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Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 88-93, ene.-feb. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279079


Resumen Los primeros casos de COVID-19, causada por el virus denominado SARS-CoV-2, se registraron en Wuhan, China, en diciembre de 2019; sin embargo, su capacidad de transmisión ocasionó que seis meses después la infección prácticamente estuviera presente en todo el mundo. El origen del virus parece ser zoonótico; se propone que proviene del murciélago y podría haber tenido un hospedero intermediario que llevó a su introducción en la población humana. SARS-CoV-2 es un virus envuelto, con genoma de ARN de cadena sencilla en sentido positivo y se ancla a la enzima convertidora de angiotensina, presente en las células susceptibles para infectar el sistema respiratorio de los humanos. Aunque previamente se han conocido otros coronavirus, no han tenido el mismo impacto, por lo que la investigación en tratamientos farmacológicos no tiene el desarrollo suficiente para afrontar el reto actual. Casi desde el comienzo de la epidemia se han propuesto moléculas para el tratamiento de la infección, sin embargo, aún no se cuenta con un fármaco con suficiente efectividad terapéutica. En esta revisión se describen las características principales de SARS-CoV-2, su ciclo replicativo, su posible origen y algunos avances en el desarrollo de tratamientos antivirales.

Abstract The first cases of COVID-19, caused by the virus called SARS-CoV-2, were recorded in Wuhan, China, in December 2019; however, its transmission ability caused for the infection to be practically present throughout the world six months later. The origin of the virus appears to be zoonotic; it has been proposed that it comes from a bat and that it may have had an intermediate host that led to its introduction in the human population. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus, with a positive single-stranded RNA genome, and it binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme, present in susceptible cells, to infect the human respiratory system. Although other coronaviruses have been previously known, they have not had the same impact, and, therefore, research on pharmacological treatments is not sufficiently developed to face the current challenge. Almost since the beginning of the epidemic, several molecules have been proposed for the treatment of infection; however, there is not yet a drug available with sufficient effectiveness for treatment. This review describes SARS-CoV-2 main characteristics, its replicative cycle, its possible origin and some advances in the development of antiviral treatments.

Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 871-880, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921342


Objective@#Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( @*Methods@#We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces.@*Results@#We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population.@*Conclusion@#The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , COVID-19/virology , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Weather
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 3-6, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880560


Covid-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands deaths and millions of infections and continued spreading violently. Although researchers are racing to find or develop effective drugs or vaccines, no drugs from modern medical system have been proven effective and the high mutant rates of the virus may lead it resistant to whatever drugs or vaccines developed following modern drug development procedure. Current evidence has demonstrated impressive healing effects of several Chinese medicines (CMs) for Covid-19, which urges us to reflect on the role of CM in the era of modern medicine. Undoubtedly, CM could be promising resources for developing drug candidates for the treatment of Covid-19 in a way similar to the development of artemisinin. But the theory that builds CM, like the emphasis of driving away exogenous pathogen (virus, etc.) by restoring self-healing capacity rather than killing the pathogen directly from the inside and the 'black-box' mode of diagnosing and treating patients, is as important, yet often ignored, an treasure as CM herbs and should be incorporated into modern medicine for future advancement and innovation of medical science.

Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Development/standards , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
Protein & Cell ; (12): 717-733, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888715


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is spread primary via respiratory droplets and infects the lungs. Currently widely used cell lines and animals are unable to accurately mimic human physiological conditions because of the abnormal status of cell lines (transformed or cancer cells) and species differences between animals and humans. Organoids are stem cell-derived self-organized three-dimensional culture in vitro and model the physiological conditions of natural organs. Here we showed that SARS-CoV-2 infected and extensively replicated in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived lung organoids, including airway and alveolar organoids which covered the complete infection and spread route for SARS-CoV-2 within lungs. The infected cells were ciliated, club, and alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, which were sequentially located from the proximal to the distal airway and terminal alveoli, respectively. Additionally, RNA-seq revealed early cell response to virus infection including an unexpected downregulation of the metabolic processes, especially lipid metabolism, in addition to the well-known upregulation of immune response. Further, Remdesivir and a human neutralizing antibody potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in lung organoids. Therefore, human lung organoids can serve as a pathophysiological model to investigate the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to discover and test therapeutic drugs for COVID-19.

Humans , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation , Drug Discovery , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Immunity , Lipid Metabolism , Lung/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200443, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154874


BACKGROUND The coronaviruses (CoVs) called the attention of the world for causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), in Asia in 2002-03, and respiratory disease in the Middle East (MERS-CoV), in 2012. In December 2019, yet again a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first identified in Wuhan, China, was associated with a severe respiratory infection, known today as COVID-19. This new virus quickly spread throughout China and 30 additional countries. As result, the World Health Organization (WHO) elevated the status of the COVID-19 outbreak from emergency of international concern to pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on public health and economy fueled a worldwide race to approve therapeutic and prophylactic agents, but so far, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines available. In current scenario, the development of in vitro systems for viral mass production and for testing antiviral and vaccine candidates proves to be an urgent matter. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is study the biology of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero-E6 cells at the ultrastructural level. METHODS In this study, we documented, by transmission electron microscopy and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the infection of Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 samples isolated from Brazilian patients. FINDINGS The infected cells presented cytopathic effects and SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed attached to the cell surface and inside cytoplasmic vesicles. The entry of the virus into cells occurred through the endocytic pathway or by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. Assembled nucleocapsids were verified inside rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns (RER). Viral maturation seemed to occur by budding of viral particles from the RER into smooth membrane vesicles. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Therefore, the susceptibility of Vero-E6 cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the viral pathway inside the cells were demonstrated by ultrastructural analysis.

Humans , Animals , Vero Cells/virology , Cytoplasmic Vesicles/virology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Nucleocapsid , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Endocytosis , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Virus Internalization , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 941-951, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881040


As a representative drug for the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, Xuebijing (XBJ) injection is also one of the recommended drugs for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its treatment mechanism for COVID-19 is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential mechanism of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19 employing network pharmacology and molecular docking methods. The corresponding target genes of 45 main active ingredients in XBJ injection and COVID-19 were obtained by using multiple database retrieval and literature mining. 102 overlapping targets of them were screened as the core targets for analysis. Then built the PPI network, TCM-compound-target-disease, and disease-target-pathway networks with the help of Cytoscape 3.6.1 software. After that, utilized DAVID to perform gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis to predict the action mechanism of overlapping targets. Finally, by applying molecular docking technology, all compounds were docked with COVID-19 3 CL protease(3CLpro), spike protein (S protein), and angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). The results indicated that quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and other compounds in XBJ injection could affect TNF, MAPK1, IL6 and other overlapping targets. Meanwhile, anhydrosafflor yellow B (AHSYB), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and rutin could combine with COVID-19 crucial proteins, and then played the role of anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune response to treat COVID-19. This study revealed the multiple active components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19, which provided a new perspective for the study of the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of COVID-19.

Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Availability , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism