conclusion: Age was significant in this study. Therapy proved to be efficient for a better prognosis of cure, as well as vaccination as a preventive measure.(AU)

Objetivo: analizar los casos de Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita notificados en Brasil entre 1990 a 2016. Método: estudio transversal realizado en Brasil, cuya muestra fue 122 casos notificados con Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita. Los datos fueron facilitados por el Departamento de Informática del Sistema Único de Salud. La recogida de datos se realizó durante los meses de febrero y marzo de 2021. El tratamiento de los datos se realiza mediante un análisis estadístico univariante. Resultados: se observa una prevalencia en el Estado de São Paulo, cuya capital presenta el mayor número de notificaciones. El año y mes en que se produjo la prevalencia del diagnóstico fue 2008 y diciembre. Todos los pacientes presentaban una edad inferior a un año, sexo femenino, con confirmación final de la enfermedad mediante criterios de laboratorio y evolución para la cura. Conclusión: la edad presentó un significado en el estudio. El tratamiento es eficiente para un mejor pronóstico de curación, así como la vacunación como medida preventiva.(AU)

Humans , Female , Infant , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Health Information Systems/statistics & numerical data
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888611


BACKGROUND@#Rubella outbreaks occurred among adults in Japan in 2013-2014 and 2018-2019 due to immunity gaps. In response and aiming at rubella elimination by 2020, the government introduced countermeasures comprising supplementary immunization activities for voluntary testing of adult non-healthcare-related workers and vaccination of susceptible individuals. However, as of October 2020, rubella immunity testing and vaccination rates remained low. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with adults voluntarily confirming their rubella immune status, to help develop effective promotion activities for hard-to-reach and left-behind populations.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, a general population sample of non-healthcare workers aged 20-49 years in Japan completed an online survey in November 2020. Univariate analysis was performed to examine associations of specific actions taken to confirm rubella immune status with social background characteristics, knowledge of rubella, and attitude to testing and vaccination. Log binomial regression analysis was performed to explore the associations following adjustment for social background characteristics.@*RESULTS@#Among 1,854 respondents (927 men, 927 women), only 23.4% of men and 39.4% of women in their 20s to 40s have taken some action related to rubella prevention. Three major factors were associated with the targeted population having taken voluntary action: (1) knowing about testing for confirmation of immunity status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.29 men, 2.89 women), the rubella outbreak in 2013 among men in their 20s to 40s (AOR 2.79 men, 1.64 women), and congenital rubella syndrome (AOR 1.89 men, 3.10 women); (2) having acquaintances who were vaccinated against or tested for rubella (AOR 2.98 men, 1.95 women); and (3) having a positive attitude toward influenza vaccination (AOR 2.48 men, 1.83 women). Marriage, desire for pregnancy, and having children were weakly associated with taking action.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Currently, insufficient voluntary action is being taken by high-risk adult populations to close the identified immunity gaps. In this last mile to rubella elimination, our findings and suggested potential interventions via annual health check-ups and occupational health and public health initiatives could prove helpful in developing further countermeasures that actively promote and implement supplementary immunization activities targeting all adult generations.

Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 51-57, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089332


ABSTRACT Introduction: Vaccines are well-established public health interventions with major impacton the prevalence of infectious diseases, but outbreaks are occurring frequently due to pri-mary and secondary failures, despite high coverage. Surveillance of efficacy and duration ofinduced immunity is a difficult task as it requires invasive blood sampling in children andteenagers. Saliva can be an acceptable alternative source of IgG to assess vaccine efficacyand toxoplasmosis incidence. We investigated IgG response for measles, mumps, rubella,and T. gondii in saliva samples of vaccinated young people. Methods: Saliva was collected from 249 public schools students from São Paulo, Brazil, aged7 to 13 years old, during an interactive exhibition on hygiene. We used S. aureus proteinA solid phase capture assay for IgG reactive to biotinylated purified proteins. Paired salivaand serum (47) were tested from young adults with serum evidence of T. gondii infectionand from negative children less than 12 month old for standardization. Reproducibility wasgreater than 98% and sensitivity and specificity of the saliva assays were greater than 95%,as well as the concordance of paired saliva and serum samples. Results: Saliva from high school students showed a prevalence of 8.5% (95% CI: 5.0-11.9%)for anti T. gondii IgG; 96.8% (94.6-99%) of anti-measles IgG; 59.1% (53-65%) of anti-rubella IgG,and 57.5% (51.3-63.6%) of anti-mumps IgG. Discussion: The prevalence of antibodies against mumps and rubella after 6-8 years of vaccination was lower than against measles among students. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of saliva sampling for follow-up of vaccine immune status in teenagers. This useful approach allows for IgG detection for vaccine control or epidemio- logical studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/immunology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Reference Values , Rubella/immunology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/prevention & control , ROC Curve , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 317-329, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975585


