Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 112
Filter
1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 367-371, Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288608

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the relationship between aerobic activity and cardiac autonomic nerve activity by artificial neural network algorithm and biological image fusion; because of the artificial neural network model (ANN) problems, biological image processing technology is introduced based on ANN. Methods: An Ann under biological image intelligence algorithm is proposed, a classifier suitable for electrocardiograph (ECG) screening is designed, and an ECG signal screening system is successfully established. Moreover, the data set of normal recovered ECG signals of the subjects during the experimental period is constructed, and a classifier is used to extract the characteristic data of a normal ECG signal during the experimental period. Results: The changes in resting heart rate and other physical health indicators are analyzed by combining resting physiological indicators, namely heart rate, body weight, body mass index and body fat rate. The results show that the self-designed classifier can efficiently process the ECG images, and long-term regular activities can improve the physical conditions of most people. Most subjects' body weight and body fat rate decrease with the extension of experiment time, and the resting heart rate decreases relatively. Conclusions: Certain indicators can be used to predict a person's dynamic physical health, which indicates that the experimental research of index prediction in this research has a good effect, which not only extends the application of artificial neural network but also lays a foundation for the research and implementation of ECG intelligent testing wearable devices. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Objetivo: Com o objetivo de estudar a relação entre atividade aeróbia e atividade nervosa autonômica cardíaca por algoritmo de rede neural artificial e fusão biológica de imagens, tendo em vista os problemas existentes no modelo de rede neural artificial (RNA), é introduzida a tecnologia de processamento biológico de imagens com base em ANN. Métodos: um algoritmo de inteligência biológica de imagem Ann é proposto, um classificador adequado para triagem eletrocardiográfica (ECG) é projetado e um sistema de triagem de sinal de ECG é estabelecido com sucesso. Além disso, o conjunto de dados de sinais de ECG normais recuperados dos sujeitos durante o período experimental é construído e um classificador é usado para extrair os dados característicos de um sinal de ECG normal durante o período experimental. Resultados: As alterações na frequência cardíaca em repouso e outros indicadores de saúde física são analisadas pela combinação de indicadores fisiológicos de repouso, a saber, frequência cardíaca, peso corporal, índice de massa corporal e índice de gordura corporal. Os resultados mostram que o classificador autodesenhado pode processar com eficiência as imagens de ECG, e as atividades regulares de longo prazo podem melhorar as condições físicas da maioria das pessoas. O peso corporal e a taxa de gordura corporal da maioria dos indivíduos diminuem com a extensão do tempo do experimento, e a freqüência cardíaca em repouso diminui relativamente. Conclusões: Certos indicadores podem ser usados para prever a saúde física dinâmica de uma pessoa, o que indica que a pesquisa experimental de predição de índice nesta pesquisa tem um bom efeito, que não apenas estende a aplicação da rede neural artificial, mas também estabelece uma base para a pesquisa e implementação de dispositivos vestíveis de teste inteligente de ECG. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Para estudiar la relación entre la actividad aeróbica y la actividad del nervio autónomo cardíaco mediante el algoritmo de red neuronal artificial y la fusión de imágenes biológicas, ante los problemas existentes en el modelo de red neuronal artificial (ANN), se introduce la tecnología de procesamiento de imágenes biológicas basada en ANA. Métodos: Se propone un algoritmo de inteligencia de imagen biológica de Ann, se diseña un clasificador adecuado para el cribado electrocardiógrafo (ECG) y se establece con éxito un sistema de cribado de señales de ECG. Además, se construye el conjunto de datos de las señales de ECG recuperadas normales de los sujetos durante el período experimental, y se utiliza un clasificador para extraer los datos característicos de una señal de ECG normal durante el período experimental. Resultados: Los cambios en la frecuencia cardíaca en reposo y otros indicadores de salud física se analizan combinando indicadores fisiológicos en reposo, a saber, frecuencia cardíaca, peso corporal, índice de masa corporal y tasa de grasa corporal. Los resultados muestran que el clasificador de diseño propio puede procesar de manera eficiente las imágenes de ECG, y las actividades regulares a largo plazo pueden mejorar las condiciones físicas de la mayoría de las personas. El peso corporal y la tasa de grasa corporal de la mayoría de los sujetos disminuyen con la extensión del tiempo del experimento, y la frecuencia cardíaca en reposo disminuye relativamente. Conclusiones: Ciertos indicadores pueden usarse para predecir la salud física dinámica de una persona, lo que indica que la investigación experimental de predicción de índices en esta investigación tiene un buen efecto, lo que no solo extiende la aplicación de la red neuronal artificial sino que también sienta las bases para la investigación. e implementación de dispositivos portátiles de prueba inteligente de ECG. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Running/physiology , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , Heart Rate/physiology , Algorithms , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Electrocardiography
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 20-22, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280090

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In 2008, our country successfully held the Olympic Games, where China won the most gold medals. After these Olympic Games, China has also become a world sports power. Our country's table tennis, diving, skating and other sports are also in the leading ranks in the world. In this study, according to the current training status of Chinese football players, we used data mining algorithm to analyze the unawareness of acceleration and speed of Chinese athletes in the running process. In this study, these indicators were quantified and analyzed, which has successfully promoted the training level of Chinese football players.


RESUMO Em 2008, nosso país sediou os Jogos Olímpicos, em que a China ganhou a maior parte das medalhas de ouro. Após os Jogos Olímpicos, a China também se tornou uma potência esportiva mundial. O tênis de mesa, o salto ornamental, a patinação e outros esportes também estão em posições de liderança. Neste estudo, de acordo com o atual estado de treinamento dos jogadores de futebol chineses, usamos o algoritmo de mineração de dados para analisar a falta de aceleração e velocidade dos atletas chineses na corrida. No estudo, esses indicadores foram quantificados e analisados, elevando o nível do treinamento os jogadores de futebol chineses.


RESUMEN En 2008, China celebró con éxito los Juegos Olímpicos.China ganó la mayoría de las medallas de oro en los Juegos Olímpicos.Después de los Juegos Olímpicos, China también se ha convertido en una potencia deportiva mundial.El tenis de mesa, el buceo y el patinaje sobre hielo en China también están en la posición de liderazgo en el mundo.De acuerdo con la situación actual del entrenamiento de los jugadores de Fútbol en nuestro país, este trabajo analiza la falta de percepción de la aceleración y velocidad de los jugadores de Fútbol en el proceso de correr con el algoritmo de minería.Y en los resultados de la investigación, el análisis cuantitativo de estos indicadores ha mejorado con éxito el nivel de entrenamiento de los jugadores de fútbol chinos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Running/physiology , Soccer/physiology , Velocity Measurement/methods , Athletic Performance/physiology , Algorithms
3.
Actual. osteol ; 16(1): 26-34, Ene - abr. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130074

ABSTRACT

La expansión modeladora de la geometría cortical de un hueso inducida por su entorno mecánico podría ser difícil de modificar por estímulos ulteriores con diferente direccionalidad. Este estudio, que por primera vez combina datos tomográficos del peroné (pQCT) y dinamométricos de la musculatura peronea lateral, intenta demostrar que, en individuos jóvenes no entrenados, el entrenamiento en fútbol produce cambios geométricos peroneos expansivos, similares a los del rugby, que podrían interferir en los efectos de un entrenamiento ulterior direccionalmente diferente (carrera larga). Confirmando la hipótesis, los resultados indican, con evidencias originales, 1) la relevancia creciente del uso del pie (rotación externa y eversión provocadas por los peroneos laterales) para la determinación de la geometría peronea (incremento del desarrollo de los indicadores de masa y de diseño óseos), evidenciada por la secuencia creciente de efectos: carrera < fútbol < rugby; 2) la predominancia de esos efectos sobre el desarrollo centro-proximal del peroné para resistir a la flexión lateral, y en la región distal para resistir el buckling (principal sitio y causa de fractura del hueso) y 3.) la relevancia de la anticipación de esos efectos para interferir en la manifestación de los cambios producidos por un entrenamiento ulterior (carrera), cuando los del primero (fútbol) afectan la modelación cortical de modo expansivo. Esta última deducción demuestra, en forma inédita, que un cambio modelatorio expansivo tempranamente inducido sobre la estructura cortical ósea 'delimitaría el terreno'para la manifestación de cualquier otro efecto ulterior por estímulos de distinta direccionalidad. (AU)


The modeling-dependent, geometrical expansion of cortical bone induced by the mechanical environment could be hard to modify by subsequent stimulations with a different directionality. The current study aimed to demonstrate that in young, untrained individuals, training in soccer or rugby enhances the geometric properties of the fibula cortical shell in such a way that the geometrical changes could interfere on the effects of a second training in which the loads are induced in a different direction, e.g. long-distance running. The original findings reported herein confirm our hypothesis and support 1) The relevance of the use of the foot (external rotation and eversion produced by peroneus muscles) to determine fibula geometry (improved development of indicators of bone mass and design) as evidenced by the increasing nature of the effects induced by running < soccer < rugby trainings; 2) The predominance of those effects on the ability of the fibula to resist lateral bending in the centralproximal region (insertion of peroneus muscles), and to resist buckling in the distal region (the main cause and site of the most frequent bone fractures), and 3) The interaction of the effects of a previous training with those of a subsequent training with a different orientation of the loads when the former induced a modeling-dependent expansion of the cortex. Our results support the proposed hypothesis with original arguments by showing that a first, expansive effect induced on cortical bone modeling would set the stage the manifestation of any subsequent effect derived from mechanical stimuli. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Exercise/physiology , Fibula/growth & development , Running/physiology , Soccer/physiology , Sports/physiology , Tomography , Bone Density , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle Strength Dynamometer , Fibula/diagnostic imaging , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Foot/growth & development , Foot/physiology , Foot/diagnostic imaging , Football/physiology
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 180-186, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136170

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The current study aimed to examine the body composition of adult male ultra-trail runners (UTR) according to their level of participation (regional UTR-R, vs. national UTR-N). METHODS The sample was composed of 44 adult male UTR (aged 36.5±7.2 years; UTR-R: n=25; UTR-N: n=19). Body composition was assessed by air displacement plethysmography, bioelectrical impedance, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In addition, the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was applied. A comparison between the groups was performed using independent samples t-test. RESULTS Significant differences between groups contrasting in the competitive level were found for chronological age (in years; UTR-R: 38.8±8.2 vs. UTR-N: 33.5±4.1); body density (in L.kg-1; UTR-R: 1.062±0.015 vs. UTR-N: 1.074±0.009); and fat mass (in kg; UTR-R: 12.7±6.8 vs. UTR-N: 7.6±2.7). CONCLUSION UTR-N were younger, presented higher values for body density, and had less fat mass, although no significant differences were found for fat-free mass. The current study evidenced the profile of long-distance runners and the need for weight management programs to regulate body composition.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O presente estudo objetivou examinar a composição corporal dos corredores de ultra-trail (UTR) e, adicionalmente, comparar dois grupos de acordo com o nível de participação (Regional vs. Nacional, respectivamente UTR-R e UTR-N). MÉTODOS A amostra foi composta por 44 corredores adultos masculinos (36,5±7,2 anos de idade; UTR-R: n=25; UTR-N: n=19). A composição corporal foi avaliada recorrendo à pletismografia de ar deslocado, bioimpedância elétrica e absorciometria de raios X de dupla energia. Adicionalmente, foi utilizado o Questionário de Frequência Alimentar. A comparação entre grupos foi realizada com base na prova t-student para amostras independentes. RESULTADOS Foram encontradas diferenças significativas por nível de competição para as seguintes variáveis dependentes: idade cronológica (em anos; UTR-R: 38,8±8,2 vs. UTR-N: 33,5±4,1); densidade corporal (em kg/L; UTR-R: 1,062±0,015 L/kg vs. UTR-N: 1,074±0,009); massa gorda (em kg; UTR-R: 12,7±6,8 kg vs. UTR-N: 7,6±2,7). CONCLUSÃO Os UTR-N tendem a ser mais jovens e apresentam valores superiores de densidade corporal e, consequentemente, valores menores de massa gorda, sendo a massa isenta de gordura semelhante entre os grupos. O presente estudo determinou o perfil dos corredores adultos masculinos de longa distância (ultra-trail), realçando a importância de uma cuidadosa regulação da massa corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Running/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Plethysmography/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Absorptiometry, Photon , Anthropometry , Surveys and Questionnaires , Electric Impedance , Athletic Performance/physiology , Athletes
5.
Cienc. act. fís. (Talca, En línea) ; 21(1): 1-15, ene. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123688

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se ha pretendido analizar las diferencias que se observan en las carreras de velocidad realizadas por atletas paralímpicos clasificados en diferentes categorías. La muestra del estudio consistió en 133 carreras de 100 metros efectuadas por atletas en las fases semifinales y finales del Campeonato Europeo de Atletismo del Comité Paralímpico Internacional en Swansea (Wales, UK) 2014, donde participaron 24 países. Se valoraron las variables temporales marca (s) y tiempo medio de paso (s), las variables espaciales número de pasos y amplitud media de paso (m), y las variables espacio temporal velocidad media (m/s) y frecuencia media (Hz). Se hizo un estudio comparativo entre las diferentes categorías y género. Los datos se recogieron de las grabaciones disponibles en la web del campeonato y fueron tratados con el paquete estadístico SPSS (V.22.0). Entre los resultados hay que destacar la importancia que tienen la amplitud de paso y la frecuencia media.


The present study sought to identify the differences observed in sprint races conducted by Paralympic athletes classified in different categories. The study sample consisted of 133 runs of 100 m sprint race conducted by athletes in the semifinal and final stages of the 2014 International Paralympic Committee Athletics European Championships, in Swansea (Wales, UK), where 24 countries participated. The temporal variables mark (s) and average step time (s), the spatial variables number of steps and average step length (m), and the temporal space variables average speed (m/s) and average frequency (Hz) were assessed. A comparative study between the different categories and gender has been carried out. The data was collected from the recordings available on the championship website was processed with the SPSS statistical package (V.22.0). Among the results, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of the step length and the average frequency.


O presente estudo buscou identificar as diferenças que se observam nas corridas de velocidade realizadas pelos atletas paralímpicos de diferentes categorias. A amostra do estudo consistiu-se em 133 provas de 100 metros realizadas por atletas nas fases semifinal e final do Campeonato Europeu de Atletismo do Comitê Paralímpico Internacional em Swansea (Wales, Reino Unido) 2014, onde participaram 24 países. Foram analisadas as variáveis temporais marca (s) e tempo médio do passo (s), as variáveis espaciais número de passos e amplitude média do passo (m) e as variáveis espaço temporal velocidade média (m/s) e frequência média (Hz). Realizou-se um estudo comparativo entre as diferentes categorias, com distinção de gênero. Para o estudo foram utilizadas as gravações disponíveis na página web do campeonato e os dados foram tratados com o pacote estatístico SPSS (V.22.0). Entre os resultados encontrados se destacam a importância que tem a amplitude do passo e a frequência média.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Running/physiology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Disabled Persons , Para-Athletes
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5256, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090048

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe and identify the importance of different indicators of the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of male ultra-trail runners according to their level of participation (regional or national). Methods Forty-four male ultra-trail runners were assessed (36.5±7.2 years). They were classified as regional (n=25) and national (n=19). Wingate test was used to assess the anaerobic pathway. A progressive incremental running test was performed and ventilatory thresholds registered, in parallel to heart rate and lactate concentration at the end of the protocol. Comparison between groups was performed using independent samples t-test. Results No significant differences were found between outputs derived from Wingate test. For aerobic fitness, while examining absolute values, differences were uniquely significant for the second ventilatory threshold (ultra-trail regional runners: 3.78±0.32L.min-1; ultra-trail national runners: 4.03±0.40L.min-1 p<0.05). Meantime, when aerobic fitness was expressed per unit of body mass, differences were significant for the second ventilatory threshold (ultra-trail regional runners: 50.75±6.23mL.kg-1.min-1; ultra-trail national runners: 57.88±4.64mL.kg-1.min-1 p<0.05) and also maximum volume of oxygen (ultra-trail regional runners: 57.33±7.66mL.kg-1.min-1; ultra-trail national runners: 63.39±4.26mL.kg-1.min-1 p<0.05). Conclusion This study emphasized the importance of expressing physiological variables derived from running protocols per unit of body mass. Also, the second ventilatory threshold appears to be the best and the only aerobic fitness variable to distinguish between trail runners according to competitive level. Maximal oxygen uptake seems of relative interest to distinguish between long distance runners according to competitive level.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever e comparar indicadores de aptidão metabólica em corredores de trilhas de longa distância (ultra trail running) adultos do sexo masculino, de acordo com o nível de competição (regional ou nacional). Métodos Foram avaliados 44 corredores masculinos com média de idade de 36,5±7,2 anos classificados como de nível regional (n=25) ou nacional (n=19). Foi utilizado o teste de Wingate para avaliação da via anaeróbica, enquanto o teste incremental de corrida em esteira também foi realizado para determinar os limiares ventilatórios, o consumo máximo de oxigênio, a frequência cardíaca e a concentração de lactato ao final do protocolo. A comparação entre os grupos foi realizada por estatística teste t para amostras independentes. Resultados As variáveis obtidas do teste Wingate não diferiram de forma significativa entre os grupos. No que diz respeito à aptidão aeróbica, foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre variáveis expressas em valores absolutos no segundo limiar ventilatório (corredores de nível regional: 3,78±0,32L.min-1; corredores de nível nacional: 4,03±0,40L.min-1; p<0,05). Quando considerados os valores expressos por unidade de massa corporal, o segundo limiar ventilatório (corredores de nível regional: 50,75±6,23mL.kg-1.min-1; corredores de nível nacional: 57,88±4,64mL.kg-1.min-1; p<0,05) e o volume máximo de oxigênio (corredores de nível regional: 57,33±7,66mL.kg-1.min-1; corredores de nível nacional: 63,39±4,26mL.kg-1.min-1; p<0,05) também diferiram de forma significativa. Conclusão Este estudo destacou a importância de se expressarem variáveis fisiológicas derivadas de protocolos de corrida por unidade de massa corporal. Além disso, o segundo limiar ventilatório pareceu ser o melhor e único indicador de aptidão aeróbica para a diferenciação de corredores de trilha de longa distância, segundo o nível competitivo. O consumo máximo de oxigênio não é especialmente relevante para distinguir os corredores de trilha de longa distância, segundo o nível competitivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Running/physiology , Athletes , Oxygen/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate/physiology
7.
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 39(1): 255-275, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140922

