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1.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8037, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128638

ABSTRACT

El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) es responsable de la enfermedad denominada COVID-19 (acrónimo del inglés Coronavirus Disease-2019). Esta enfermedad fue detectada inicialmente en la ciudad de Wuhan, China en diciembre de 2019. Las personas contagiadas con COVID-19 presentan síntomas variados, dependiendo de su estado de salud y edad. Los síntomas más comunes son fiebre, tos, mialgia, fatiga, odinofagia y disnea. También se ha observado que en algunos pacientes, la infección es asintomática. Los adultos mayores de 60 años infectados son el grupo de pacientes más susceptibles a desarrollar estados severos de COVID-19 y se presenta comorbilidad en presencia de enfermedades crónicas. Por otra parte, también es importante disponer de pruebas que permitan detectar al SARS-COV-2 y seguir la evolución de COVID-19 de forma rápida, confiable y barata. Para lograr esto, existen pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcripción inversa en tiempo real (RT-PCR), de amplificación isotérmica de ácido nucleico y de inmunoestimulación enzimática. Actualmente, no existen tratamientos para la prevención del contagio y combatir los efectos del virus en la salud humana. Sin embargo, en el mundo hay grupos de investigación que están realizando pruebas in vitro, in vivo e in silico para encontrar fármacos que sean capaces de prevenir y/o controlar la infección en humanos con SARS-CoV-2. La cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, remdesivir, interferon-2b y oseltamivir son algunas de las opciones farmacológicas que están siendo evaluadas en pruebas clínicas para la profilaxis de COVID-19. El objetivo de la presente revisión consiste en establecer un marco de referencia de la clasificación taxonómica del SARS-CoV-2 y la relación que guardan con otros coronavirus, así como su estructura y forma de propagarse en el ser humano. También se presentan las características y síntomas de pacientes con COVID-19, los métodos de detección y potenciales tratamientos.


Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019). This disease was detected in the city of Wuhan in China in December 2019. People infected with COVID-19 shows varying manifestations, depending on their health and age. The most common symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue, odynophagia, and dyspnea. Infected adults older 60 years of age are the group of patients most susceptible to severe COVID-19 states and present comor-bidity in the presence of chronic diseases. On the other hand, it is also essential to have tests to detect SARS-COV-2 in people and follow the evolution of COVID-19 quickly, reliably, and cheap. To achieve this, there are real-time reverse transcription pol-ymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests, isothermal nucleic acid amplification, and enzyme immunostimulation. Currently, there are no drug treatments to prevent infection and to combat the virus's effects. However, different research groups that are conduct-ing in vitro, in vivo, and in silico tests to find drugs able to provide an immune response and to control infection in humans with SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, interferon-2b, and oseltamivir are some pharmacological options evaluated in clinical trials for prophylaxis of COVID-19. The purpose of this review is to establish a reference framework for taxonomic classification of SARS-CoV-2 and the relationship they have with other CoVs, as well as their structure and propaga-tion pathways in humans. The characteristics and symptoms presented by patients with COVID-19, the detection methods, and possible treatments are also presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/classification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880819

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a total of 55 928 327 confirmed cases and 1 344 003 deaths as of November 19, 2020. But so far the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes this pandemic has remained undetermined. The purpose of this study is to review the current research of SARS-CoV-2 and the existing problems therein, which may provide inspiration for further researches. Existing evidence suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be derived from bat coronavirus 40-70 years ago. During the evolution, this virus underwent extensive variations in the process of mutations and natural selection. Different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 may have different selection pressures, but all of which increase the difficulty of tracing the origin of this virus. A wide variety of animals have been considered as potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, including cats, lions, tigers, dogs and minks. SARS-CoV-2 has a chance to transmit from humans to animals and can be transmitted among animals. Current research evidence has shown that China is not the original source of SARS-CoV-2. It is still unclear how the virus spreads to human, and efforts are still need to be made to explore the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its hosts and intermediate hosts, and the mechanism of its transmission across different species of animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , China , Chiroptera/virology , Disease Vectors , Dogs , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification
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