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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(6): 650-656, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529995

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La evolución de la virulencia ha despertado el interés de la biología evolutiva por décadas. Se trata de co-evolución entre agentes patógenos y sus hospederos. Se han planteado diferentes hipótesis para la evolución de la virulencia, entre ellas la evolución con un compromiso virulencia-transmisión. OBJETIVO: Estudiar la evolución de la letalidad y la transmisión del SARS CoV-2 en Chile, con la hipótesis que ha existido un compromiso con disminución de la letalidad y aumento de la transmisión de esta durante la epidemia. RESULTADOS: La letalidad diaria en Chile disminuyó claramente. Aunque no se encontró correlación entre la letalidad diaria y el número reproductivo efectivo, el número reproductivo efectivo máximo asociado a cada variante viral, presentó un aumento claro desde la aparición de la variante γ en adelante (δ y O) en Chile. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio muestra una evolución de la virulencia con un compromiso virulenciatransmisión. Esto puede ser explicado en gran parte por la evolución viral, pero el cambio en letalidad también puede ser afectado por las intervenciones no farmacológicas y farmacológicas realizadas por la población humana.


BACKGROUND: The evolution of virulence has aroused the interest of evolutionary biology for decades. It is about co-evolution between pathogens and their hosts. Different hypotheses have been put forward for the evolution of virulence, including evolution with a virulence-transmission trade-off. AIM: To study the evolution of the fatality rate and transmission of SARS CoV-2 in Chile, with the hypothesis that there has been a trade-off to a decrease in lethality and an increase in its transmission during the epidemic. RESULTS: The daily fatality rate in Chile clearly decreased. Although no correlation was found between daily fatality rate and effective reproductive number, the maximum effective reproductive number associated with each viral variant showed a clear increase from the appearance of the γ variant onwards (δ and O) in Chile. CONCLUSION: This study shows an evolution of virulence with a virulence-transmission trade-off. This can be largely explained by viral evolution, but the change in lethality can also be affected by non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions carried out by the human population.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Virulence , Chile/epidemiology
3.
Femina ; 50(10): 631-640, out. 30, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414423

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo avaliar possíveis riscos da associação entre a infecção por SARS-CoV-2 (causa da COVID-19) e as características metabólicas e endócrinas frequentemente encontradas em mulheres com a síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP). A COVID-19 é mais grave em indivíduos com obesidade, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia e hipertensão arterial. Como essas condições são comorbidades comumente associadas à SOP, foi hipotetizado que mulheres com SOP teriam maior risco de adquirir COVID-19 e desenvolver formas clínicas mais graves da doença. Considerando vários estudos epidemiológicos, a presente revisão mostra que mulheres com SOP têm risco 28% a 50% maior de serem infectadas pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 em todas as idades e que, nessas mulheres, a COVID-19 está associada a maiores taxas de hospitalização, morbidade e mortalidade, especialmente naquelas com alterações no metabolismo de carboidratos e lipídios, hiperandrogenemia e aumento do tecido adiposo visceral. Os mecanismos que explicam o maior risco de infecção por COVID-19 em mulheres com SOP são considerados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency , Risk Groups , Insulin Resistance , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Hyperandrogenism , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Inflammation , Obesity
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1427-1436, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414675

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 se propagou rapidamente pelo mundo, causada pela infecção do novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2), que surgiu na China no final de 2019. Apesar da porta de entrada mais comum do agente etiológico ser pelo trato respiratório, evidências demonstram que a doença pode apresentar sintomas extrapulmonares, como os do trato gastrointestinal. Descrever sobre possíveis alterações gastrointestinais ocasionadas em pacientes infectados pelo SARS-CoV-2. Tratou-se de uma revisão bibliográfica, que utilizou artigos científicos disponíveis na íntegra em bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Google Acadêmico, Scientific Electronic Library Online, nos meses de abril a outubro de 2021, além de monografias, dissertações, teses e livros. Foram utilizados como descritores as palavras: SARS-CoV-2 e intestino, COVID-19 e intestino, alterações intestinais na COVID-19. Os distúrbios gastrointestinais mais prevalentes são náuseas, vômitos e diarreia e dor abdominal. O papel da microbiota intestinal em influenciar as doenças pulmonares foi bem articulado, devido à existência do eixo intestino-pulmão, a inflamação em um desses órgãos interfere diretamente no perfil inflamatório no outro. Embora ainda não esteja totalmente esclarecido se os sintomas gastrointestinais indicam maior viremia ou um processo fisiopatológico alternativo, observa-se que a presença destes configura um fator de risco para a maior severidade da doença.