ABSTRACT

O Deep Water Running (DWR) é um método bastante difundido para o condicionamento cardiovascular e reabilitação em atletas. Contudo, nos últimos anos, foram realizadas investigações científicas sobre o DWR em populações especiais. Porém, ainda existem poucas evidências sobre as respostas musculoesqueléticas e cardiorrespiratórias em indivíduos obesos. O objetivo foi realizar um estudo de revisão sistemática de literatura referente às respostas musculoesqueléticas e cardiorrespiratórias, mediante ao treinamento em água funda em obesos. Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura de 2009 a 2019, por meio de levantamento de artigos científicos nas bases de dados eletrônica PubMed, e Scielo. Para tanto, foram utilizadas as seguintes palavras-chave: aquatic, deep water running, water-based, head-out aquatic, physical activity, obesity, overweight, também foram aplicados os operadores boleanos "and" e "OR". Foram encontrados 11 estudos de ensaios clínicos, cujos temas estavam relacionados com as variáveis de interesse do presente estudo. Baseado na literatura científica selecionada, conclui-se que a técnica de DWR é uma estratégia de treinamento e reabilitação física extremamente indicada para potencializar a força e resistência muscular, melhorar a capacidade funcional, cardiorrespiratória e qualidade de vida em obesos.


Deep Water Running (DWR) is a widely used method for cardiovascular conditioning and rehabilitation in athletes. Although, in recent years, scientific investigations have been conducted on DWR in special populations. However, there is still little evidence on musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory responses in obese individuals.The objective was to perform a systematic review on musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory responses, through deep water running in obese patients. It is a systematic reviewfrom 2009 to 2019, by means of a survey of scientific articles in the electronic databases PubMed, and Scielo. The following keywords were used: aquatic, deep water running, water-based, head-out aquatic, physical activity, obesity, overweight, and boolean operators "and" and "OR". Were found 11 clinical trial studies, whose themes were related to the variables of interest of the present study. Based on the selected scientific literature, it is concluded that the DWR technique is a strategy of training and physical rehabilitation extremely indicated to potentiate muscular strength and endurance, improve functional capacity, cardiorespiratory capacity and quality of life in obese patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Running/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Immersion , Obesity/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Swimming Pools , Water
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1111-1117, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012405

ABSTRACT

La carrera descalza ha sido ampliamente estudiada últimamente, pero poco se sabe de cambios anatómicos que produce en el pie. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar estos cambios producidos de forma aguda y a largo plazo en sujetos que entrenan a pie descalzo. 29 sujetos divididos en dos grupos: Barefoot (BFGr) (n=17) y Shod (SGr) (n=12), realizaron un protocolo de efecto agudo consistente en correr durante 20 min sobre treadmill a 3.1 m/s y un protocolo de entrenamiento de 8 semanas de carrera de resistencia con aumento progresivo de volumen. BFGr realizó todas las sesiones a pie descalzo. Al finalizar cada protocolo se midió Foot Length (FL), Forefoot Width (FW), Hindfoot Width (HW), Navicular Height (NH), Arch Index (AI) y Maximum Surface (MS). Se efectuó ANOVA 3x2 para comprobar los efectos que el tiempo y la condición de calzado produjo. La condición de calzado produjo efectos significativos sobre todas las variables (FL: p=0.000, η2p=0.997; FW: p=0.000, η2p=0,997; HW: p=0.000, η2p= 0,994; NH: p=0.000, η2p=0.953; AI: p=0.000, η2p=0.898; MS: p=0.000, η2p=0.983) y el factor tiempo sobre AI (p=0.012, η2p=0.152) y MS (p=0.000, η2p=0.259). Hubo interacción significativa Tiempo x Condición en FW (p=0.036, η2p= 0.116) y NH (p=0.019, η2p= 0.143). MS aumentó luego del protocolo de efecto agudo (p=0.000) y a largo plazo (p=0.001) en BFGr. El porcentaje de sujetos con pie normal aumentó en BFGr y con pie plano aumentó en SGr. El entrenamiento de carrera a pie descalzo produce efectos, principalmente luego de un período de adaptación de 8 semanas, tendientes a un aumento armónico en la superficie de apoyo plantar con tendencia a una disminución relativa del área del mediopié, lo cual se tradujo en una disminución de sujetos con arco plantar de tipología plana.


Barefoot running has been studied extensively recently, but little is known of the anatomical changes that take place in the foot. The objective of this study was to determine the acute and chronic changes that are produced in subjects who train barefoot. 29 subjects divided into two groups, Barefoot (BFGr) (n=17) and Shod (SGr) (n=12), followed an acute effect protocol which consisted in running during 20 min on a treadmill at 3.1 m/s, and an eight-week long chronic effect protocol covering eight weeks of resistance running with progressively increasing volume. BFGr did all the sessions barefoot. At the end of each protocol Foot Length (FL), Forefoot Width (FW), Hindfoot Width (HW), Navicular Height (NH), Arch Index (AI), and Maximum Surface (MS) were measured. ANOVA 3x2 was run to verify the effects caused by time and the shod condition produced. Shod/ Unshod factor caused significant effects on all the variables (FL: p=0.000, η2p=0.997; FW: p=0.000, η2p=0,997; HW: p=0.000, η2p= 0,994; NH: p=0.000, η2p=0.953; AI: p=0.000, η2p=0.898; MS: p=0.000, η2p=0.983), and the time factor on AI (p=0.012, η2p=0.152) and MS (p=0.000, η2p=0.259). There was a significant Time x Condition interaction in FW (p=0.036, η2p=0.116) and NH (p=0.019, η2p= 0.143). MS increased after the acute (p=0.000) and the chronic (p=0.001) protocols in the BFGr. The percentage of subjects with normal feet increased in the BFGr and that with flat feet increased in SGr. Barefoot running training causes effects, mainly after an adaptation period of eight weeks, tending to a harmonic surface increase on the support plantar area, with a relative decrease of the midfoot area, which meant a decrease of subjects with plantar arch of flat type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Pressure , Running/physiology , Foot/anatomy & histology , Shoes , Time Factors , Adaptation, Physiological , Anthropometry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 909-916, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011317

