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Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 518-521, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440302


SUMMARY: S100 proteins belong group of calcium-binding proteins and are present in physiological intracellular and extracellular regulatory activities, such as cell differentiation, and act in inflammatory and neoplastic pathological processes. Recently, its expressions in the nervous system have been extensively studied, seeking to elucidate its action at the level of the thalamus: A structure of the central nervous system that is part of important circuits, such as somatosensory, behavioral, memory and cognitive, as well as being responsible for the transmission and regulation of information to the cerebral cortex. This article is an integrative review of scientific literature, which analyzed 12 studies present in Pubmed. The analysis showed that the relationship of S100 proteins and the thalamus has been described in neoplastic processes, mental disorders, hypoxia, trauma, stress, infection, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. In summary, it is possible to conclude that this protein family is relevant as a marker in processes of thalamic injury, requiring further studies to better understand its clinical, preclinical meanings and its prognostic value.

Las proteínas S100 pertenecen al grupo de proteínas fijadoras de calcio y están presentes en actividades reguladoras fisiológicas intracelulares y extracelulares, como la diferenciación celular, y actúan en procesos patológicos inflamatorios y neoplásicos. Recientemente, sus expresiones en el sistema nervioso han sido ampliamente estudiadas, buscando dilucidar su acción a nivel del tálamo: una estructura del sistema nervioso central que forma parte de importantes circuitos, como el somatosensorial, conductual, de memoria y cognitivo, así como además de ser responsable de la transmisión y regulación de la información a la corteza cerebral. Este artículo es una revisión integradora de la literatura científica, que analizó 12 estudios presentes en Pubmed. El análisis mostró que la relación de las proteínas S100 y el tálamo ha sido descrita en procesos neoplásicos, trastornos mentales, hipoxia, trauma, estrés, infección, enfermedad de Parkinson y epilepsia. En resumen, es posible concluir que esta familia de proteínas es relevante como marcador en procesos de lesión talámica, requiriendo más estudios para comprender mejor su significado clínico, preclínico y su valor pronóstico.

Humans , Thalamus/metabolism , S100 Proteins/metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Biomarkers , Diencephalon/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 136-141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970147


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of pulmonary granular cell tumors (pGCTs) and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the tumor. Methods: A total of 5 pGCTs were diagnosed from February 2016 to January 2022 at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, China. Immunohistochemical staining, and analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics were performed. Results: The average age of the pGCTs patients was 46 years (ranging from 24 to 54 years), with 3 females and 2 males. One case occurred in the bronchus with multiple nodules in the lung, 2 cases occurred in the bronchial opening, and 2 cases were solitary nodules in the lung. The maximum diameter of the tumors ranged from 12 to 15 mm (mean size 14 mm). Microscopically, the tumor showed infiltrative growth and consisted of round, oval or polygonal cells. Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm was noted, and the nucleoli were prominent. None of the 5 cases showed any mitosis or necrosis. Immunohistochemical and histochemical study showed positive staining for S-100 (5/5), SOX10 (5/5), Vimentin (5/5), TFE3 (4/5), PAS (3/5), and amylase-digested-PAS (3/5), while 4 cases were negative for CD68. TFE3 FISH analyses on 2 cases showed that no signal abnormality was detected in these 2 cases. The average proliferation index of Ki-67 was 2.2% (range 0-5%). There was no recurrence in 4 cases of pGCTs with a follow-up time ranging from 2 months to 60 months. Conclusions: pGCTs are very rare tumors, most likely originating from Schwann cells. Immunohistochemical staining is the conventional diagnostic tool for pGCTs diagnosis. Recognition of this entity is essential for pathologists to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatments.

Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors , Biomarkers, Tumor , Bronchi , China , Granular Cell Tumor/surgery , Lung , S100 Proteins
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 31-36, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970121


Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of pathological diagnosis and genetic abnormalities detection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) using endoscopic biopsy. Methods: Patients with GIST diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy (from January 1st, 2016 to August 1st, 2018, at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University) were included in this study. This retrospective study evaluated the histopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features, genetic abnormalities of the tumors and the treatment and clinical course of the patients. Results: Totally 4 095 cases of GIST were collected, among which 67 patients (67/4 095, 1.6%) underwent endoscopic biopsy. Forty-eight patients (71.6%) were male and 19 (28.4%) were female, with a mean age of 61 years (range 31-90 years). Fifty-nine lesions were located in stomach and eight in duodenum. Of all the 67 cases, 47 were spindle type, 14 were epithelioid type, and 6 mixed type. IHC staining showed the positive rates were 100.0% (64/64) for DOG1, 98.4% (62/63) for CD117, 87.5% (56/64) for CD34, 3.6% (2/56) for S-100 protein, 12.1% (7/58) for α-SMA, 12.3% (7/57) for desmin and 4.0% (2/50) for CKpan. Morphologically, 34 cases were malignant; three cases (all epithelioid type) were originally misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated carcinoma; missed-diagnosis were found in four cases (spindle type) due to the insufficient diagnostic tumor cells. The genetic abnormality detection rate in the biopsy tissue was 38.8% (26/67),among them two patients were lost to follow up after biopsy, 33 patients received surgical resection, 16 cases underwent operation after neoadjuvant therapy and 16 patients with advanced disease underwent continuous imatinib therapy, with the genetic testing rate of 6.1% (2/33), 10/16 and 14/16, respectively. Conclusions: Endoscopic biopsy is a useful but rare method for the preoperative diagnosis of GIST. For majority of biopsy, accurate pathological diagnosis and auxiliary examination can be completed to guide clinical treatment. A thorough history in combination with endoscopic finding is essential to avoid misdiagnosis (epithelioid type) and missed diagnosis (spindle type) in suspicious cases. Genetic testing should be recommended in patients who will undergo targeted therapy after endoscopic biopsy, and it can provide valuable information and guidance for clinical treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Relevance , Imatinib Mesylate , Biopsy , S100 Proteins
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986983


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of expression levels of S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) on patient prognosis and the regulatory role of S100A10 in lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis.@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of S100A10 in LUAD and adjacent tissues, and the relationship between S100A10 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of the patients was statistically analyzed. The lung adenocarcinoma expression dataset in TCGA database was analyzed using gene enrichment analysis (GSEA) to predict the possible regulatory pathways of S100A10 in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. Lactate production and glucose consumption of lung cancer cells with S100A10 knockdown or overexpression were analyzed to assess the level of glycolysis. Western blotting, CCK-8 assay, EdU-594 assay, and Transwell assays were performed to determine the expression level of S100A10 protein, proliferation and invasion ability of lung cancer cells. A549 cells with S100A10 knockdown and H1299 cells with S100A10 overexpression were injected subcutaneously in nude mice, and tumor growth was observed.@*RESULTS@#The expression level of S100A10 was significantly upregulated in LUAD tissues as compared with the adjacent tissues, and an elevated S100A10 expression level was associated with lymph node metastasis, advanced tumor stage and distant organ metastasis (P < 0.05), but not with tumor differentiation or the patients' age or gender (P > 0.05). Survival analysis showed that elevated S100A10 expressions in the tumor tissue was associated with a poor outcome of the patients (P < 0.001). In the lung cancer cells, S100A10 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation and invasion in vitro (P < 0.001). GSEA showed that the gene sets of glucose metabolism, glycolysis and mTOR signaling pathway were significantly enriched in high expressions of S100A10. In the tumor-bearing nude mice, S100A10 overexpression significantly promoted tumor growth, while S100A10 knockdown obviously suppressed tumor cell proliferation (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#S100A10 overexpression promotes glycolysis by activating the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway to promote proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Animals , Mice , Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Nude , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , S100 Proteins/genetics
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 760-767, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385669


SUMMARY: Atherosclerosis is a complex disease whose pathogenesis includes endothelial activation, accumulation of lipids in the subendothelium, formation of foam cells, fat bands and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. These complex mechanisms involve different cell populations in the intimate sub-endothelium, and the S-100 protein family plays a role in a number of extracellular and intracellular processes during the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic characteristics of smooth muscle cells and the consequent expression of S100 protein in atherosclerotic altered coronary arteries in advanced stages of atherosclerosis. 19 samples of right atherosclerotic coronary arteries in stages of fibro atheroma (type V lesion) and complicated lesions (type VI lesion) have been analyzed. According to the standard protocol, the following primary antibodies have been used in the immunohistochemical analysis: a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and S-100 protein. All analyzed samples have been in advanced stages of atherosclerosis, fibro atheroma (stage V lesions) and complicated lesions (type VI lesions). Most of them have had the structure of a complicated lesion with atheroma or fibro atheroma as a basis, subsequently complicated by disruption (subtype VI a), hemorrhage (subtype VI b) or thrombosis (subtype VI c), as well as by the presence of several complications on the same sample. Marked hypocellularity is present in the subendothelium of plaques. Cell population at plaque margins is characterized by immunoreactivity to α-SMA, vimentin, and S100 protein. Some of these cells accumulate lipids and look like foam cells. In the cell population at the margins of the plaques, smooth muscle cells of the synthetic phenotype are present, some of which accumulate lipids and demonstrate S100 immunoreactivity. Summarizing numerous literature data and our results, we could assume that smooth muscle cells, due to their synthetic and proliferative activity in the earlier stages of pathogenesis, as well as the consequent expression of S100 protein, could accumulate lipids in the earlier stages of atherosclerosis which, in advanced stages analyzed in this study, result in immunoreactivity of foam cells of smooth muscle origin to S100 protein.