Abstract Introduction A majority of otolaryngologists have not had direct experience with many vaccine-preventable diseases since the creation of national vaccination programs. Despite the elimination of endemic transmission of some of these diseases in the United States, outbreaks can occur anywhere and still pose a threat to public health around the world. Recent outbreaks and changing trends in exemption rates indicate that it is important for physicians to maintain a working knowledge of how these diseases present and of the recommended treatment guidelines. Objectives This review will evaluate the current state of vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and disease incidence in the United States and in the world. It will also examine the clinical presentation and treatment recommendations of these diseases. Data Synthesis United States estimated vaccination rates, vaccine exemption rates and vaccine-preventable disease incidences were obtained from data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. World vaccination rates and disease incidences were obtained from the World Health Organization databases, which compile official figures reported by member states. A PubMed literature review provided information on the current state of vaccination exemptions and outbreaks in the United States. Conclusion Vaccination and vaccine exemption rates continue to put the United States and many areas of the world at risk for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Clinical guidelines should be reviewed in the event of a local outbreak.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Otolaryngologists/education , Asia , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella/epidemiology , United States , Americas , Vaccines , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Africa , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Diphtheria/epidemiology , Europe , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data , Haemophilus Infections/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00043617, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-889907


Resumo: Os objetivos consistiram em descrever os casos e verificar a frequência de anafilaxia relacionada à vacina sarampo, caxumba e rubéola (SCR) do produtor A, bem como avaliar os possíveis fatores de risco associados. Estudo de caso-controle (1:4), em Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 14 de julho de 2014 a 12 de janeiro de 2015, em crianças de um a menores de cinco anos, vacinadas com SCR e notificadas com anafilaxia, sendo os controles sem anafilaxia. Utilizou-se, como medida de associação, odds ratio (OR) com intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%) e os testes qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher. Calcularam-se taxas de anafilaxia por doses distribuídas/aplicadas. Entrevistaram-se 15 casos e 60 controles, em 12 municípios. As taxas de anafilaxia foram 2,46 e 5,05 por doses distribuídas e aplicadas, respectivamente. Dentre os casos de anafilaxia, oito (53,4%) eram do sexo masculino, e dentre os controles, 36 (60%), com p = 0,64. Na análise bivariada referente à anafilaxia e alergia à proteína do leite de vaca (APLV), verificou-se OR = 51,62, com p = 0,00002 e IC95%: 5,59-476,11. As variáveis alergia alimentar familiar, aleitamento materno, evento adverso pós-vacinação (EAPV) anterior e vacinação simultânea não foram estatisticamente significativas (p = 0,48; p = 1,00; p = 0,49; p = 0,61). Taxas de anafilaxia por doses distribuídas/aplicadas ficaram acima de 1/100 mil doses aplicadas (taxa esperada). Anafilaxia e APLV apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa. Não foram encontradas associações estatísticas referentes à vacinação simultânea, aleitamento materno, alergia alimentar familiar e EAPV anterior. Recomendou-se ao produtor informar na bula todos os componentes do produto e que crianças com história pregressa de APLV não sejam vacinadas com essa vacina.

Abstract: The study aimed to describe cases and verify the frequency of anaphylaxis related to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine produced by manufacturer A and to assess associated risk factors. This was a case-control study (1:4) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from July 14, 2014, to January 12, 2015, in children from one year to less than five years of age, vaccinated with MMR and reported with anaphylaxis, while the controls were without anaphylaxis. The measure of association was odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI), using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Anaphylaxis rates were calculated per doses distributed/administered. Fifteen cases and 60 controls were interviewed in 12 municipalities (counties). Anaphylaxis rates were 2.46 and 5.05 cases per 100,000 doses distributed and administered, respectively. Among the cases of anaphylaxis, eight (53.4%) were males, and among the controls, 36 (60%), with p = 0.64. The bivariate analysis of anaphylaxis and cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) showed OR = 51.62, with p = 0.00002 and 95%CI: 5.59-476.11. The variables family food allergy, breastfeeding, previous post-vaccine adverse event (PVAE), and simultaneous vaccination were not statistically significant (p = 0.48; p = 1.00; p = 0.49; p = 0.61). Anaphylaxis rates per doses distributed/administered exceeded 1/100,000 doses administered (expected rate). Anaphylaxis and CMPA showed a statistically significant association. No statistically significant associations were found with simultaneous vaccination, breastfeeding, family food allergy, or history of PVAE. Recommendations: the manufacturer should specify the product's components in the package insert, and children with a history of CMPA should not be vaccinated with this vaccine.