ABSTRACT

English Thoroughbred horses, are widespread in Mexico and due to the lack of data on their exercise physiology, it is important to conduct exercise tests in order to obtain information the effects of exercise on more essential cations/anions in blood serum, as these horses are submitted to constant efforts. The study was carried out with 150 blood samples of English Thoroughbred horses clinically healthy. The blood sample collection was performed during three periods: 1) rest, 2) 30min after exercise (speed race of 12km/h for 30min with no rest) and 3) 60min after exercise. Mean values were calculated for cations (sodium and potassium) and anions (chloride and bicarbonate). The resulting data set was analyzed using Gaussian distribution and descriptive statistics. Confidence intervals of 95% were established. The linear relationships between ions were quantified, and an analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean values between groups. The concentrations of the described analytes are consistent with values reported by international literature. The comparison between groups, revealed that during exercise, sodium ion did not show changes 30min after exercise and increase 60min after. Potassium ion showed increase 30min after exercise and decrease 60min after. Chloride ion showed a decrease 30min after exercise, to recover gradually 60min after. Meanwhile, bicarbonate ion showed increase 30min after exercise, decreasing slightly in the final stage. Negative correlation between bicarbonate ion and chloride ion were determined. It was concluded that exercise tests are useful for the determination of acid-base balance and osmotic balance, and their main role is to evaluate the athletic ability of horses.Considering that chloride ion excretion and metabolic adjustments of potassium ion and bicarbonate ion are superior to water loss, compared to the normal osmolarity of blood serum. The results found can be used to structure an adequate replacement program of electrolytes lost in sweat.(AU)


Equinos da raça Puro-Sangue-Inglês são difundidos no México e, devido à falta de dados sobre sua fisiologia do exercício, é importante fazer testes de exercício para obter informações sobre os efeitos do exercício em cátions/ânions mais essenciais no soro do sangue, pois esses equinos são submetidos a esforços constantes. O estudo foi realizado com 150 amostras de sangue de equinos Puro-Sangue-Inglês, clinicamente saudáveis. A coleta de sangue foi realizada em três períodos: 1) descanso, 2) 30min após o exercício (corrida de velocidade de 12km/h por 30min, sem descanso) e 3) 60min após o exercício. Os valores médios foram calculados para cátions (sódio e potássio) e ânions (cloreto e bicarbonato). O conjunto de dados resultante foi analisado utilizando-se distribuição gaussiana e estatística descritiva. Intervalos de confiança de 95% foram estabelecidos. As relações lineares entre os íons foram quantificadas, e uma análise de variância foi realizada para se compararem os valores médios entre grupos. As concentrações dos analitos descritos são consistentes com os valores relatados na literatura internacional. A comparação entre os grupos revelou que, durante o exercício, o sódio íon não mostrou alterações 30min após o exercício e aumentou 60min após. O potássio íon mostrou aumento 30min após o exercício e diminuiu 60min após. O cloreto íon mostrou uma diminuição 30min após o exercício, para recuperar gradualmente 60min depois. O bicarbonato íon mostrou aumento 30min após o exercício, diminuindo ligeiramente no estágio final. Correlação negativa entre bicarbonato íon e cloreto íon foi encontrada. Concluiu-se que os testes de exercício são úteis para a determinação do equilíbrio ácido-base e do equilíbrio osmótico, e seu principal papel é avaliar a capacidade atlética dos equinos. Considerando-se que a excreção de cloro íon e ajustes metabólicos de potássio íon e bicarbonato íon são superiores à perda de água, comparada à osmolaridade normal do soro sanguíneo,os resultados encontrados podem ser usados para estruturar um programa adequado de reposição de eletrólitos perdidos no suor.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Running/physiology , Physical Exertion/physiology , Horses/physiology , Horses/immunology , Veterinary Sports Medicine , Mexico
10.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 241-251, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013287

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To systematically review the literature as for the level of evidence of predictive equations of VO2peak through the 20-meter shuttle run test (20m-SRT) in children and adolescents. Data sources: Searches were conducted independently by two researchers, according to the procedures adopted by PRISMA, in the electronic databases MEDLINE via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, LILACS and SciELO, for articles published until September 2017 in English and Portuguese. The inclusion criteria were: original studies, abstract available, using predictive equations of VO2peak through 20m-SRT, conducted with adolescents and/or children, non-athletes, and mentioning correlation analysis between predicted and measured VO2peak. The level of evidence of equations was based on the risk of bias of the studies using the following criteria: sample number, sample characteristics, and statistical analysis. Data synthesis: Eighteen studies were selected, in which fifteen equations were found and analyzed. The studies had been conducted with samples composed of subjects of both sexes, aged 8 to 19 years. Equations of Léger and Matsuzaka had their level of evidence classified as high, and estimation ranged between r=0.54-0.90 and r=0.65-0.90. Equations by Ruiz, Barnett and Matsuzaka had their level of evidence classified as moderate, and estimation ranged between r=0.75-0.96, r=0.66-0.84 and r=0.66-0.89, respectively. Conclusions: Matsuzaka's equation presented satisfactory parameters for estimates of VO2peak in children and adolescents. Although not explored in equations, body adiposity and pubertal stage are significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar sistematicamente na literatura o nível de evidência das equações preditivas do pico de consumo de oxigênio (VO2pico) por meio do teste de shuttle run de 20 metros (SR-20m) em crianças e adolescentes. Fonte de dados: As buscas foram conduzidas nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), de agosto a setembro de 2017, nos idiomas inglês e português. Os critérios de inclusão utilizados foram: estudos originais, com resumo disponível, com equações para predição do VO2pico por meio do SR-20m, adolescentes e/ou crianças, não atletas e com análise correlacional do VO2pico predito e mensurado. O nível de evidência das equações foi caracterizado com base no risco de viés dos estudos, no qual se adotou os seguintes critérios: número da amostra, características da amostra e análise estatística. Síntese dos dados: Dezoito estudos foram selecionados, nos quais 12 equações foram encontradas e analisadas. Os estudos foram conduzidos com amostras de ambos os sexos com idades de oito a 19 anos. As equações de Léger e Matsuzaka foram classificadas com forte nível de evidência, com variação de amplitude de estimativa entre r=0,54-0,90 e r=0,65-0,90. Enquanto as equações Ruiz, Barnett e Matsuzaka foram consideradas de evidência moderada, com variação de amplitude de estimativa entre r=0,75-0,96, r=0,66-0,84 e r=0,66-0,89, respectivamente. Conclusões: A equação de Matsuzaka apresentou parâmetros satisfatórios para estimar o VO2pico em crianças e adolescentes. Embora não explorados em equações, a adiposidade corporal e o estágio puberal demonstram associações relevantes com a aptidão cardiorrespiratória em crianças e adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Oxygen Consumption , Running/physiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Statistical Distributions , Reproducibility of Results , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data
11.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 37-45, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003636

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Atletas altamente entrenados muestran cambios cardíacos estructurales como adaptación a la sobrecarga, producto del ejercicio repetitivo y extenuante. Se han evidenciado elevación de biomarcadores de remodelado y fibrosis miocárdica posterior al ejercicio intenso en atletas. Sin embargo, el comportamiento de estos biomarcadores según el nivel de entrenamiento previo no se ha evaluado. Objetivo: Investigar biomarcadores de fibrosis y función ventricular derecha en maratonistas con distinto nivel de entrenamiento previo. Métodos: Se incluyeron 36 maratonistas hombres, sanos, que completaron 42 km en la maratón de Santiago. Se dividieron según entrenamiento previo en dos grupos, Grupo 1 (G1): ≥100 km/semana y Grupo 2 (G2): <100 km/semana. Se realizó ecocardiografía transtorácica y se evaluaron niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 y del propéptido amino terminal del procolágeno tipo III (PIIINP) en la semana previa a la carrera e inmediatamente posterior a ésta. Resultados: Posterior a la maratón, la función sistólica del ventrículo derecho disminuyó en el grupo G2 junto con un aumento significativo de los niveles plasmáticos de PIIIPNP (61±16 a 94±24 ng/mL, p=0,01). Estos cambios no se observaron en el grupo G1 (65 ± 11 a 90±29 ng/mL, p=0,10). Los niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 aumentaron significativamente en ambos grupos posterior al ejercicio (6,8±2,2 a 19,7±4,9 ng/mL, p 0,012 y 6,0±1,1 a 19,4 ± 5,9 ng/mL, p 0,01) en los grupos G1 y G2, respectivamente). Conclusiones: Atletas con menor grado de entrenamiento, presentan posterior a una maratón un significativo aumento de productos de degradación del colágeno (PIIIPNP) asociado a disminución de la función del ventrículo derecho. Los niveles de galectina-3 plasmática aumentan significativamente en ambos grupos post-esfuerzo independiente del entrenamiento previo.


Abstracts: Introduction: Highly trained athletes show structural cardiac changes as adaptation to overload. Rise in remodeling biomarkers and myocardial fibrosis after intense exercise in athletes has been evidenced; however, the behavior of these biomarkers according to pre-competition training level has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate fibrosis biomarkers levels and right ventricle function in marathon runners according to their previous training level, in the period prior to a marathon race and immediately after it. Methods: Thirty-six healthy male marathon runners were included. Subjects were grouped according to their previous training level: Group 1 (G1): ≥100 km/week and Group 2 (G2): <100 km/week. Transthoracic echocardiography along with plasmatic levels of galectin-3 and amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were measured one week previous and immediately after the marathon. Results: Post-effort right ventricle systolic function decreased in G2, together with a significant elevation of PIIIPNP (61±16 to 94±24 ng/mL, p=0.01). These changes were not observed in G1 (from 65±11 to 90±29 ng/mL, p=0.10). Plasma galectin-3 increased significantly in both groups immediately post-exercise (6.8±2.2 to 19.7±4.9 ng/mL, p=0.012, and 6.0±1.1 to 19.4±5.9 ng/mL, p=0.01, in G1 and G2. respectively). Conclusion: Less trained athletes evidenced higher post marathon levels of PIIIPNP which is associated with a decreased global right ventricle function. Plasma galectin-3 levels increased significantly after intense exertion regardless of the intensity of previous training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Running/physiology , Fibrosis/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Injuries/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Single-Blind Method , Chile , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Procollagen/blood , Galectin 3/blood , Athletes
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 384-387, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003049

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Stretching exercises are widely used by the population before sporting activities. One of the most common technique is eccentric exercise. Here, we made a clinical examination of 98 subjects with equinus condition before activity and after 30 min of running (49 participants with previous eccentric exercise and 49 with no previously eccentric exercise). The clinical assessment of the Achilles tendon was based on the pressure pain threshold (PPT). We identified significant PPT changes between the previous eccentric stretching and the non-previous eccentric stretching group in the Achilles tendon evaluations. Based on our findings, we propose that subjects with equinus condition could use eccentric stretching in order to improve the Achilles tendon status.


RESUMO Exercícios de alongamento são amplamente utilizados pela população antes da atividade esportiva. Uma das técnicas mais comuns é o exercício excêntrico. Aqui, fizemos um exame clínico de 98 indivíduos com condição de pé equino antes da atividade e após 30 minutos de corrida (49 corredores com exercício excêntrico anterior e 49 sem exercício excêntrico anterior). A avaliação clínica do tendão de Aquiles foi baseada no limiar de dor à pressão (PPT). Identificamos modificações significativas no PPT entre alongamentos prévios excêntricos e nenhum exercício anterior excêntrico de alongamento para as avaliações do tendão de Aquiles. Com base em nossos achados, propomos que sujeitos com condição de pé equino poderiam fazer alongamentos com exercícios excêntricos para melhorar o status do tendão de Aquiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Running/physiology , Achilles Tendon/physiopathology , Pain Threshold/psychology , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Myalgia/prevention & control , Ankle Joint/physiopathology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Myalgia/physiopathology , Ankle/physiopathology
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e8593, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011584

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to verify the agreement between pre-programmed and executed pacing during race walking and whether level of the athletes experience and performance influenced this relationship. Twenty-nine national and international race walkers participated in this study (14 males, 24.0±7.1 years old, and 15 females, 23.3±7.3 years old). Pre-programmed pacing for 10- and 20-km official walking races was self-selected via demonstrative pacing charts prior to races, while executed pacing was analyzed by a specialist investigator via an individual plot of current velocity versus distance. There was no agreement between pre-programmed and executed pacing (P=0.674). There was no association between the ability to match the pre-programmed pace with the executed pace and race walking experience or level of performance. Low- and high-performance athletes pre-programmed a similar pacing profile (P=0.635); however, high-performance athletes generally executed an even pacing strategy, while low-performance athletes generally adopted a positive pacing strategy (P=0.013). Race walkers did not faithfully match their pre-programmed with their executed pacing, and this seemed to be independent of previous experience and level of performance. High-performance athletes, however, tended to execute an even pacing strategy, even though this had not been pre-programmed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Athletes
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7830, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974266

ABSTRACT

Exercise can prevent and improve the pathophysiology of diseases and promote healthy aging. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate the beneficial effects of exercise may lead to the development of new strategies to enhance quality of life and to counteract chronic diseases. Voluntary wheel running is an interesting model to study the effects of exercise in mice. Compared to forced treadmill exercise, voluntary wheel running presents several advantages such as: 1) running pattern is similar to natural running behavior of mice; 2) it is performed under non-stressed conditions, according to the rhythmicity of the animal; 3) it does not require direct interference from the researcher, and can be easily applied in long-term studies. Mice run spontaneously when given access to running wheels, for a total distance of ∼4 to 20 km per day and a total activity time of ∼3 to 7 hours a day. Hence, voluntary wheel running can result in robust endurance-like adaptation in skeletal and cardiac muscles and protect from sarcopenia. However, due to the lack of control over exercise parameters in voluntary exercise models, it is important for the researcher to understand the patterns and variability of wheel running in mice, as well as the factors that can affect voluntary running activity. Overall, voluntary wheel running in mice is a very interesting approach to study the chronic adaptation to exercise, analyze the effects of exercise, and test exercise capacity in different experimental models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/psychology , Running/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Motor Activity/physiology
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(6): 772-781, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973811

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cardiac remodeling is a specific response to exercise training and time exposure. We hypothesized that athletes engaging for long periods in high-intensity strength training show heart and/or vascular damage. Objective: To compare cardiac characteristics (structure and function) and vascular function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and peripheral vascular resistance [PVR]) in powerlifters and long-distance runners. Methods: We evaluated 40 high-performance athletes (powerlifters [PG], n = 16; runners [RG], n = 24) and assessed heart structure and function (echocardiography), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), FMD, PVR, maximum force (squat, bench press, and deadlift), and maximal oxygen uptake (spirometry). A Student's t Test for independent samples and Pearson's linear correlation were used (p < 0.05). Results: PG showed higher SBP/DBP (p < 0.001); greater interventricular septum thickness (p < 0.001), posterior wall thickness (p < 0.001) and LV mass (p < 0.001). After adjusting LV mass by body surface area (BSA), no difference was observed. As for diastolic function, LV diastolic volume, wave E, wave e', and E/e' ratio were similar for both groups. However, LA volume (p = 0.016) and BSA-adjusted LA volume were lower in PG (p < 0.001). Systolic function (end-systolic volume and ejection fraction), and FMD were similar in both groups. However, higher PVR in PG was observed (p = 0.014). We found a correlation between the main cardiovascular changes and total weight lifted in PG. Conclusions: Cardiovascular adaptations are dependent on training modality and the borderline structural cardiac changes are not accompanied by impaired function in powerlifters. However, a mild increase in blood pressure seems to be related to PVR rather than endothelial function.


Resumo Fundamento: Remodelamento cardíaco é uma resposta específica ao tempo e modalidade de treinamento. Nós hipotetizamos que atletas de treinamento de força de alta intensidade, por longo tempo, mostram dano à estrutura cardíaca e/ou vascular. Objetivo: Comparar as características cardíacas (estrutura e funcionalidade) e função vascular (dilatação fluxo-mediada, FMD e resistência vascular periférica, PVR) em powerlifters e corredores. Métodos: Nós avaliamos 40 atletas de alto-desempenho (powerlifters [PG], n = 16; corredores [RG], n = 24). Mensuramos estrutura e funcionalidade cardíaca (ecocardiografia), pressão arterial (SBP/DBP), FMD, PVR, força máxima (agachamento, supino e levantamento terra) e consumo máximo de oxigênio (ergoespirometria). Foi utilizado teste T de Student e correlação linear de Pearson (p < 0,05). Resultados: PG mostrou maior SBP/DBP (p < 0,001), espessura de septo interventricular (p < 0,001), parede posterior (p < 0,001) e massa do VE (p < 0,001); após ajuste pela superfície corporal (BSA), não houve diferença na massa do VE. O volume do VE, onda E, onda e', e a razão E/e' foram similares entre os grupos. O volume do AE (p = 0,016), mesmo ajustado pela BSA (p < 0,001) foi menor no PG. A função sistólica (volume sistólico final e fração de ejeção) e FMD foram similares nos grupos. Contudo, foi observada maior PVR no PG (p = 0,014). Houve uma correlação direta entre as alterações cardíacas e a carga total levantada no PG. Conclusões: As adaptações cardiovasculares são dependentes da modalidade e os valores encontrados na estrutura do coração não são acompanhados por prejuízo na funcionalidade. Entretanto, um leve aumento na pressão arterial pode estar associado com maior PVR e não com a função endotelial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Running/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Athletes , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Brachial Artery/physiology , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation , Exercise Test , Heart Rate/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology
16.
Cienc. act. fís. (Talca, En línea) ; 19(2): 1-8, jul. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994802