The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly around the world, caused by the infection of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in China at the end of 2019. respiratory evidence shows that the disease can present extrapulmonary symptoms, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: To describe possible gastrointestinal alterations caused in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. Methodology: this was a literature review, which used scientific articles available in full in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Academic Google, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) databases, as well as monographs, dissertations, theses and books. The words used as descriptors were: SARS-CoV-2 and intestine, COVID-19 and intestine, intestinal alterations in COVID-19. Development: The most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders are nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and abdominal pain. The role of the intestinal microbiota in influencing lung diseases was well articulated, due to the existence of the gut- lung axis, inflammation in one of these organs directly interfering with the inflammatory profile in the other. Conclusion: Although it is not yet fully understood whether the gastrointestinal symptoms


La pandemia COVID-19 se ha extendido rápidamente por todo el mundo, causada por la infección del nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), que surgió en China a finales de 2019. Las evidencias respiratorias muestran que la enfermedad puede presentar síntomas extrapulmonares, como los del tracto gastrointestinal. Objetivo: Describir las posibles alteraciones gastrointestinales causadas en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2. Metodología: se trató de una revisión bibliográfica, que utilizó artículos científicos disponibles en su totalidad en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Academic Google, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), así como monografías, disertaciones, tesis y libros. Las palabras utilizadas como descriptores fueron: SARS-CoV-2 e intestino, COVID-19 e intestino, alteraciones intestinales en COVID-19. Desarrollo: Las alteraciones gastrointestinales más prevalentes son náuseas, vómitos y diarrea y dolor abdominal. Se articuló bien el papel de la microbiota intestinal en la influencia de las enfermedades pulmonares, debido a la existencia del eje intestino-pulmón, la inflamación en uno de estos órganos interfiere directamente en el perfil inflamatorio del otro. Conclusiones: Aunque aún no se comprenda del todo si los síntomas gastrointestinales indican una mayor viremia o un proceso fisiopatológico alternativo, se observa que su presencia es un factor de riesgo para la mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Digestive System Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 410-418, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375650

ABSTRACT

Abstract An acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Current data in the world and in Brazil show that approximately 40% of patients who died have some type of cardiac comorbidity. There are also robust reports showing an increase in IL-6 / IL-1B / TNF-alpha and the presence of lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. Our team and others have shown that increased cytokines are the link between arrhythmias/Left ventricular dysfunction and the immune system in different diseases. In addition, it has been well demonstrated that lymphopenia can not only be a good marker, but also a factor that causes heart failure. Thus, the present review focused on the role of the immune system upon the cardiac alterations observed in the SARS-CoV2 infection. Additionally, it was well described that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect cardiac cells. Therefore, here it will be reviewed in deep.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardium/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cytokines , Cytokines/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Heart Failure/complications , Lymphopenia/complications
6.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(1): e751, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408885

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El virus SARS-CoV-2 se propaga, principalmente, entre personas que están en estrecho contacto, de ahí la importancia de la detección de contactos y conocer las formas de transmisión entre estos. Objetivo: Identificar las principales formas de transmisión directa entre contactos de casos importados y autóctonos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal sobre dos poblaciones: los casos confirmados de COVID-19 en la provincia Santiago de Cuba en el último trimestre de 2020 y los contactos directos declarados por dichos casos. En busca de la mejor representatividad se empleó un diseño de muestreo estratificado en dos etapas. Para la recolección del dato primario se empleó la entrevista; para resumir la información, el número y el porcentaje; para detectar posibles diferencias, las pruebas de hipótesis de una proporción y de comparación de proporciones mediante el Minitab v. 19 y para elaborar los gráficos el Microsoft Excel 2016. Resultados: El promedio de contactos fue mayor entre los casos autóctonos, con predominio de compañeros de trabajo, vecinos e hijos. La relación contacto-caso en los importados fue amigo(a), chofer y suegro(a), mientras que en los autóctonos fue hijo(a). Hubo menor empleo de acciones preventivas y predominio de contactos extradomiciliarios en los importados. Los contactos de los importados fueron hospitalizados con mayor frecuencia y presentaron mayor proporción de asintomáticos que los de los autóctonos, pero no hubo diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: No se obtuvo un patrón diferenciado de transmisión, excepto que la transmisión característica de los autóctonos fue entre padre e hijo y en los importados fue entre amigos(AU)


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 spreads, mainly, through close contact among people, hence the importance of detecting contacts of confirmed cases and identifying the mode of transmission between them. Objective: To identify the main modes of direct transmission among contacts of imported and autochthonous cases. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in two populations: the confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba in the last quarter of 2020, and their declared direct contacts. In the search of the best representativeness, a two-stage stratified sampling method was used. The interview was used to collect the primary data; numbers and percentage, to summarize the information; the one-sample proportion hypothesis test and the compare proportions test using Minitab v.19, to identify possible differences across groups; and Microsoft Excel 2016, to produce the graphics. Results: The average number of contacts was higher among the autochthonous cases, prevailing the co-workers, neighbors and children. The contact-case relationship in imported cases was friend, driver, and mother or father-in-law; while in the autochthonous cases, it was son or daughter. Preventive actions were less used, and extra-domiciliary contacts of imported cases predominated. Contacts of imported cases were hospitalized more often, and had a higher proportion of asymptomatic than the autochthonous cases, but there was no significant differences. Conclusions: A differentiated pattern of transmission was not obtained; except that, transmission among autochthonous cases was between parent and child; while in imported cases, it was between friends(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cuba
7.
Rio de Janeiro; SES-RJ; 26/02/2022. 23 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1391063

ABSTRACT

Esta edição do boletim apresenta a análise do total de casos confirmados de COVID-19 de residentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro e suas nove regiões de saúde, incluindo os casos de Síndrome Gripal (SG) ou casos leves, as internações ou casos de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (SRAG) e os óbitos, ocorridos desde o início da pandemia em 2020 até 26 de fevereiro de 2022 (8ª Semana Epidemiológica).


Subject(s)
Public Health/standards , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Specimen Handling/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Research/classification
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recently, the world has coped with the challenge of the novel SARS-CoV-2 rapid spreading, causing COVID-19. This scenario has overburdened health systems, forced social isolation, and interrupted some services, changing the way how health assistance is provided. The management of chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis is a sensitive matter in times when the control strategies are at risk. In this sense, how could a high burden disease such as tuberculosis affect or be affected when combined with the COVID-19 pandemic? Patients with tuberculosis have a social background and lung impairment that represent risks in the pandemic scenario of another widely transmitted respiratory disease. Thus, even with several questions remaining unanswered, research and public policies should be addressed to control the effects of the current highly contagious COVID-19 without forgetting how it will affect the natural progression of patients suffering from tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/pathology , Health Systems/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , Patients/classification , Research/classification , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Femina ; 50(5): 308-310, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380710

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 é um novo agente infeccioso e pouco se sabe acerca do risco de sua infecção para o desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal humano, por isso é de extrema importância identificar o quadro clínico da infecção em gestantes, bem como registrar as complicações perinatais associadas à COVID-19. O quadro clínico em gestantes é semelhante ao do restante da população, contudo foi observado um aumento potencial de desfechos adversos em gestantes ­ como admissão em unidade de terapia intensiva, necessidade de ventilação mecânica e maior risco de parto prematuro e de cesáreas ­ e as taxas de mortalidade são semelhantes às da população em geral. Uma questão recorrente e ainda não elucidada seria a possibilidade de transmissão vertical do SARS-CoV-2.(AU)


SARS-CoV-2 is a new infectious agent, which little is known about the risk of its infection for human embryonic and fetal development, it is extremely important to identify the clinical symptoms of the infection in pregnant women, as well as to record the perinatal complications associated with COVID-19. The clinical symptoms in pregnant women is similar to the rest of the population, an increase in the risk of adverse outcomes in pregnant women was observed, such as: intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation, a higher risk of prematurity and cesarean, however mortality rates are similar to the general population. A recurring and unexplained issue would be the possibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Embryonic and Fetal Development
10.
Femina ; 50(6): 379-384, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380722

ABSTRACT

O SARS-CoV-2 é um vírus RNA transmitido pelo contato direto ou indireto por gotículas infectadas. No que se refere à COVID-19 e à gestação, referências apontam que nesse período as mulheres possuem maior susceptibilidade a complicações obstétricas e perinatais. O presente estudo objetiva compreender e compilar aspectos da infecção e os principais desfechos negativos maternos e fetais documentados na literatura atual, relacionados à infecção pelo novo coronavírus durante a gestação. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura embasada pela análise de 2.441 artigos no total, dos quais 62 foram incluídos na pesquisa, sendo 38 deles da base de dados PubMed e 24 da BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde), nos idiomas inglês e português. Em conclusão, mulheres grávidas com diagnóstico da patologia podem precisar de assistência de alta complexidade. A associação à doença pode apresentar riscos ou complicações como coagulopatias, pré-eclâmpsia, prematuridade e outros desfechos negativos que serão abordados neste artigo.(AU)


SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus, transmitted by direct or indirect contact by infected droplets. Regarding to COVID-19 and pregnancy, references indicate that during this period, women are more susceptible to obstetric and perinatal complications. This study aims to understand and compile aspects of infection and the main negative maternal and fetal outcomes documented in the current literature, related to the infection by the new coronavirus during pregnancy. This is an integrative literature review based on the analysis of 2,441 articles in total, of which 62 were included in the survey, 38 from the PubMed database and 24 from BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) in English and Portuguese languages. In conclusion, pregnant women diagnosed with the pathology may need highly complex assistance. The association with the disease may present risks for complications such as coagulopathies, pre-eclampsia, prematurity and other negative outcomes that will be addressed in this article.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Outcome , Databases, Bibliographic , Embolism and Thrombosis , Diabetes, Gestational , Fatal Outcome , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Patient Outcome Assessment
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20975, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420435

ABSTRACT

Abstract Within recent past, coronavirus has shaken the whole world. The world faced a new pandemic of novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2/ COVID-19).It has socioeconomically impacted world population a lot in terms of education, economy as well as physical and mental health. This novel coronavirus is notorious enough that put human health at a great risk. Currently, researchers all over the world aretrying hard to develop a new drug/vaccine for its treatment. In past decades, the world population has faced various viral infectious illness outbreaks. Influenza A, Ebola, Zika, SARS and MERS viruses had whacked public health and economy. Medical science technology achieved the landmark in developing coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines that are approved currently for emergency use. Some of the recently approved vaccines are developed by Pfizer and Moderna, Johnson and Johnson, Gam-COVID-vac (Sputnik V), Bharat Biotech (covaxin) andOxford-AstraZeneca vaccines (covishield) (Badenet al., 2021). Here, a short review is drafted focusingon infection, immune system, pathogenesis, phylogenesis, mode of transmission and impact of coronavirus on health and economy and recent developments in treating COVID-19


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/pathology , Research Personnel/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Immune System/abnormalities
12.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(1): e2021409, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375391

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Demonstrar a viabilidade da utilização combinada da autocoleta de swab nasofaríngeo e pool testing para detecção do SARS-CoV-2 em inquéritos epidemiológicos. Métodos: A experiência envolveu amostra de 154 estudantes da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, que realizaram a autocoleta do swab nasofaríngeo em cabines individuais e sem supervisão. O teste molecular foi realizado utilizando-se a técnica de pool testing. Resultados: A obtenção de amostras durou cerca de 5 minutos por pessoa. Realizou-se análise para detecção de RNA endógeno em 40 amostras e os resultados indicaram que não houve falhas decorrentes da autocoleta. Nenhum dos pools detectou presença de RNA viral. O custo da realização do teste molecular (RT-PCR) por pool testing com amostras obtidas por autocoleta foi cerca de dez vezes menor do que nos métodos habituais. Conclusão: As estratégias investigadas mostraram-se economicamente viáveis e válidas para a pesquisa de SARS-CoV-2 em inquéritos epidemiológicos.


Objetivo: Demostrar la viabilidad del uso combinado de la auto recolección de swabs nasofaríngeos y tests por agrupamiento (pool testing) para la detección del SARS-CoV-2 en encuestas epidemiológicas. Métodos: La prueba involucró a una muestra de 154 estudiantes de la Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, quienes realizaron e autorecolectado del hisopo nasofaríngeo en cabinas individuales sin supervisión. La prueba molecular se realizó utilizando la técnica de prueba de grupo. Resultados: La obtención de muestras duró unos 5 minutos por persona. Se realizó un análisis para detectar ARN endógeno en 40 muestras y los resultados indicaron que no hubo fallas derivadas de la autorecolección. Ninguno de los grupos detectó la presencia de ARN viral. El costo de realizar una prueba molecular (RT-PCR) por pool con muestras obtenidas por auto-recolección fue aproximadamente 10 veces menor que con los métodos habituales. Conclusión: Las estrategias investigadas demostraron ser económicamente viables y válidas para la investigación del SARS-CoV-2 en encuestas epidemiológicas.


Objective: To show the feasibility of the combined use of self-collected nasopharyngeal swab and pool testing to detect SARS-CoV-2 in epidemiological surveys. Methods: This experience included a sample of 154 students at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, who performed self-collected nasopharyngeal swab in individual cabins and without supervision. The molecular test was performed using the pool testing technique. Results: It took each person 5 minutes to collect the sample. An analysis was performed to detect endogenous RNA in 40 samples. The results showed that there were no failures resulting from self-collection. None of the pools detected the presence of viral RNA. The cost of molecular testing (RT-PCR), by pool testing, with samples obtained by self-collection was about ten times lower than the usual methods. Conclusion: The strategies that were investigated proved to be economically feasible and valid for the research on SARS-CoV-2 in epidemiological surveys.


Subject(s)
Humans , Feasibility Studies , Self-Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 36(2): 14-19, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352557

ABSTRACT

Ha surgido una nueva variante de preocupación de SARS-CoV-2, cuyos efectos en la evolución de la pandemia parecen inciertos. Sin embargo, ha comenzado a surgir evidencia con respecto al comportamiento viral en cuanto a su transmisibilidad, unión a receptor de la célula hospedadora y escape del sistema inmune. Presentamos una revisión actualizada de los datos existentes en la literatura respecto a los aspectos microbiológicos y epidemiológicos que pueden ayudarnos a comprender las futuras investigaciones en esta variante.(AU)


A new variant of concern for SARS-CoV-2 has emerged, the effects of which on the evolution of the pandemic appear uncertain. However, evidence has begun to emerge regarding viral behavior in terms of its transmissibility, receptor binding on the host cell, and escape from the immune system. We present an updated review of the existing data in the literature regarding the microbiological and epidemiological aspects that can help us understand future research on this variant.(AU)


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology
14.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(4): 425-432, ago. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388667

ABSTRACT

Resumen La crisis sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19, enfermedad generada por la infección con el SARS-CoV-2, ha llevado a la pérdida de más de 25,000 vidas en Chile, con más de 370,000 mujeres entre 15 y 44 años con infección confirmada. Se ha reportado una mayor vulnerabilidad de las mujeres gestantes en cuanto a desarrollar cuadros de COVID-19 graves o críticos, con un aumento de la incidencia de resultados obstétricos y perinatales adversos. Es relevante considerar que un alto porcentaje de las gestantes infectadas con SARS-CoV-2 son asintomáticas, lo cual nos pone en alerta en cuanto a que ciertos efectos del virus durante la gestación podrían no ser evidentes para la observación clínica. Se ha demostrado la presencia de SARS-CoV-2 en la placenta, asociándose la infección placentaria con alteraciones vasculares que podrían afectar el flujo útero-placentario. Por otro lado, la transmisión vertical al feto parece que es poco frecuente, pero factible. Se resumen las evidencias disponibles hasta el momento sobre los principales efectos de la COVID-19 en la gestación, con énfasis en los estudios sobre los efectos de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en la placenta. El objetivo es relevar el tema, destacando que son diversas las preguntas que necesitan ser abordadas, considerando el impacto que esta pandemia podría tener sobre la salud gestacional.


Abstract In Chile, the COVID-19 pandemic, a disease induced by infection with SARS-CoV-2, has caused more than 25,000 deaths. More than 370,000 women between 15 and 44 years have been detected with the infection. The greater vulnerability of pregnant women has been reported, mainly related to a higher risk for severe or critical COVID-19, with an increased incidence of adverse obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. It is relevant to consider that a high percentage of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic for COVID-19, which indicates that specific effects of the virus during pregnancy may not be evident from clinical observation. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the placenta has been demonstrated, associating placental infection with vascular alterations that could affect utero-placental flow. On the other hand, vertical transmission to the fetus is rare but feasible. This manuscript summarizes the evidence available to date on the main effects of COVID-19 in pregnancy, emphasizing studies about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 in the placenta. This review aims to promote this issue, highlighting that several questions need to be addressed, considering the effect this pandemic could have on gestational health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission
16.
Rio de Janeiro; SES/RJ; 30/04/2021. 14 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1392553

ABSTRACT

O Estado do Rio de Janeiro vem monitorando a evolução das variantes da Covid-19 por meio de três processos de seleção de amostras. O primeiro é o monitoramento realizado pelos municípios que notifica e solicita o sequenciamento, seguindo os critérios e fluxos descritos na Nota técnica da SES-RJ Nº 09/2021. O segundo faz parte da Vigilância Genômica organizada pelo Ministério da Saúde, onde três amostras aleatórias são enviadas pelo Lacen/RJ para FUNED/MG, de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos pela SVS/ FUNED. O terceiro é através de um estudo com financiamento da Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) que iniciou em março de 2021 e irá realizar a genotipagem de um total de 4.800 amostras nos próximos seis meses, sendo 400 a cada 15 dias. Por fim, a Secretaria de Estado de Saúde tem envidado esforços em ações de redução de risco, como a vacinação, ampliação de testagem, monitoramento genômico e promoção de saúde em todo o estado do Rio de Janeiro. E é recomendado manter as medidas de proteção à vida: como evitar aglomeração, usar de máscara, lavar as mãos e fazer higienização das mãos com álcool 70°.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Epidemiological Monitoring , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnostic imaging , Admitting Department, Hospital/standards , Genotyping Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Research/standards
17.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): 29-45, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to review the available literature on the general aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infec-tion. Methods: this is a narrative literature review carried out from March to September 2020. Results: COVID-19 caused by the new coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2, grows with devas-tating effects worldwide. The literature describes epidemiological data and mortality risk groups of the disease, which presents a high rate of transmission. Prevention is the most effective way to fight the disease, persisting the absence of strong evidence on the treatment. Vaccines are not yet available. Dexamethasone is effective in reducing mortality in severe forms. Conclusions: despite great efforts, as the number of confirmed cases increases, evidence on transmission, incidence, disease progression, lethality, effects and outcomes remain limited and without any high levels of evidence. Studies are still necessary for all aspects of the disease.


Resumo Objetivos: revisar a literatura disponível sobre os aspectos gerais dainfecção por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa de literatura realizada nos meses de março asetembro de 2020. Resultados: a COVID-19, causada pelo novo coronavírus ou SARS-CoV-2, cresce com efeitos devastadores em todo o mundo. A literetura descreve dados epidemiológicos e sobre grupos de riscos para mortalidade da doença, a qual apresenta uma alta velocidade de trans-missão. A prevenção é a forma mais eficaz de combate à doença, persistindo ausências de fortes evidências sobre o tratamento. Vacinas ainda não estão disponíveis A dexametasona é efetiva para redução da mortalidade nas formas graves. Conclusão: apesar dos grandes esforços, à medida que o número de casos confirmados aumenta, evidências sobre transmissão, incidência, evolução da doença, letalidade, efeitos e os desfechos permanecem limitados e sem grandes níveis de evidência. Estudos ainda são necessários sobre todos os aspectos da doença.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prognosis
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 167-171, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385317

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El SARS CoV-2, agente causal de la enfermedad llamada Covid-19, infecta las mucosas digestivas y respiratorias, afectando las células epiteliales. El virus ingresa a través del receptor de membrana ACE2 provocando la disrupción de la homeostasis celular. Frecuentes reportes indican la presencia de conjuntivitis ocular en pacientes diagnosticadas con Covid-19, lo cual ha alertado a los científicos sobre el potencial foco de infección viral de las secresiones lagrimales.Los epitelios de la conjuntiva ocular sub-palpebral y corneal, se caracterizan por presentar el receptor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 (ACE2) y proteasa transmembrana asociada serina 2 (TMPRSS2), cuya interacción activa los mecanismos de liberación de citoquinas, capaces de instalar un proceso de conjuntivitis infecciosa por SARS CoV-2, pero no necesariamente hacer extensiva la infección hacia los sistemas digestivo y respiratorio.Aunque este proceso inflamatorio es más frecuente como una expresión de la infección general y más grave. Sin embargo, cualquiera sea la vía de infección o ingreso del virus SARS CoV-2 es importante considerar el riesgo de infectividad de las lágrimas y las secresiones conjuntivales en los pacientes. Este estudio pretende llamar la atención sobre las medidas de cuidados y control sanitario, incorporando mejores normas de protección personal y bioseguridad, especialmente en el áreas de oftalmología, asumiendo que la mucosa ocular puede ser una vía de entrada del virus y a la vez una fuente de contagio.También considerar la potenciación de la infección viral con las enfermedades de base asociadas, como glaucoma y diabetes.Se sugiere además incorporar estudios histológicos de la mucosa ocular para diferenciar epitelios sanos e infectados.


SUMMARY: SARS CoV-2, the causal agent of the Covid- 19 disease, infects the digestive and respiratory mucosa, affecting epithelial cells. The virus enters through the ACE2 membrane receptor causing the disruption of cell homeostasis. Frequent reports indicate the presence of ocular conjunctivitis in patients diagnosed with Covid-19, which has alerted scientists to the potential source of viral infection from lacrimal secretions. The epithelia of the sub-palpebral and corneal ocular conjunctiva are characterized by presenting the receptor for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and associated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), whose interaction activates cytokine release mechanisms, with the ability to start the infectious conjunctivitis process by SARS CoV-2, but not necessarily extend the infection to the digestive and respiratory systems. Although this inflammatory process is more frequent as an expression of the general and more serious infection. However, whatever the route of infection or entry of the SARS CoV-2 virus, it is important to consider the risk of infection of tears and conjunctival secretions in patients. This study aims to draw attention to health care and control measures, incorporating better standards of personal protection and biosafety, especially in the areas of ophthalmology, assuming that the ocular mucosa can be a route of entry for the virus, and at the same time a source of contagion. A further consideration is the potential of viral infection with associated underlying diseases, such as glaucoma and diabetes. It is also suggested to incorporate histological studies of the ocular mucosa to differentiate healthy and infected epithelia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epithelium, Corneal/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Ophthalmology , Glaucoma/virology , Containment of Biohazards , Epithelium, Corneal/pathology , Disease Susceptibility
19.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 14-19, ene.-feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412866

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 es el tercer coronavirus que emerge en las últimas dos décadas y produce la enfermedad denominada COVID-19 (enfermedad infecciosa por coronavirus 2019). Ha demostrado ser fácilmente transmisible entre humanos con una rápida diseminación mundial y declarada como pandemia el 11 de marzo 2020. A la fecha ha causado millones de casos y muertes, disrupción de servicios sanitarios y severas consecuencias sociales, económicas y políticas en todos los países. Los estudios filogenéticos lo relacionan con SARS-CoV presentes en murciélagos. Comparte características de patogenicidad con sus parientes más cercanos, SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. 15 a 20% de los afectados presentan cuadros graves. A la fecha no se cuenta con antivirales efectivos ni vacunas. Para un adecuado control se hace imprescindible dilucidar aspectos epidemiológicos, moleculares y de patogenicidad. En esta revisión se presenta información básica sobre epidemiología, origen, estructura y patogenia de SARS-CoV-2. i:es


SARS-CoV-2 is the third coronavirus emerging in the last two decades producing a disease denominated COVID-19 (infectious disease by coronavirus 2019). It has demostrated to be easily transmisible between humans with a fast world wide dissemination and declared a pandemia in March 11, 2020. Up to date it has caused millions of cases, deaths, disruptions in medical services and severe social, political and economic consecuences, all around the globe. Phylogenetic studies relate it to SARS-CoV present in bats. It shares pathogenic characteristics with its close relatives, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. 15 to 20% of the patients develop a severe clinical course. Up to date there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. For an adecuate control it is essential to learn about epidemiological, pathogenic and molecular aspects. In this review some basic information about epidemiology, origin source, structure and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 is presented. i:en


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics
20.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 20-29, ene.-feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412893

ABSTRACT

El Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 produce la enfermedad COVID-19, cuya manifestación más grave y potencialmente letal es la neumonía. En este artículo revisaremos las manifestaciones clínicas del COVID-19, la fisiopatología de la neumonía, el manejo intrahospitalario previo al ingreso a Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, la embolia pulmonar que es una complicación muy frecuente de esta enfermedad y el seguimiento de los pacientes posterior al alta. Para esta publicación nos hemos basado en publicaciones médicas y en estudios que hemos hecho durante esta pandemia en nuestro Centro de Enfermedades Respiratorias. i:es


The SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus causes the COVID-19 disease, the most severe and potentially fatal manifestation of which is pneumonia. In this article, we will review the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, the pathophysiology of pneumonia, in-hospital management prior to admission to Intensive Care Units, pulmonary embolism, which is a very frequent complication of this disease, and the follow-up of patients after hospitalization. For this publication we have relied on medical publications and studies that we have done during this pandemic at our Center for Respiratory Diseases. i:en


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pneumonia/therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism , Risk Factors , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Noninvasive Ventilation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis
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