RESUMEN: La aterosclerosis es una enfermedad compleja cuya patogenia incluye activación endotelial, acumulación de lípidos en el subendotelio, formación de células espumosas, bandas grasas y formación de placa aterosclerótica. Estos complejos mecanismos involucran diferentes poblaciones celulares en el subendotelio íntimo, y la familia de proteínas S-100 juega un papel en varios procesos extracelulares e intracelulares durante el desarrollo de lesiones ateroscleróticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características fenotípicas de las células de músculo liso y la consecuente expresión de la proteína S100 en arterias coronarias alteradas ateroscleróticas en estadios avanzados de aterosclerosis. Se analizaron 19 muestras de arterias coronarias ateroscleróticas derechas en estadios de fibroateroma (lesión tipo V) y lesiones complicadas (lesión tipo VI). Según el protocolo estándar, en el análisis inmunohistoquímico se utilizaron los siguientes anticuerpos primarios: α-actina de músculo liso (α-SMA), vimentina y proteína S-100. Todas las muestras analizadas han estado en estadios avanzados de aterosclerosis, fibroateroma (lesiones estadio V) y lesiones complicadas (lesiones tipo VI). La mayoría de ellos han tenido la estructura de una lesión complicada con ateroma o fibroateroma como base, complicada posteriormente por disrupción (subtipo VI a), hemorragia (subtipo VI b) o trombosis (subtipo VI c), así como por la presencia de varias complicaciones en la misma muestra. La hipocelularidad marcada estaba presente en el subendotelio de las placas. La población celular en los márgenes de la placa se caracterizaba por inmunorreactividad a α-SMA, vimentina y proteína S100. Algunas de estas células acumulan lípidos y parecen células espumosas. En la población celular en los márgenes de las placas, estaban presentes las células de músculo liso de fenotipo sintético, algunas de las cuales acumulaban lípidos y mostraban inmunorreactividad S100. Resumiendo numerosos datos de la literatura y nuestros resultados, podríamos suponer que las células del músculo liso, debido a su actividad sintética y proliferativa en las primeras etapas de la patogénesis, así como la consecuente expresión de la proteína S100, podrían acumular lípidos en las primeras etapas de la aterosclerosis que, en estadios avanzados analizados en este estudio, dan como resultado inmunorreactividad de células espumosas de origen muscular liso a la proteína S100.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/metabolism , S100 Proteins/metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Phenotype
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1035-1042, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405240


SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve damage (PNI) can cause demyelination, axonal degeneration and loss of motor and sensory function. Melatonin with its antioxidative effect, has been reported to reduce scar formation in nerve injury, take a role in repair process by suppressing fibroblast proliferation in the damaged area. It was aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin in the repair of peripheral nerve damage and the relationship between S100 proteins and angiogenic regulation. Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the Defect group, 6 mm tibial bone defect using a motorized drill was created and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft group, tibial bone defect with allograft treatment was applied and kept immobile for 28 days. In Defect + graft + Melatonin group, melatonin was administered to defect + allograft group. All rats were sacrified by decapitation, skin and tibia bone were removed then fixed with 10 % neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin, sections were examined under light microscopy. In the Defect+Graft group, enlargement and occlusion of the vessels with degeneration of the epineural sheath, thickening of the endoneural sheath and mild hyperplasia of schwannocytus (Schwann cells) were remarkable. In the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, the epineural sheath was tight and regular, the axonal structures were prominent in the endoneural area. Mild S100 expression was observed in Defect+Graft group in fibers of the endoneural region with a prominent expression in schwannocytus. In Defect+Graft+Melatonin group (10mg/kg), S100 expression was moderate in areas where schwannocytus proliferated and nerve-connective tissue sheaths were reconstructed. VEGF expression was moderate in endoneural, perineural and epineural connective tissue sheaths in the Defect+Graft+Melatonin group, with negative expression in blood vessel endothelial cells, but with a positive expression in schwannocytus. We conclude that with the application of melatonin; oxidative stress decreases, schwannocytus proliferation increases, having positive influence on nerve repair with the regulation of S100 signaling and angiogenetic structuring.

RESUMEN: El daño a los nervios periféricos puede causar desmielinización, degeneración axonal y pérdida de la función motora y sensorial. Se ha informado que la melatonina, con su efecto antioxidante, reduce la formación de cicatrices en lesiones nerviosas y desempeña un papel en el proceso de reparación al suprimir la proliferación de fibroblastos en el área dañada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la melatonina en la reparación del daño de los nervios periféricos y la relación entre las proteínas S100 y la regulación angiogénica. Ratas albinas Wistar se dividieron en 3 grupos. En el grupo Defecto, se creó un defecto óseo tibial de 6 mm con un taladro motorizado y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto, se aplicó tratamiento de defecto óseo tibial con aloinjerto y se mantuvo inmóvil durante 28 días. En el grupo Defecto + injerto + Melatonina, se administró melatonina al grupo defecto + aloinjerto. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas por decapitación, se extrajo la piel y el hueso de la tibia y luego se fijaron con formalina tamponada neutra al 10 % y se incluyeron en parafina, las secciones se examinaron bajo microscopía óptica. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto, fueron notables el agrandamiento y la oclusión de los vasos con degeneración de la vaina epineural, engrosamiento de la vaina endoneural e hiperplasia leve de los schwannocitos (neurolemnocitos). En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la vaina epineural era estrecha y regular, las estructuras axonales eran prominentes en el área endoneural. Se observó expresión leve de S100 en el grupo Defecto+Injerto en fibras de la región endoneural con una expresión prominente en los schwannocitos. En el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, la expresión de S100 fue moderada en áreas donde proliferaron los schwannocitos y se reconstruyeron las vainas de tejido conectivo nervioso. La expresión de VEGF fue moderada en vainas de tejido conectivo endoneural, perineural y epineural en el grupo Defecto+Injerto+Melatonina, con expresión negativa en células endoteliales de vasos sanguíneos, pero con expresión positiva en schwannocitos. Concluimos que con la aplicación de melatonina; disminuye el estrés oxidativo, aumenta la proliferación de schwannocitos, influyendo positivamente en la reparación nerviosa con la regulación de la señalización S100 y la estructuración angiogenética.

Animals , Rats , Tibia/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Peripheral Nerves/drug effects , Tibia/innervation , S100 Proteins , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Disease Models, Animal , Fibroblasts
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 895-901, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405264


SUMMARY: This research was to examine the histological and ultrastructural characteristics of prepuce samples, as well as vimentin and S100 protein localization and statistical analysis. Urologists have long struggled with the prepuce, which is used to treat a variety of urethral problems. Skin biopsies were collected from the prepuce at the moment of circumcision and processed for light microscopy, electron microscope examination, immunohistochemical techniques, and statistical analysis in a total of six boys. Histologically, the prepuce epidermis displayed focal spiky ridges, which are saw-toothed interspersed with sulci, slight hyperpigmentation, looser connective tissue and plentiful vascular components. Immunohistochemically, the existence of melanocytes and Langerhans cells in the epidermis, as well as smooth muscles in the dermis, was stained positively for vimentin. Also, there was a positive reactivity of the Langerhans cells in the epidermis and around Meissner's corpuscles in the dermis for S100 protein staining. Ultrastructurally, the prepuce's intercellular gaps were widened, melanocytes rested on a folded basement membrane, and desmosomal content was reduced, with a prominent active euchromatic nucleus. Cytoplasmic projections were distended and elongated, and the interstitial blood vessels were surrounded by endothelial cells and rested on a basement membrane. There were also minimal collagen fibers in the interstitium. The prepuce's histological and ultrastructural features, as well as immunohistological studies using vimentin and S100 protein as intermediate filaments and statistical analysis, all demonstrated that it is a useful scientific resource.

RESUMEN: El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó para examinar las características histológicas y ultraestructurales de las muestras de prepucio, así como la localización y el análisis estadístico de la vimentina y la proteína S100. Los urólogos han intentado trabajar durante mucho tiempo con el prepucio, que se usa para tratar una variedad de problemas uretrales. Se recolectaron biopsias de piel del prepucio de seis niños en el momento de la circuncisión y se procesaron para microscopía óptica, examen con microscopio electrónico, técnicas inmunohistoquímicas y análisis estadístico. Histológicamente, la epidermis del prepucio mostraba crestas puntiagudas focales, intercaladas con surcos, hiperpigmentación leve, tejido conectivo más laxo y abundantes componentes vasculares. Inmunohistoquímicamente, la existencia de melanocitos y células dendríticas epidérmicas (células de Langerhans), así como músculo liso en la dermis, se tiñeron positivamente para vimentina. Además, hubo una reactividad positiva de las células dendríticas epidérmicas en la epidermis y alrededor de los corpúsculos del tacto (de Meissner) en la dermis para la tinción de la proteína S100. Ultraestructuralmente, los espacios intercelulares del prepucio se ensancharon, los melanocitos descansaban sobre una membrana basal plegada y el contenido desmosómico se redujo, con un núcleo eucromático activo prominente. Las proyecciones citoplasmáticas estaban distendidas y alargadas, y los vasos sanguíneos intersticiales estaban rodeados por células endoteliales y descansaban sobre una membrana basal. También había fibras de colágeno mínimas en el intersticio. Las características histológicas y ultraestructurales del prepucio, así como los estudios inmunohistológicos utilizando vimentina y proteína S100 como filamentos intermedios y el análisis estadístico, demostraron que es un recurso científico útil.

Humans , Male , Foreskin/anatomy & histology , Vimentin , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , S100 Proteins , Foreskin/metabolism , Foreskin/ultrastructure
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1509-1515, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385480


SUMMARY: Immunohistochemistry allows in situ detection of cell and extracellular components through specific antibodies. The objective was to compare the immunohistochemical expression patterns of the S-100, HMB-45 and MART-1 proteins for differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma and melanocytic nevus in human skin biopsies. Thirty-nine biopsies of human tissue were used. They were divided into two groups: 19 in malignant melanoma and 20 in melanocytic nevi. Next, the samples were fixed with paraformaldehyde and processed following the protocol for inclusion. Then, immunohistochemical staining was performed. Finally, the histological and qualitative analysis of the samples was carried out. S-100, HMB-45, and MART-1 markers showed positive immunoreaction in melanoma biopsies. HMB-45 marker was generally present with weaker expression than S-100 and MART-1 in melanocytic nevus biopsies. No expression pattern was observed which specifically associates one or more markers with some types of histopathological diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry is fundamental in differential diagnosis of melanomas and melanocytic nevi. However, there is no antibody or set of antibodies which allows unequivocal diagnosis between melanoma and nevus. It is therefore necessary to analyze with care the expression pattern and location of the lesion using standard morphological characteristics.

RESUMEN: La inmunohistoquímica permite la detección in situ de componentes celulares y extracelulares a través de anticuerpos específicos. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue comparar los patrones de expresión inmunohistoquímica de las proteínas S-100, HMB-45 y MART-1 para el diagnóstico diferencial de melanoma maligno y nevo melanocítico en biopsias de piel humana. Se utilizaron treinta y nueve biopsias de tejido humano, las que fueron divididas en dos grupos: 19 en melanoma maligno y 20 en nevos melanocíticos. A continuación, las muestras se fijaron con paraformaldehído y se procesaron siguiendo el protocolo convencional para su inclusión. Luego, se realizó la tinción inmunohistoquímica. Finalmente, se realizó el análisis histológico y cualitativo de las muestras. Los marcadores S-100, HMB- 45 y MART-1 mostraron inmunorreacción positiva en biopsias de melanoma. El marcador HMB-45 estuvo generalmente presente con una expresión más débil que S-100 y MART-1 en biopsias de nevo melanocítico. No se observó ningún patrón de expresión que asocie específicamente uno o más marcadores con algunos tipos de diagnóstico histopatológico. La inmunohistoquímica es fundamental en el diagnóstico diferencial de melanomas y nevos melanocíticos. Sin embargo, no existe ningún anticuerpo o panel de anticuerpos que permita un diagnóstico inequívoco entre el melanoma y el nevo. Por tanto, es necesario analizar con cuidado el patrón de expresión y la localización de la lesión utilizando características morfológicas estándar.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Nevus/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , S100 Proteins , Biomarkers, Tumor , Diagnosis, Differential , MART-1 Antigen , Melanoma/pathology , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Antigens, Neoplasm , Nevus/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 163-170, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248745


Abstract Background: Psoriasis and periodontitis are immunologically mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. Epidemiologic evidence has linked both; however, the change of markers in gingival crevicular fluid has been poorly evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the levels of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9 in gingival crevicular fluid of psoriatic and healthy subjects with and without periodontitis and their relations to psoriasis severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sample comprised the following groups: healthy controls without periodontitis or with mild periodontitis (n = 21), healthy controls with moderate or severe periodontitis (n = 18), individuals with psoriasis without or mild periodontitis (n = 11), and individuals with psoriasis and moderate or severe periodontitis (n = 32). Levels of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, S100A8, and S100A9 were determined by multiplex assay and S100A7 was measured by ELISA. Results: No inter-group differences in the levels of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, and S100A7 were found. S100A8 levels were higher in psoriatic patients than controls (p < 0.05). S100A8 was positively correlated with psoriasis severity in the group with psoriasis (p < 0.05). S100A9 exceeded the detection limits. Study limitations: This pilot study presents a small sample size. Conclusions: The concentrations of S100A8 were highest in psoriatic patients regardless of periodontal health/status. S100A8 was associated with the severity of psoriasis. The concentrations of interleukins and S100A7 were similar in psoriatic patients with or without periodontitis vs. healthy controls.

Humans , Periodontitis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , S100 Proteins , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interleukins , Interleukin-17 , Calgranulin A , Interleukin-23 Subunit p19
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 173-179, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130863


Abstract Background: Polymorphisms of the filaggrin 2 gene (rs 12568784 and rs 16899374) are associated with persistent atopic dermatitis in African American patients. Filaggrin 2 is a protein with a function similar to filaggrin and also encoded in the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1q21. Objective: To evaluate the polymorphisms in the filaggrin 2 gene (rs 12568784 and rs 16899374) in children and adults with atopic dermatitis and to verify the association of these with the severity of the clinical picture, presence of other allergic diseases, and socio-demographic factors. Method: The study was carried out with patients and control group. Questionnaires were used to evaluate ethnicity, sex, age, family history, scoring, atopic dermatitis (SCORAD), among other parameters. Genotyping of the filaggrin 2 gene was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Forty-eight patients and 83 controls were evaluated. No correlation was found between the variables studied in patients with atopic dermatitis and polymorphisms, no significant difference between the prevalence of polymorphisms in the patients and in the control group p > 0.05. Study limits: The exclusive use of self-reported ethnicity information and the sample size. Results: The results of this work can be an incentive for the study of the polymorphisms in atopic dermaititis, considering the characteristic of the Brazilian multi ethnic population. Conclusion: This is an unpublished work in Brazil and the first study in the world to have a control group to evaluate alterations in the gene of filaggrin 2.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , S100 Proteins/genetics , Dermatitis, Atopic/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dermatitis, Atopic/ethnology , Dermatitis, Atopic/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(3): e2019099, July-Sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020994


Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm of Schwann cell origin. Most cases occur in adults; however, the precise incidence is unknown in children. GCT is usually a slow-growing, painless tumor involving the skin and soft tissues that is mostly located in the head and neck region, especially the tongue. The breast is one of the least common sites involved by GCT. This paper presents a 3-year-old girl who presented with a soft to firm, ill-defined swelling on the right breast with painful ulceration of the overlying skin. Fine needle aspiration rendered an initial diagnosis of fibrocystic change accompanied by apocrine metaplasia. Histologic evaluation of the excised breast mass revealed a benign granular cell tumor. Although rare, GCT of the breast should be included in the differential diagnosis for breast masses in pediatric patients. Proper diagnosis and timely management of this tumor are essential because of its malignant potential (<2% of cases) and high rate of local recurrence if not properly excised.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Granular Cell Tumor/pathology , Schwann Cells/pathology , S100 Proteins
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 464-471, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020500


Abstract Objective: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage is a technique that has significantly reduced the incidence of spinal cord ischaemia (SCI). We present results of a systematic review to assess the literature on this topic in relation to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair (TAAR). Methods: Major medical databases were searched to identify papers related to CSF biomarkers measured during TAAAR. Results: Fifteen papers reported measurements of CSF biomarkers with 265 patients in total. CSF biomarkers measured included S-100ß, neuron-specific endolase (NSE), lactate, glial fibrillary acidic protein A (GFPa), Tau, heat shock protein 70 and 27 (HSP70, HSP27), and proinflammatory cytokines. Lactate and S-100ß were reported the most, but did not correlate with SCI, which was also the case with NSE and TAU. GFPa showed significant CSF level rises, both intra and postoperative in patients who suffered SCI and warrants further investigation, similar results were seen with HSP70, HSP27 and IL-8. Conclusions: Although there is significant interest in this topic, there still remains a significant lack of high-quality studies investigating CSF biomarkers during TAAR to detect SCI. A large and multicentre study is required to identify the significant role of each biomarker.

Humans , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Spinal Cord Ischemia/cerebrospinal fluid , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Biomarkers/blood , S100 Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , S100 Proteins/blood , Drainage , Lactic Acid/cerebrospinal fluid , Lactic Acid/blood , Spinal Cord Ischemia/blood
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 19(4): 7-12, out.-dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253605


Introdução: Os tumores neurais são lesões, que têm origem nos nervos periféricos e representam um percentual de 45% dos neoplasmas, que atingem a região de cabeça e pescoço. A alta incidência nessa área é justificada pela quantidade relativamente grande de terminações nervosas periféricas agrupadas. Ainda que sejam de mesma origem neural, sua heterogeneidade microscópica e patogenética lhes conferem um variado padrão de apresentação clínica e histopatológica, diferindo na sua forma de tratamento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar, por meio da técnica imuno-histoquímica, a expressão das proteínas S100 e CD68 em tumores neurais, localizados na cavidade bucal de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Patologia Bucal da Universidade de Odontologia de Pernambuco. Metodologia: Todos os casos referentes a tumores neurais do Serviço de Patologia oral e maxilofacial da Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco foram revistos. Avaliaram-se dados relativos à idade, ao sexo e à localização anatômica. A técnica imunohistoquímica foi realizada por meio do método estreptavidina-biotina, utilizando-se os anticorpos anti: S100 e CD68. A análise foi feita de forma descritiva, conforme dados da pesquisa. Resultados: foram avaliados 23 casos de tumores neurais da cavidade bucal, 15 neurofibromas, 6 neuromas traumáticos, 1 neurilemoma e 1 neuroma encapsulado em paliçada. Verificou-se que a proteína S100 foi expressa em todos os casos estudados com positividade variada, e a proteína CD68 apresentou expressão positiva em 18 casos (neuroma traumático, neurofibroma). Conclusões: os tumores neurais da cavidade bucal foram considerados raros, visto que ocorreram em apenas 23 casos entre 5.761, ou seja, em 2,3% das lesões biopsiadas da FOP-UPE... (AU)

Introduction: Neural tumors are lesions that originate from peripheral nerves and represent a percentage of 45% of neoplasms that reach the head and neck region. The high incidence in this area is explained by the relatively large number of grouped peripheral nerve endings. Although they are of the same neural origin, their microscopic and pathogenetic heterogeneity give them a varied pattern of clinical and histopathological presentation, as well as differing in their form of treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze by immunohistochemical technique the expression of S100 and CD68 proteins in neural tumors located in the oral cavity of patients treated at the Oral Pathology Service of the University of Dentistry of Pernambuco. Methodology: All cases referring to neural tumors of the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of the School of Dentistry of Pernambuco were reviewed. Data regarding age, sex, and anatomical location were evaluated. The immunohistochemical technique was performed by the streptavidin-biotin method using the anti-S100 and CD68 antibodies. The analysis was made in a descriptive way according to the research data. Results: 23 cases of neural tumors of the buccal cavity, 15 neurofibromas, 6 traumatic neuromas, 1 neurilemoma and 1 palisade encapsulated neuroma were evaluated. It was verified that S100 protein was expressed in all the cases studied with varied positivity, and the CD68 protein showed positive expression in 18 cases (traumatic neuroma, neurofibroma). Conclusions: Neural tumors of the oral cavity were considered rare, since they occurred in only 23 cases among 5,761, that is, 2.3% of FOP-UPE biopsied lesions... (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Pathology, Oral , Peripheral Nerves , Immunohistochemistry , S100 Proteins , Incidence , Neoplasms , Dentistry , Mouth , Nerve Endings
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 79-81, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983755


Abstract: We report the case of a 47-year-old male patient with S100 negative granular cell tumor of the oral cavity, focusing on dermoscopic features as well as surgical approach, not previously reported in the literature. The study contributes to the literature on dermoscopy and surgical treatment for this tumor and provides a practical approach to differentiating non-neural granular cell tumors and granular cell tumors.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/chemistry , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , S100 Proteins , Granular Cell Tumor/surgery , Granular Cell Tumor/pathology , Granular Cell Tumor/chemistry , Granular Cell Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Dermoscopy/methods , Treatment Outcome
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 279-286, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777188


The aim of this study was to investigate the role of S100 calcium binding protein A16 (S100A16) in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and its possible biological mechanism. HepG2 cells (human hepatoma cell line) were cultured with fatty acid to establish fatty acid culture model. The control model was cultured without fatty acid. Each model was divided into three groups and transfected with S100a16 over-expression, shRNA and vector plasmids, respectively. The concentration of triglyceride (TG) in the cells was measured by kit, and the lipid droplets was observed by oil red O staining. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to find the interesting proteins interacting with S100A16, and the interaction was verified by immunoprecipitation. The further mechanism was studied by Western blot and qRT-PCR. The results showed that the intracellular lipid droplet and TG concentrations in the fatty acid culture model were significantly higher than those in the control model. The accumulation of intracellular fat in the S100a16 over-expression group was significantly higher than that in the vector plasmid transfection group. There was an interaction between heat shock protein A5 (HSPA5) and S100A16. Over-expression of S100A16 up-regulated protein expression levels of HSPA5, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and pIREα1, which belong to endoplasmic reticulum stress HSPA5/IRE1α-XBP1 pathway. Meanwhile, over-expression of S100A16 up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of adipose synthesis-related gene Srebp1c, Acc and Fas. In the S100a16 shRNA plasmid transfection group, the above-mentioned protein and mRNA levels were lower than those of vector plasmid transfection group. These results suggest that S100A16 may promote lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress HSPA5/IRE1α-XBP1 pathway.

Humans , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoribonucleases , Physiology , Heat-Shock Proteins , Physiology , Hep G2 Cells , Lipid Metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Physiology , S100 Proteins , Physiology , Triglycerides , X-Box Binding Protein 1 , Physiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765631


STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVES: We report a case of paraspinal ancient schwannoma located at the upper thoracic level that mimicked an atypical lipoma or complicated epidermoid cyst. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Few case reports of paraspinal schwannoma have been reported and the incidence of ancient schwannoma in the paraspinal muscle layer is very rare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 39-year-old man complained of a growing palpable back mass for 5 years. He experienced aggravated chronic discomfort around the mass while lying down. Both T1- and T2- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-capsuled and heterogeneous high-signal mass in the muscle layer at the level from the T1 to T4 vertebral bodies on the right side of the midline. The tumor was completely removed by en bloc resection. RESULTS: The pathologic examination revealed S-100 protein expression with degenerative changes. The lesion was diagnosed as an ancient schwannoma. CONCLUSIONS: Schwannoma is one among the multiple possible causes of benign back masses. If a mass reveals a well-encapsulated heterogeneous mass on contrast MRI, a schwannoma should be suspected.

Adult , Humans , Back Muscles , Deception , Epidermal Cyst , Incidence , Lipoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurilemmoma , Paraspinal Muscles , S100 Proteins
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759733


BACKGROUND: Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign, self-limited disorder that usually occurs in infants and young children. Xanthogranuloma is rare in adults, and therefore studies reporting adult xanthogranuloma are limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of adult xanthogranuloma. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated 20 lesions in 19 patients with adult xanthogranuloma. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (male : female ratio 1.4 : 1), and the mean age of patients was 35.1±16.3 years (range 15∼66 years), with the peak incidence observed in patients in their 20s. Notably, 65.0% of the lesions developed on the head and neck. The nodular form was more common than the papular form of this condition. Histopathological examination revealed dense monomorphic histiocytic infiltration without lipidization and scattered eosinophils without multinuclear giant cells in 5 lesions (25.0%), foamy histiocytic infiltration with variations of completely developed Touton giant cells in 10 lesions (50.0%), and fibrohistiocytic proliferation in 3 lesions (15.0%). On immunohistochemical examination, histiocytes including giant cells showed positive test results with Factor XIIIa (90.9%), vimentin (100%), and CD68 (100%) and negative test results with CD1a, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein stains. Tumor excision was the treatment for choice. CONCLUSION: Adult xanthogranuloma most commonly manifested as the nodular form of the disease on the head and neck of men in their late 20s. Histopathologically, the classic Touton cell-rich stage was most commonly observed, followed by the stage of early predominantly mononuclear infiltration. This was a single-center, small-sized retrospective study; however, we expect the results of this study to contribute to a better understanding of adult xanthogranuloma.

Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Actins , Coloring Agents , Eosinophils , Factor XIIIa , Giant Cells , Head , Histiocytes , Incidence , Muscle, Smooth , Neck , Retrospective Studies , S100 Proteins , Vimentin , Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718719


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether simultaneous decreases in the serum levels of cell adhesion molecules (intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and E-selectin) and S100 proteins within the first 24 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation were associated with good neurological outcomes in cardiac arrest survivors. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was based on prospectively collected data from a single emergency intensive care unit (ICU). Twenty-nine out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors who were admitted to the ICU for post-resuscitation care were enrolled. Blood samples were collected at 0 and 24 hours after ICU admission. According to the 6-month cerebral performance category (CPC) scale, the patients were divided into good (CPC 1 and 2, n=12) and poor (CPC 3 to 5, n=17) outcome groups. RESULTS: No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the serum levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and S100 at 0 and 24 hours. A simultaneous decrease in the serum levels of VCAM-1 and S100 as well as E-selectin and S100 was associated with good neurological outcomes. When other variables were adjusted, a simultaneous decrease in the serum levels of VCAM-1 and S100 was independently associated with good neurological outcomes (odds ratio, 9.285; 95% confidence interval, 1.073 to 80.318; P=0.043). CONCLUSION: A simultaneous decrease in the serum levels of soluble VCAM-1 and S100 within the first 24 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation was associated with a good neurological outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors.

Humans , Blood-Brain Barrier , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cell Adhesion , Cell Adhesion Molecules , E-Selectin , Emergencies , Endothelium , Heart Arrest , Intensive Care Units , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Observational Study , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , S100 Proteins , Survivors , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Immune Network ; : e27-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716244


Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous danger molecules that are released from damaged or dying cells and activate the innate immune system by interacting with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Although DAMPs contribute to the host's defense, they promote pathological inflammatory responses. Recent studies have suggested that various DAMPs, such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), S100 proteins, and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are increased and considered to have a pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases. Here, we review current research on the role of DAMPs in inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. We also discuss the possibility of DAMPs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for these diseases.

Alzheimer Disease , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Atherosclerosis , Biomarkers , Heat-Shock Proteins , Immune System , Inflammation , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Osteoarthritis , Parkinson Disease , Receptors, Pattern Recognition , S100 Proteins
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717115


A primary benign schwannoma of the liver is extremely rare. Only 30 cases have been reported in the medical literature worldwide, and only one case has been reported in Korea previously. A 56-year-old man was admitted to Gil Medical Center with incidental findings of a hepatic mass by abdominal computed tomography. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance image revealed a 3×2 cm-sized solid mass in the left lobe of the liver. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a benign schwannoma, proven by positive immunoreaction with the neurogenic marker S-100 protein and a negative response to CD34, CD117, and smooth muscle actin. We report a primary benign schwannoma of the liver and review the literature.

Humans , Middle Aged , Actins , Diagnosis , Incidental Findings , Korea , Liver , Muscle, Smooth , Neurilemmoma , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms , S100 Proteins