Resumen: Los objetivos consistieron en describir los casos y verificar la frecuencia de anafilaxia, relacionada con la vacuna del sarampión, paperas y rubeola (SCR) del productor A, así como evaluar los posibles factores de riesgo asociados. Estudio de caso-control (1:4), en Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 14 de julio de 2014 a 12 de enero de 2015, en niños de uno a menores de cinco años, vacunadas con SCR y notificadas con anafilaxia, siendo los controles sin anafilaxia. Se utilizó, como medida de asociación, odds ratio (OR) con un intervalo de 95% de confianza (IC95%) y los testes chi-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher. Se calcularon las tasas de anafilaxia por dosis distribuidas/aplicadas. Se entrevistaron 15 casos y 60 controles, en 12 municipios. Las tasas de anafilaxia fueron 2,46 y 5,05 por dosis distribuidas y aplicadas, respectivamente. Entre los casos de anafilaxia, ocho (53,4%) eran del sexo masculino, y entre los controles, 36 (60%), con p = 0,64. En el análisis bivariado referente a la anafilaxia y alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca (APLV), se verificó OR = 51,62, con p = 0,00002 e IC95%: 5,59-476,11. Las variables alergia alimentaria familiar, lactancia materna , evento adverso pos-vacunación (EAPV) anterior y vacunación simultánea no fueron estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,48; p = 1,00; p = 0,49; p = 0,61). Tasas de anafilaxia por dosis distribuidas/aplicadas se situaron encima de 1/100.000 dosis aplicadas (tasa esperada). Anafilaxia y APLV presentaron una asociación estadísticamente significativa. No fueron encontradas asociaciones estadísticas referentes a la vacunación simultánea, lactancia materna, alergia alimentaria familiar y EAPV anterior. Se recomendó al productor informar en el prospecto sobre todos los componentes del producto, y que los niños con historial anterior de APLV no sean vacunados con esa vacuna.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Residence Characteristics , Interviews as Topic , Risk Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/prevention & control
Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2013; 16 (1): 38-41
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130533


In Iran, the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine [MMR] is administered in a two-dose protocol where the first dose is scheduled at 12 months of age. This study aims to determine the efficacy of the MMR vaccine by testing IgM and IgG antibody levels 4 - 7 weeks after primary vaccination. A single group cohort study was performed on healthy children, 12 - 15 months of age, who were vaccinated at health centers affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, from January to April 2009. Children with negative vaccination and/or clinical history for measles, mumps or rubella were administered the first dose of the MMR live attenuated vaccine. IgG and IgM antibodies were checked by enzyme linked immunoassay [ELISA] in serum samples 4 - 7 weeks after vaccination. A child was considered seropositive if antibody levels were higher than the assay cut-off level set by the ELISA kit. Samples from 240 children were checked for antibodies against measles and rubella. Measles serum IgM level was positive in 71.7% of samples and IgG in 75.8%. The rubella serum IgM level was positive in 71.7% of children and IgG in 73.8%. From 190 blood samples that were checked for mumps antibodies, serum IgM was positive in 68.9% and IgG in 95.3%. No significant relationship was found between seropositivity and age or gender. IgG and IgM antibody levels were below the assay cut-off levels against measles and rubella in approximately one-fourth of the children following primary MMR vaccination. A second dose was necessary to raise the level of protection against measles and rubella

Humans , Female , Male , Antibodies/blood , Rubella/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Child
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80219


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vaccinations are generally recommended in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, several studies showed low rates of vaccinations in IBD patients. Furthermore, vaccination rate among IBD patients in Korea has never been investigated. We investigated the vaccination rate among IBD patients in Korea and evaluated some factors that might affect the vaccination rate. METHODS: From November 2011 to February 2012, a total of 192 patients with IBD who visited Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) answered the IRB-approved questionnaire. The questionnaire included their sex, age, residence, past medical history, type of IBD, duration of illness, medications, history of vaccination about measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus-diphtheria (Td), influenza, hepatitis A and B, pneumococcus and human papilloma virus (HPV). RESULTS: One hundred twenty one (63.0%) male and 71 (37.0%) female answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 39.7 (18-76) years. Eighty four patients (43.8%) had ulcerative colitis and 108 patients (56.3%) had Crohn's disease (CD). The percentage of the patients who had got vaccination was 42.2% for MMR, 34.9% for varicella, 15.6% for Td, 37.5% for influenza, 15.6% for hepatitis A, 52.6% for hepatitis B, 6.3% for pneumococcus and 11.3% for HPV respectively. Not knowing the necessity or the existence were the common reasons for non-vaccination. Age less than 40 years, CD patients and duration of illness less than 10 years were associated with a higher vaccination rate (p=0.002, 0.015 and 0.020, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization rates for recommended vaccinations were very low in patients with IBD. Efforts to improve vaccination rate are needed.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Crohn Disease/pathology , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Female , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Male , Measles/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Mumps/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Republic of Korea , Rubella/prevention & control , Tetanus/prevention & control , Vaccination , Young Adult
Rev. salud pública ; 14(1): 1-14, 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659896


Objetivo Describir el comportamiento de la vigilancia epidemiológica, con el fin de aportar evidencias sobre la interrupción de la circulación endémica de los virus del sarampión y la rubéola en el país. Métodos Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de la vigilancia epidemiológica del sarampión y rubéola en Colombia para el período 1995-2009, a través de la consulta de información disponible de notificación en el aplicativo Measles Elimination Surveillance System (MESS), Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública (SIVIGILA) y el Departamento Nacional de Estadísticas (DANE) para proyecciones poblacionales. La evaluación de la calidad de la vigilancia se hizo mediante los indicadores propuestos para la vigilancia integrada de sarampión y rubéola. Resultados En el período a estudio se notificaron 28 732 casos sospechosos, 66,15 % de sarampión y 33,8 % de rubéola, mayor número de casos notificados en 2002 (22,4 %); total de casos confirmados de sarampión entre 1995-2002 (n=495) y de rubéola (n=946) en todo el período. El promedio acumulado de los indicadores fue investigación oportuna con un comportamiento por debajo de 80,5 %, notificación semanal por encima de 80 %, toma de muestra adecuada en 93,7 %, y para recepción de muestra de 65,2 % para 1995-2006 y de 83,3 % para el periodo 2007-2009. Conclusiones De acuerdo con la información aportada por la vigilancia epidemiológica, el país cumple con 4 de los 7 indicadores propuestos para evaluar su calidad. Se evidencia que la circulación endémica de los virus de sarampión y rubéola en Colombia se encuentra interrumpida.

Objective Describing the behavior of epidemiologic surveillance regarding measles and German measles (rubella) to provide evidence about the interruption of the endemic circulation of tríese viruses in Colombia. Methods This was a retrospective descriptive study of epidemiological surveillance for measles and German measles in Colombia from 1995 to 2009 by reviewing available notification information from the measles elimination surveillance system (MESS), the Colombian Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA) and the Colombian Statistics Department (DANE) for population projections. Surveillance quality was evaluated by using the indicators proposed for integrated measles and German measles surveillance. Results 28,732 suspicious cases were notified during the study period (66.15 % concerned measles and 33.8 % German measles). The greatest number of notified cases occurred in 2002 (22.4 %); this was detected in the 6-11 month and 2-4 year-old groups. Confirmed measles cases amounted to 495 (1995-2002) and German measles to 946 (for the whole period). The cumulative average for indicators was as follows: timely research had a pattern below 80.5 %, weekly notification was above 80 %, suitable sampling was 93.7 % on average and sample reception was 65.2 % for 1995-2006 and 83.3 % for 2007-2009. Conclusions According to the information compiled regarding epidemiological surveillance, Colombia complied with 4 of the 7 proposed indicators for quality evaluation; these showed active surveillance having suitable indicator performance regarding laboratory and notification rate. They demonstrated interrupted endemic circulation of measles and German measles in Colombia.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Disease Eradication , Measles/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Rubella/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Measles/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Rubella/prevention & control
Santiago de Chile; Chile. Ministerio de Salud; 2012. 5 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665389


El sarampión fue eliminado del continente Americano en el año 2002 y recientemente la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) declaró interrumpida la transmisión de la rubéola en la Región, un año antes del 2010, fecha en la que se había fijado la meta de eliminación de la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita (SRC). Para sostener este logro, OPS ha estado impulsando un plan que contempla: vigilancia integrada e investigación etiológica de exantemas febriles sospechosos de Sarampión o Rubéola; medidas de bloqueo epidemiológico, que incluyen la inmunización inmediata de los contactos potencialmente susceptibles; el mantener coberturas de vacuna SPR a nivel nacional y comunal sobre el 95 por ciento; la realización de campañas nacionales de vacunación (seguimiento, barrido o masivas), según situación epidemiológica. Hasta Marzo de este año el último caso de Sarampión importado detectado en Chile correspondía a un menor de nacionalidad francesa, quien ingresó al país en Febrero de 2009, en un vuelo procedente de Europa.

Humans , Immunization Programs , Mass Vaccination , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Chile , Health Personnel , Rubella/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2012. xi,97 p. mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-653197


O sarampo e a rubéola são doenças infectocontagiosas causadas por vírus, para as quais existem vacinas eficazes para o seu controle e eliminação. O objetivo do presente trabalho foianalisar os dados de sarampo e rubéola e as ações de controle dessas doenças em Moçambique. Foram utilizadas três fontes de dados: Sistema de informação do Ministério da Saúde de Moçambique, inquérito de mães e responsáveis de crianças nas unidades sanitárias edados do estudo HTLV-1 realizado pelo Instituto Nacional de Saúde. Foi realizada análise espacial para as coberturas de vacinação e incidência de sarampo. Também foram descritoscasos de sarampo e rubéola confirmados no período de 2006 até 2010 e compararam-se as prevalências de soropositividade para sarampo e rubéola em crianças HIV positiva e HIV negativas. Os resultados indicam que a vacinação e a vigilância de sarampo têm um progresso assinalável no país, mas essas atividades ainda mostram-se insuficientes para eliminar a doença. Para rubéola, o país não tem ações específicas de controle. A prevalência de soropositividade de sarampo foi de 30 por cento em crianças HIV positivas e 87 por cento em crianças HIV negativas; a soropositividade da rubéola foi de 47 por cento para o grupo de crianças HIV positivas e 4 por cento em crianças HIV negativas. As crianças infectadas por HIV eram mais suscetíveis a infecção de sarampo em relação ao grupo de crianças HIV negativas, e os distritos localizados nas fronteiras tiveram as taxas de incidência de sarampo mais elevadas. Recomendações: 1) Implantar a vigilância de casos de Síndrome de Rubéola Congênita. 2) Incluir a rubéola no sistema de vigilância epidemiológica. 3) Introduzir a vacina contra rubéola no calendário de vacinação. 4) Incluir crianças a partir de 6 meses de idade na vacinação em massa contra sarampo. 5) Formar e capacitacitar o pessoal envolvido nas atividades de vacinação. 6) Estabelecer mecanismos de identificação de grupos vulneráveis para sarampo e definir ações específicas para reduzir o risco de infecção. 7) Melhorar a qualidade dos dados do sistema deinformação verificando se são completos, corretos e oportunos. 8) Promover o uso dos dados para tomadas de decisão, particularmente ao nível local. 9) Reforçar a mobilização social para a vacinação de rotina.

Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Epidemiology , HIV Infections , Rubella/prevention & control , Measles/prevention & control , Vaccines , Mozambique/epidemiology , Prevalence
Saúde Soc ; 20(3): 691-701, jul.-set. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601160


Em 2007, o país vivenciou uma epidemia de rubéola, com 8.683 casos confirmados. Realizou-se uma avaliação econômica da rubéola e de uma estratégia de controle em surto ocorrido em Fortaleza em 2007. Dois estudos de avaliação econômica foram conduzidos. O primeiro foi uma análise de custo-enfermidade dos casos confirmados, e o segundo, uma análise de custo-efetividade entre duas estratégias de intervenção relacionadas à rubéola. Comparou-se o custo-efetividade da vacinação emergencial (i.e., operação limpeza) com o prestar assistência de saúde aos casos confirmados de rubéola. O estudo considerou as perspectivas econômicas do governo brasileiro por intermédio do Ministério da Saúde e também da sociedade, em que custos diretos e indiretos da prevenção e do tratamento da rubéola foram incluídos nas análises. O custo-enfermidade total dos 21 casos de rubéola foi de R$ 2.008,54 (médio R$ 95,65) e R$ 14.009,20 (médio R$ 667,10), desde as perspectivas do governo e sociedade, respectivamente. Os valores estimados para o custo-enfermidade total no país foram de aproximadamente R$ 831 mil para o governo e R$ 5.8 milhões para a sociedade. A análise de custo-efetividade incremental mostrou que a operação limpeza foi considerada dominante sobre a assistência aos casos de rubéola, produzindo maiores benefícios (i.e., redução dos casos de rubéola) a um menor custo. Esses resultados mostraram-se robustos em uma série de análises de sensibilidade. A análise de custo-efetividade nos mostrou que a alternativa de vacinação emergencial apresentou uma melhor relação de custo-efetividade e resultou em uma economia de recursos em ambas as perspectivas adotadas.

Cost-Benefit Analysis , Economics , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Rubella/economics , Rubella/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Vaccines
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(1): 7-14, jul. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-608282


OBJECTIVE: To describe an adapted version of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) methodology for rapid monitoring of vaccination coverage and its use as a supervisory tool to guide decision-making and strategies for end-stage vaccination activities ("mopup" operations) following a six-week national rubella elimination campaign in Brazil. METHODS: Vaccination coverage assessments modeled on a variation of PAHO's rapid house-to-house coverage monitoring methodology were conducted by Brazilian municipalities following mass immunization of adults and adolescents from August to December 2008. Results of monitoring assessments conducted in 3 658 (65.7 percent) of 5 564 municipalities were reported to Brazil's National Immunization Program. RESULTS: Information on vaccination against rubella was obtained from more than 1.5 million Brazilians (2.1 percent of the 70.1 million people targeted for immunization) during vaccination coverage monitoring. According to the assessment data, vaccination targets of 95 percent coverage were reached in 2 175 (59.5 percent) of the 3 658 municipalities that reported results. The percentage of municipalities that reached coverage targets was lower than administrative coverage estimates (number of vaccine doses administered divided by the immunization target population). These results informed targeted "mop-up" campaigns to reach unvaccinated populations. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid coverage monitoring implemented at the local level proved useful for deciding when to conclude vaccination activities and where to focus additional efforts to achieve desired coverage.

Describir una versión adaptada de la metodología de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para el monitoreo rápido de la cobertura de vacunación. Exponer su uso como herramienta de supervisión para guiar la toma de decisiones y las estrategias para las actividades de vacunación finales (campañas "de barrido") después de una campaña nacional de eliminación de la rubéola de 6 semanas de duración en el Brasil. MÉTODOS: Los municipios brasileños llevaron a cabo una evaluación de la cobertura de vacunación basada en una variante de la metodología de monitoreo rápido "casa por casa" de la OPS, después de una campaña masiva de vacunación de adultos y adolescentes efectuada entre agosto y diciembre del 2008. Los resultados de las evaluaciones de seguimiento realizadas en 3 658 (65,7 por ciento) de 5 564 municipios se comunicaron al Programa Nacional de Vacunación del Brasil. RESULTADOS: Mediante el monitoreo de la cobertura de vacunación se obtuvo información sobre la vacunación antirrubeólica de más de 1,5 millones de brasileños (2,1 por ciento de los 70,1 millones de destinatarios de la inmunización). Según estos datos, se alcanzó la meta de vacunación (cobertura del 95 por ciento) en 2 175 (59,5 por ciento) de los 3 658 municipios que presentaron resultados. El porcentaje de municipios que alcanzaron la meta de cobertura fue menor que las estimaciones de cobertura administrativa (cantidad de dosis de vacuna administradas dividida por la población destinataria de la inmunización). Estos resultados se usaron para las campañas de vacunación "de barrido" a fin de alcanzar a las poblaciones no vacunadas. CONCLUSIONES: El monitoreo rápido de la cobertura de vacunación en el nivel local resultó útil para decidir cuándo concluir las actividades de vacunación y en qué aspectos se debían concentrar los esfuerzos posteriores para lograr la cobertura deseada.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Population Surveillance/methods , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Pan American Health Organization , Urban Health
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(4): 243-251, abr. 2011. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-587822


OBJECTIVE: To describe rubella outbreaks and control strategies in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul before rubella elimination. METHODS: We analyzed rubella and congenital rubella syndrome surveillance data for the state of Rio Grande do Sul and calculated age- and gender-specific incidence of confirmed rubella cases in 2007. We obtained data on measles-rubella doses administered during the outbreak from the state immunization program and reviewed the timing of suspect case notification and implementation of control measures. RESULTS: Of 2 842 confirmed rubella cases reported to the state health department in 2007, 2 145 (75.5 percent) were in males (39.5 cases per 100 000 population) and 697 (24.5 percent) were in females (12.3 per 100 000 population). Incidence among 15- to 39-year-olds was 1.8 to 5.5 times higher in males than in females. Rubella genotype 2B was detected in nasopharyngeal specimens from 13 patients from multiple chains of transmission. Eight children were born with congenital rubella syndrome (5.9 cases per 100 000 births in 2008). Delayed notification of initial cases hampered early control efforts, resulting in outbreak spread throughout the state. Rubella transmission was interrupted after mass vaccination of adult men and women as part of a national vaccination campaign. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination strategies and mass vaccination of adolescents and adults for accelerated rubella control and elimination should target men and women.

OBJETIVO: Describir los brotes de rubéola y las estrategias para el control de la enfermedad anteriores a la eliminación de la rubéola en el estado brasileño de Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre la rubéola y el síndrome de rubéola congénita del estado de Rio Grande do Sul y se calculó la incidencia específica por edad y sexo de los casos confirmados de rubéola en el 2007. A partir del programa de vacunación estatal se obtuvieron datos sobre las dosis de vacunación antisarampionosa y antirrubeólica administradas durante el brote y se analizaron el momento de notificación de los casos sospechosos y la puesta en práctica de medidas de control. RESULTADOS: De los 2842 casos confirmados de rubéola notificados al departamento de salud estatal en el 2007, 2 145 (75,5 por ciento) correspondieron a hombres (39,5 casos por 100000 habitantes) y 697 (24,5 por ciento) a mujeres (12,3 por 100000 habitantes). La incidencia en las personas de 15 a 39 años de edad fue de 1,8 a 5,5 veces mayor en los varones que en las mujeres. En 13 pacientes provenientes de distintas cadenas de transmisión se detectó el genotipo 2B del virus de la rubéola en muestras obtenidas de la nasofaringe. Nacieron 8 niños con síndrome de rubéola congénita (5,9 casos por 100000 nacimientos en el 2008). La demora en la notificación de los casos iniciales obstaculizó la adopción temprana de medidas de control, lo que hizo que el brote se propagara a todo el estado. La transmisión de la rubéola se interrumpió después de la vacunación masiva de varones y mujeres adultos como parte de una campaña nacional de vacunación. CONCLUSIONES: Las estrategias de vacunación sistemática y la vacunación masiva de adolescentes y adultos tendientes a acelerar el control y la eliminación de la rubéola deben dirigirse tanto a varones como a mujeres.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Rubella Vaccine , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods
Rev. salud pública ; 13(2): 288-297, abr. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-602875


Objetivo Determinar la seroprevalencia de Inmunoglobulina G (IgG) contra Virus de la Rubéola (VR) en Cartagena y si las metas de cobertura en inmunización contra VR han sido alcanzadas. Métodos Se desarrolló un estudio transversal, durante 2009. Se incluyeron mujeres entre 10-49 años de edad. Los individuos fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente. Las variables socio-demográficas fueron registradas por entrevista directa. La IgG contra VR fue detectada mediante ELISA. Para analizar diferencias entre grupos se emplearon la prueba exacta de Fisher y X2. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística para correlacionar variables. Resultados Se analizaron 1 528 muestras. El 93 por ciento (n=1 422) de la población fue seropositiva. Las mujeres entre 10-14 años reportaron un menor nivel de seropositividad en relación con el resto de la población. Las diferencias entre proporciones de seroprevalencia fueron estadísticamente significativas en los rangos de edad (p<0,001) y la ocupación (p=0,042). Las mujeres entre 10-14 años reportaron riesgo elevado para seronegatividad (OR=0,27, p<0,001). Conclusiones Las metas de seroprevalencia contra VR no han sido alcanzadas en Cartagena y nuevos casos de Rubéola o Síndrome de Rubéola Congénita podrían presentarse en el Distrito. Estos hallazgos revelan que no hubo progreso significativo desde 2006, cuando el porcentaje de cobertura en vacunación contra VR oscilaba entre 90-95 por ciento. El alto riesgo en el grupo de 10-14 años sugiere falencias en la administración de las dosis iniciales en el esquema de vacunación.

Objective Determining immunoglobulin G (IgG) against the rubella virus (RV) causing German measles in Cartagena and whether vaccination goals against German measles have been achieved. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2009; females aged 10-49 years were included. Selection was randomised. Socio-demographic variables were recorded in face-to-face interviews. IgG against RV was detected by ELISA. X2 and Fisher's exact tests were used for comparing variables. A logistic regression model was used for correlating data. Results A total of 1,528 serum samples were analysed; 93 percent (n=1,422) were seropositive. The lowest seropositivity was reported in girls aged 10-14. Differences regarding seroprevalence percentages were statistically significant between age ranges (p<0.001) and employment (p=0.042). A high risk of seronegativity was reported for girls aged 10-14 (OR=0.27; p<0.001). Conclusions Seroprevalence goals against RV had not been reached in Cartagena and new cases of rubella (German measles) or congenital rubella (German measles)syndrome are still possible in the area. These findings revealed that no significant progress had been made since 2006 when German measles vaccine coverage was 90 percent-95 percent. High risk in girls aged 10-14 suggests that the local immunisation programme fails in MMR vaccine administration.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Rubella virus/immunology , Rubella/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Immunization Programs , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Program Evaluation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Rubella/immunology , Rubella/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination
Rev. salud pública ; 12(1): 103-115, feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-552323


Objetivo Comparar el nivel de eliminación de enfermedades como sarampión y rubéola en población homogénea y heterogénea según la existencia de estratos sociales con interacción entre individuos de estrato social alto y bajo y diversidad en el número promedio de contactos entre ellos. Métodos Simulaciones del ritmo reproductivo efectivo, derivado de un modelo matemático tipo SIR (Susceptibles Infectados Recuperados), según diferentes ritmos de inmunidad. Se utilizaron datos de incidencia de sarampión (1980 y 2005) y rubéola (1998 y 2005) de América Latina y el Caribe. Se analizó la interacción entre individuos del estrato social alto y bajo con diferente número promedio de contactos mediante análisis de red aleatoria bipartita. Las simulaciones se ejecutaron en MAPLE 12 (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada). Resultados En la población socialmente homogénea se reprodujo el avance en la eliminación de ambas enfermedades entre los dos períodos de tiempo. En el estrato alto y bajo, se lograría la eliminación en sarampión (2005) pero en rubéola (2005) sólo se lograría si hay alto ritmo de inmunidad en el estrato bajo. Si varía el número promedio de contactos habituales, no se lograría la eliminación de rubéola ni con un ritmo de inmunidad de 95 por ciento. Conclusión El seguimiento del nivel de eliminación de enfermedades como sarampión y rubéola demanda la consideración de la situación socioeconómica y del patrón de interacción de la población. Especial atención se debe prestar a comunidades con diversidad en el número promedio de contactos en espacios confinados como comunidades desplazadas, carcelarias, educativas, hospitalarias, etc.

Objective The study was aimed at comparing measles and rubella disease elimination levels in a homogeneous and heterogeneous population according to socioeconomic status with interactions amongst low- and high-income individuals and diversity in the average number of contacts amongst them. Methods Effective reproductive rate simulations were deduced from a susceptibleinfected- recovered (SIR) mathematical model according to different immunisation rates using measles (1980 and 2005) and rubella (1998 and 2005) incidence data from Latin-America and the Caribbean. Low- and high-income individuals' social interaction and their average number of contacts were analysed by bipartite random network analysis. MAPLE 12 (Maplesoft Inc, Ontario Canada) software was used for making the simulations. Results The progress made in eliminating both diseases between both periods of time was reproduced in the socially-homogeneous population. Measles (2005) would be eliminated in high- and low-income groups; however, it would only be achieved in rubella (2005) if there were a high immunity rate amongst the low-income group. If the average number of contacts were varied, then rubella would not be eliminated, even with a 95 percent immunity rate. Conclusion Monitoring the elimination level in diseases like measles and rubella requires that socio-economic status be considered as well as the population's interaction pattern. Special attention should be paid to communities having diversity in their average number of contacts occurring in confined spaces such as displaced communities, prisons, educational establishments, or hospitals.

Humans , Computer Simulation , Income , Interpersonal Relations , Models, Theoretical , Measles/prevention & control , Rubella/prevention & control , Confined Spaces , Cultural Diversity , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Latin America/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/transmission , Residence Characteristics , Rubella Vaccine , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/transmission , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Jul; 76(7): 717-723
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142324


Objective. We investigated the outbreak as a suspected outbreak of measles with the objectives of confirming diagnosis, estimating the magnitude of outbreak and formulating recommendations for control and prevention. Methods. We defined a case of the rubella as occurrence of fever with rash in any resident of these three villages between 20th October to 9th December, 2006. We line listed the cases and collected information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment history, traveling history, vaccination status and pregnancy status. We described the outbreak by time, place and person characteristics. Sera of a sample of case patients were tested for IgM antibodies to measles and later rubella viruses. Results. We identified 61 cases in three villages - 39 cases in Hattli, 17 in Thulel and 5 in Dramman. The overall attack rate (AR) was 8.7%. Sex specific AR for males was 10% and females 7.4%. All case patients were less than 20 years of age and the attack rate was highest in the age group 11-20 years (median age 12 years). The index case was traced in Hattli Bengali slum and occurred on 20th October 2006 where majorities (41%) of the cases were reported. No pregnant woman was found to be affected. The number of cases peaked on 19th November and the last case was reported on 9th December 2006. Of 61 case-patients, 50 (82%) were immunized against measles while proportions of children vaccinated for measles were 96% (672/700) and none of them were immunized against rubella (including two (3%) who had MMR immunization privately). Out of six blood samples tested, all tested negative for measles IgM antibodies but four were positive for IgM antibodies to rubella. Only 36% (22/61) of the cases took the treatment from modern system of medicine. Conclusion. An outbreak of rubella was confirmed and was possibly due to the frequent traveling of Bengali colony patients to other areas for selling the food items. We advised the local health authorities to provide MMR vaccination to the unexposed and energetic IEC in three affected and neighboring villages.

Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Poverty , Pregnancy , Risk Assessment , Rubella/diagnosis , Rubella/epidemiology , Rubella/prevention & control , Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Rural Population , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Travel , Vaccination/standards , Vaccination/trends , Young Adult