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio consistió en identificar las características psicológicas del rendimiento deportivo en atletas Runners de clubes pertenecientes a la ciudad de Concepción, Chile. El estudio fue de diseño no experimental-transversal de alcance descriptivo. Para recolectar los datos se aplicó el cuestionario de características psicológicas relacionadas con el rendimiento deportivo (CPRD). La información que entregó el cuestionario CPRD, señala que los resultados fluctúan sobre los promedios esperados y que son considerados normales según el Baremo estándar: "CPRD" control estrés 80,00%, influencia de evaluación 85,00%, motivación 70,00%, autoconfianza 73,08%, influencia del entrenador 76,80%, habilidad para establecer objetivos 72,12%, cohesión social 86,30% y ansiedad previa competencia 48,32%. De acuerdo a los resultados, su rendimiento deportivo es satisfactorio. Dentro de las características psicológicas mencionadas, se pueden destacar; la ansiedad, atención, autoconfianza, motivación, estrés y cohesión social. Todas ellas son características que afectan Significativamente el rendimiento deportivo.


The following study consisted of identifying the psychological characteristics of the amateur runners belonging to the clubs of Concepcion Chile. The research was quantitative of non-experimental transversal of descriptive scope. To collect data a questionnaire, involving the psychological characteristics associated with sport performance (CPRD) was applied. The information obtained by the CPRD show that the results are in average of the expected results, and are considered normal according to standar scale: "CPRD" stress control 80,00%, influence of evaluation 85,00%, motivation 70,00%, selfconfidence 73,08%, coach influence 76,80%, set goals 72,12%, social cohesion 86,30%, anxiety before competition 48,32%. According to these results, their sports performance is satisfactory. Alongside the psychological characteristics previously mentioned it could be highlighted anxiety, attention, selfconfidence, motivation, stress and social cohesion. These characteristics affect significantly sports performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Running/physiology , Athletic Performance/psychology , Athletes/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 325-331, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950072

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The testosterone:cortisol ratio (T:C) is suggested to be used in order to examine whether physical exercise generates either a "catabolic environment" or an "anabolic environment". The present study aims to evaluate the acute time-course profile of cortisol and testosterone due to an episode of physical exercise. A biphasic profile in the T:C ratio response was hypothesized. Materials and methods: Morning sessions of treadmill running at two different intensities (Heart Rate at 65% and 80% of the maximum cardiac reserve) were performed by 6 male non-runners (NR) and 12 trained male runners (subdivided into trained runners T1 and T2). Cortisol and testosterone were measured in saliva. NR and T1 ran for 30 minutes at both intensities, and T2 ran for 46 minutes (± 4.1) at 65% and 42 minutes (± 3.5) at 80%. Results: In the 80% heart rate target, both groups of runners showed the biphasic time-profile, while the non-runners group did not. However, at the 65% level, none of the groups presented the hypothesized biphasic response. Conclusions: A biphasic time-profile in the testosterone:cortisol ratio can be seen in short-bout, high intensity exercise (treadmill running) during the morning in men trained for this specific physical activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Running/physiology , Saliva/chemistry , Testosterone/analysis , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Athletes , Heart Rate/physiology , Time Factors
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e7033, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889046

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV) tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP) and high running performance (HRP) rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified). We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase), whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2). In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Running/physiology , Proteins/metabolism , Heart Function Tests/methods , Myocardium/metabolism , Organ Size , Rats, Inbred Strains , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Proteins/isolation & purification , Contractile Proteins/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics , Desmin/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism
19.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(4): e101841, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976260

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of linear and undulating strength-power training scheme on the repeated sprint ability (RSA) and lower body strength of soccer players. Method: Twenty soccer players (under-20 category) were split into 2 groups: the linear load (LL, n=10) and the undulating load (UL, n=10). In the commencement and at the end of the 6-week pre-season period, the RSA test (6 x 35m) and the 1RM parallel squat test (1RMsquat) were conducted. The LL and UL performed the same type and number of sessions. The training stimulus in the strength training was different between LL (Weeks 1 and 2 = Muscular Endurance; Weeks 3 and 4 = Strength; Weeks 5 and 6 = Power) and UL (daily load variation in the same week). Results: A improvement in RSAmean and 1RMsquat was detected in LL and in UL. No significant difference was noted between LL vs UL for all variables. Conclusion: Both groups improved maximal muscle strength in parallel back squat and RSA. UL induced a greater gain in RSA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Soccer/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , /methods , Running/physiology , Breath Tests/methods , Anthropometry/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology
20.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(1): e1018133, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-895049

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the behavior of different cardiopulmonary variables in exercise session with constant running speed, corresponding to the intensity of ventilatory anaerobic threshold and identifying the steady state in a different level of performance. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with nine elite athletes (31 ± 5.7 years, 1.7 ± 0.05 meters and O2max 68.6 ± 3.2 mL·kg-1·min-1) and nine non-athletes (32 ± 10 years, 1.8 ± 0.1 meters and O2max 47.2± 4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1). Two visits to the laboratory have been conducted. Firstly, cardiopulmonary exercise testing until voluntary exhaustion took place to identify ventilatory thresholds and maximum oxygen consumption (O2max) and secondly, there was a running session for 1 hour in ventilatory anaerobic threshold speed, with continuous measurement of exhaled gases. A range of 5% (∆5%) for VO2 and PetCO2 was used; 5.5% (∆5.5%) for VE and 3% (∆3%) for respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and one-way ANOVA with statistical significance of p ≤ 0.05 to identify the steady state of results. RESULTS: A session with constant speed related to ventilatory anaerobic threshold intensity showed similarity in the steady state of ventilatory variables except for RER in the NA group (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify the steady state from ventilatory variables related to ventilatory anaerobic threshold intensity that occurred independently of the physical performance level.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Athletic Performance/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Running/physiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL