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1.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 14-19, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352557

ABSTRACT

Ha surgido una nueva variante de preocupación de SARS-CoV-2, cuyos efectos en la evolución de la pandemia parecen inciertos. Sin embargo, ha comenzado a surgir evidencia con respecto al comportamiento viral en cuanto a su transmisibilidad, unión a receptor de la célula hospedadora y escape del sistema inmune. Presentamos una revisión actualizada de los datos existentes en la literatura respecto a los aspectos microbiológicos y epidemiológicos que pueden ayudarnos a comprender las futuras investigaciones en esta variante.(AU)


A new variant of concern for SARS-CoV-2 has emerged, the effects of which on the evolution of the pandemic appear uncertain. However, evidence has begun to emerge regarding viral behavior in terms of its transmissibility, receptor binding on the host cell, and escape from the immune system. We present an updated review of the existing data in the literature regarding the microbiological and epidemiological aspects that can help us understand future research on this variant.(AU)


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 190-195, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181008

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although it is known that the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has affected the whole world, mainly targets the respiratory tract, cases of this disease with a wide clinical spectrum are emerging as information is shared. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a pregnant woman who was diagnosed with venous sinus thrombosis after she developed headache and hemiparesis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity lasted for two weeks after COVID-19 had been diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected COVID-19, especially in the presence of causes of hypercoagu- lability and presence of atypical features, venous sinus thrombosis needs to be kept in mind in making the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , Paresis/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thrombophilia , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
3.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Mar. 17, 2021. 89 p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253360

ABSTRACT

En este documento se presenta orientación provisional sobre las mejores prácticas para evaluar la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 usando el diseño de estudio observacional. Se examinan las consideraciones esenciales del diseño, el análisis y la interpretación de las evaluaciones de la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, dado que se pueden obtener resultados sesgados aun en entornos en los que la exhaustividad y la calidad de los datos son altas. Esta orientación se dirige principalmente a las evaluaciones realizadas en los países de ingresos bajos o medianos, pero la mayoría de los conceptos también son aplicables en entornos de ingresos altos.


Since its emergence in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has taken a tremendous toll globally; by 28 February 2021, there have been over 110 million cases and 2.5 million deaths worldwide from COVID-19 (1). Although most COVID-19 deaths occur among older adults and persons with chronic comorbid medical conditions, deaths have occurred in persons of all ages. Moreover, the pandemic has caused widespread morbidity and necessitated control measures that have devastated economies worldwide. In response to the pandemic, the global efforts to develop multiple vaccines to protect against COVID-19 disease have been unrivalled in the history of public health. By the end of 2020, three COVID-19 vaccines have received Emergency Use Approval/Listing (EUA/EUL) by maturity level 4 regulatory authorities, based on reaching predefined criteria for safety and efficacy, and at least several dozen more are in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Data Collection , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology
4.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Especial 1): 187-203, 20210101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178385

ABSTRACT

A Covid-19 é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo novo coronavírus, denominado SARS-CoV-2, que causou um surto de pneumonia viral incomum em pacientes em Wuhan, na China, no final do ano de 2019. O vírus se disseminou pelo mundo em grandes proporções, atingindo o status epidemiológico de pandemia. Diante desse cenário, que afetou toda a Federação brasileira, o Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública Professor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) tem exercido papel fundamental no diagnóstico da Covid-19 e na vigilância genômica do SARS-CoV-2. Nesse sentido, este estudo tem como objetivo descrever as estratégias implementadas pelo Lacen-BA para ampliar a capacidade diagnóstica e atender a demanda da rede SUS-BA no contexto da pandemia da Covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo-observacional, orientado por um modelo lógico sustentado em quatro dimensões: parque tecnológico, metodologias analíticas, descentralização do exame e monitoramento de indicadores de resultados. As iniciativas de gestão possibilitaram ampliação da capacidade instalada e operacional, mediante modernização da estrutura física, renovação do parque tecnológico, reorganização dos fluxos e processos de trabalho, aporte de novas tecnologias analíticas e estruturação de dashboard para monitorar indicadores e subsidiar o processo decisório. O Lacen-BA, enquanto coordenador da Rede Estadual de Laboratórios de Saúde Pública e sistema de apoio da Rede de Atenção à Saúde (RAS), constitui-se então em estruturas policêntricas essenciais para o diagnóstico descentralizado e regionalizado da Covid-19, contribuindo para a integração sistêmica das ações e serviços no contexto da regionalização da saúde, de modo a garantir a universalidade do acesso e integralidade dos cuidados aos usuários do SUS.


Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by the new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, which caused an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia in patients in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and spread across the world, in large proportions, reaching the epidemiological status of a pandemic. Considering this epidemiological scenario that affected the entire Brazilian Federation, the Central Laboratory of Public Health Professor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) has played a fundamental role in the diagnosis of Covid-19 and the genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2. In this sense, this study aims at describing the strategies implemented by Lacen-BA to expand the diagnostic capacity to meet the demand of the SUS-BA network, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. This is a descriptive-observational study, guided by a logical model based on four dimensions: technological park, analytical methodologies, decentralization of the exam and monitoring of result indicators. The management initiatives enabled the expansion of the installed and operational capacity by modernizing the physical structure, renewing the technological park, reorganizing workflows and processes, providing new analytical technologies, structuring the dashboard to monitor indicators and support the decision-making process. The Lacen-BA, as coordinator of the State Public Health Laboratory Network and support system of the Health Care Network (RAS), constitutes essential polycentric structures for the decentralized and regionalized diagnosis of Covid-19, which can contribute to the systemic integration of actions and services in the context of regionalization of health to guarantee the universality of access and comprehensive care to SUS users.


El covid-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el nuevo coronavirus, llamado SARS-CoV-2, que provocó un brote de neumonía viral inusual en pacientes en Wuhan, China, a fines de 2019, y que se extendió por el mundo, en grandes proporciones hasta alcanzar el estado epidemiológico de pandemia. Ante este escenario epidemiológico que afectó a Brasil, el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública Profesor Gonçalo Moniz (Lacen-BA) ha jugado un papel fundamental en el diagnóstico del covid-19 y la vigilancia genómica del SARS-CoV-2. En este sentido, este estudio tiene como objetivo describir las estrategias implementadas por Lacen-BA para ampliar la capacidad de diagnóstico y atender la demanda de la red SUS-BA, en el contexto de la pandemia del Covid-19. Este estudio es descriptivo-observacional, guiado por un modelo lógico con base en cuatro dimensiones: parque tecnológico, metodologías analíticas, descentralización del examen y seguimiento de indicadores de resultado. Las iniciativas de gestión permitieron ampliar la capacidad instalada y operativa al modernizar la estructura física, renovar el parque tecnológico, reorganizar los flujos y procesos de trabajo, brindar nuevas tecnologías analíticas y estructuración del cuadro de mando para monitorear indicadores, y apoyar la toma de decisiones. Lacen-BA, como coordinador de la Red Estadual de Laboratorios de Salud Pública y sistema de apoyo de la Red de Atención a la Salud (RAS), constituye estructuras policéntricas imprescindibles para el diagnóstico descentralizado y regionalizado del Covid-19, que pueden contribuir a la integración sistémica de acciones y servicios en el contexto de la regionalización de la salud, a fin de garantizar la universalidad del acceso y la atención integral a los usuarios del SUS.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Laboratories , Genome, Viral , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Traditional Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Tanreqing Capsule (TRQC) was used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of TRQC in the treatment of COVID-19.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 82 patients who had laboratory-confirmed mild and moderate COVID-19; patients were treated with TRQC in one designated hospital. The treatment and control groups consisted of 25 and 57 cases, respectively. The treatment group was given TRQC orally three times a day, three pills each time, in addition to conventional Western medicine treatments which were also administered to the control group. The clinical efficacy indicators, such as the negative conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid, and the improvement in the level of immune indicators such as T-cell subsets (CD3, CD4 and CD45) were monitored.@*RESULTS@#COVID-19 patients in the treatment group, compared to the control group, had a shorter negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid (4 vs. 9 days, P = 0.047) and a shorter interval of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid (0 vs. 2 days, P = 0.042). The level of CD3@*CONCLUSION@#Significant reductions in the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid and the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid were identified in the treatment group as compared to the control group, illustrating the potential therapeutic benefits of using TRQC as a complement to conventional medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19. The underlying mechanism may be related to the improved levels of the immune indicator CD3


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Capsules , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(2): 97-106, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348066

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) were identified in 1937, they were considered innocuous viruses until the appearance of three highly pathogenic variants, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 causing the current pandemic of Covid-19, so far it is known that its origin is zoonotic, the main reservoir could be bats considering the high homology of CoVs that inhabit this species. Its transmissibility is much higher than that of previous CoVs, possibly in the process of natural selection; it has acquired some or all the mutations necessary for a much more efficient transmission in our species. This condition is specifically attributed to unique characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein that allow it greater affinity and therefore greater infectivity by binding to the angiotensin receptor 2 (ACE-2) present in the host cells. Since the Covid-19 outbreak began at the end of 2019, more than 1,500 mutations have been detected throughout the SARS-CoV-2 genome, however the most significant are those that occur near or in the receptor binding domain (RBD) that could provide variations between 4x to 100x greater infectivity, such is the case of the new variants identified in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Brazil and Japan that force us to take extreme preventive measures and continue research to elucidate strategies to combat the current crisis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119716

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar las características del SARS-CoV-2, los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de COVID-19 y las implicaciones que tienen para los anestesiólogos al realizar procedimientos generadores de aerosoles. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, SciELO y Web of Science hasta el 9 de abril de 2020, utilizando las palabras: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Se incluyeron 48 artículos con información sobre el manejo del paciente en el perioperatorio o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos ante la sospecha o confirmación de infección por SARS-CoV-2. En general, se recomienda el aplazamiento de las cirugías electivas por no más de seis a ocho semanas, de acuerdo a las condiciones clínicas de los pacientes. En el caso de cirugías de urgencia o emergencia, se revisan tópicos del sistema de protección personal así como las estrategias recomendadas para la realización de los procedimientos.


The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anesthesiology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures , Aerosols , Pandemics , Symptom Assessment/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , Nerve Block/methods
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880736

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of an antiviral regimen of protease inhibitors combined with Arbidol (umifenovir) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients. The genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 is highly homologous to that of SARS-CoV (Zhou et al., 2020). Previously published basic and clinical research on anti-SARS-CoV treatment found that lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) could improve the prognosis of SARS patients (Chan et al., 2003; Chu et al., 2004). Darunavir (DRV) is another protease inhibitor that blocks the binding of SARS-CoV-2 to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (Omotuyi et al., 2020). The broad-spectrum antiviral drug Arbidol (umifenovir) also shows in vitro anti-SARS-CoV activity (Khamitov et al., 2008).


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Darunavir , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lipid Metabolism , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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