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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 120(1): 20220177, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1420150


Resumo Fundamento A estratégia farmacoinvasiva é uma alternativa na inviabilidade da intervenção coronária percutânea primária (ICP). Objetivos Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da estratégia farmacoinvasiva precoce sobre o tamanho da área infartada e a fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda em pacientes idosos e não idosos. O papel dos marcadores inflamatórios também foi avaliado. Métodos Pacientes (n=223) com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST (IAMCSST) foram prospectivamente incluídos e submetidos à trombólise medicamentosa nas primeiras seis horas, e à angiografia coronariana e à ICP, quando necessária, nas primeiras 24 horas. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas no primeiro dia (D1) e 30 dias após (D30). A ressonância magnética cardíaca foi realizada no D30. O nível de significância estatística foi estabelecido em p<0,05. Resultados Pacientes idosos e não idosos apresentaram porcentagem similares de massa infartada [13,7 (6,9-17,0) vs. 14,0 (7,3-26,0), respectivamente p=0,13)] [mediana (intervalo interquartil)]. No entanto, os pacientes idosos apresentaram maior fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda [53 (45-62) vs. 49 (39-58), p=0,025)]. As concentrações de interleucina (IL)1beta, IL-4, IL-6, e IL-10 não foram diferentes entre D1 e D30, mas pacientes idosos apresentaram níveis mais elevados de IL-18 em D1 e D30. O número absoluto de linfócitos B e T foram similares em ambos os grupos em D1 e D30, porém, pacientes idosos apresentaram uma razão neutrófilo-linfócito mais alta em D30. A análise de regressão linear multivariada dos desfechos de RMC de toda a população do estudo mostrou que os preditores independentes não foram diferentes entre pacientes idosos e não idosos. Conclusão A estratégia farmacoinvasiva em pacientes idosos foi associada a pequenas diferenças nos parâmetros inflamatórios, tamanho do infarto similar, e melhor função ventricular esquerda em comparação a pacientes não idosos

Abstract Background Pharmacoinvasive strategy is an alternative when primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not feasible. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of early pharmacoinvasive strategy on the infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction in elderly and non-elderly patients. The role of inflammatory markers was also examined. Methods Patients (n=223) with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were prospectively included and submitted to pharmacological thrombolysis in the first six hours, and underwent coronary angiogram and PCI when necessary, in the first 24 hours. Blood samples were collected in the first day (D1) and after 30 days (D30). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) was performed at D30. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results Elderly and non-elderly patients showed similar percentage of infarcted mass (13.7 [6.9-17.0] vs. 14.0 [7.3-26.0], respectively, p=0.13) (median [interquartile range]). However, elderly patients had better left ventricular ejection fraction (53 [45-62] vs. 49 [39-58], p=0.025). Titers of interleukin (IL)1beta, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 did not differ between D1 and D30, but elderly patients had higher titers for IL-18 at D1 and D30. Absolute numbers of B and T lymphocytes were similar in both groups at D1 and D30, but elderly patients had higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio at D30. Multivariate linear regression analysis of cMRI outcomes in the whole population showed that the independent predictors were not different between elderly and non-elderly patients. Conclusion Pharmacoinvasive strategy in elderly patients was associated with small differences in inflammatory parameters, similar infarct size and better left ventricular function than non-elderly patients.

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Lymphocytes , Cytokines
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 193-200, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003697


Background@#Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic changed healthcare-seeking behavior and healthcare delivery.@*Methods@#This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study using a non-probability sampling of adult patients at the Philippine Heart Center who were diagnosed with ACS-STEMI. Baseline characteristics, clinical profile, management plan, and outcomes of patients were determined and analyzed in both periods.@*Results@#170 STEMI patients during each period were included in the study. The mean time for the onset of symptoms to consult was 8 hours in both periods. Majority of STEMI patient had undergone primary PCI in both periods. There is a significant decline in the number of patients undergoing primary PCI during the COVID 19 period (n=116, 68%). Fibrinolysis was performed more during the COVID 19 pandemic (n=9, 5%) and none in the pre-COVID 19 period. There was a statistically significant delay in the door-to-wiring time during the pandemic. Composite outcome was significantly higher during this time with 42 patients (25%, p=0.029). Composite outcomes were also higher in STEMI patients with COVID-19 infection (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0989 - 3.2960, p=0.022).@*Conclusion@#The study confirmed that there was an increase in the rate of fibrinolysis and medical therapy alone during the COVID-19 period. There was also a significant delay in the door-to-wiring time as well as an increase in composite outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 11-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981583


Objective To investigate the impact of microvascular obstruction (MVO) on the global and regional myocardial function by cardiac magnetic resonance feature-tracking (CMR-FT) in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention.Methods Consecutive acute STEMI patients who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 1 - 7 days after successful reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention treatment were included in this retrospective study. Based on the presence or absence of MVO on late gadolinium enhancement images, patients were divided into groups with MVO and without MVO. The infarct zone, adjacent zone, and remote zone were determined based on a myocardial 16-segment model. The radial strain (RS), circumferential strain (CS), and longitudinal strain (LS) of the global left ventricle (LV) and the infarct, adjacent, and remote zones were measured by CMR-FT from cine images and compared between patients with and without MVO using independent-samples t-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of MVO with the impaired LV function.Results A total of 157 STEMI patients (mean age 56.66 ± 11.38 years) were enrolled. MVO was detected in 37.58% (59/157) of STEMI patients, and the mean size of MVO was 3.00 ±3.76 mL. Compared with patients without MVO (n =98 ), the MVO group had significantly reduced LV global RS (t= -4.30, P < 0.001), global CS (t= 4.99, P < 0.001), and global LS ( t= 3.51, P = 0.001). The RS and CS of the infarct zone in patients with MVO were significantly reduced (t= -3.38, P = 0.001; t= 2.64, P = 0.01; respectively) and the infarct size was significantly larger (t= 8.37, P < 0.001) than that of patients without MVO. The presence of LV MVO [OR= 4.10, 95%CI: 2.05 - 8.19, P<0.001) and its size [OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.10-1.72, P=0.01], along with the heart rate and LV infarct size were significantly associated with impaired LV global CS in univariable Logistic regression analysis, while only heart rate (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.13, P=0.001) and LV infarct size (OR=1.10, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.16, P=0.003) were independent influencing factors for the impaired LV global CS in multivariable Logistic regression analysis.Conclusion The infarct size was larger in STEMI patients with MVO, and MVO deteriorates the global and regional LV myocardial function.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Contrast Media , Retrospective Studies , Gadolinium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Ghana med. j ; 57(1): 37-42, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427100


Objectives: This study aimed to examine possible associations between previously undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism and short-term outcomes and mortality in a sample of Iraqi patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Design: This is a prospective observational cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted in a single tertiary referral centre in Baghdad, Iraq. Participants: Thyroid-stimulating hormone and free T4 levels were measured in 257 patients hospitalised with STelevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention between January 2020 and March 2022. Main outcome measures: Adverse cardiovascular and renal events during hospitalisation and 30-day mortality were observed. Results: Previously undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 36/257 (14%) ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients and observed more commonly in females than males. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly worse short-term outcomes, including higher rates of suboptimal TIMI Flow (< III) (p =0.014), left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40% (p=0.035), Killip class >I (p=0.042), cardiogenic shock (p =0.016), cardiac arrest in the hospital (p= 0.01), and acute kidney injury (p= 0.044). Additionally, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (p= 0.029). Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism previously undiagnosed and untreated had a significant association with adverse short-term outcomes and higher short-term mortality within 30 days compared to euthyroid patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Routine thyroid function testing during these patients' hospitalisation may be warranted.

Humans , Thyroid Function Tests , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Hypothyroidism , Asymptomatic Infections , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Access to Primary Care
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 278-287, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969775


Objective: Hyperlipidemia is closely related to premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present study was performed to explore the correlation between various blood lipid components and the risk of premature AMI. Methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective study. Consecutive patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who completed coronary angiography from October 1, 2020 to September 30, 2022 in our hospital, were enrolled and divided into premature AMI group (male<55 years old, female<65 years old) and late-onset AMI group. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), non-HDL-C/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoA-1 were analyzed. The correlation between the above blood lipid indexes and premature AMI was analyzed and compared by logistic regression, restricted cubic spline and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results: A total of 1 626 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study, including 409 patients with premature AMI and 1 217 patients with late-onset AMI. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of premature AMI increased significantly with the increase of TG, non-HDL-C/HDL-C, non-HDL-C, ApoB/ApoA-1, TC and ApoB quintiles; while LDL-C, ApoA-1 and Lp (a) had no significant correlation with premature AMI. The restricted cubic spline graph showed that except Lp (a), LDL-C, ApoA-1 and ApoB/ApoA-1, other blood lipid indicators were significantly correlated with premature AMI. The ROC curve showed that TG and non-HDL-C/HDL-C had better predictive value for premature AMI. Inconsistency analysis found that the incidence and risk of premature AMI were the highest in patients with high TG and high non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Conclusion: TG, non-HDL-C/HDL-C and other blood lipid indexes are significantly increased in patients with premature AMI, among which TG is the parameter, most closely related to premature AMI, and future studies are needed to explore the impact of controlling TG on incidence of premature AMI.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cholesterol, LDL , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Apolipoprotein A-I , Myocardial Infarction , Cholesterol , Apolipoproteins B , Triglycerides , Cholesterol, HDL , Lipids , Lipoproteins
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 151-157, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969757


Objectives: To evaluate microvascular perfusion and left ventricular function in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after revascularization using myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE), and to explore clinical influencing factors of abnormal microvascular perfusion in these patients. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The analysis was performed among patients admitted to Peking University People's Hospital for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from June 2018 to July 2021. All patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and completed MCE within 48 hours after PCI. Patients were divided into normal myocardial perfusion group and abnormal perfusion group according to the myocardial perfusion score. The echocardiographic indexes within 48 hours after PCI, including peak mitral valve flow velocity (E), mean value of early diastolic velocity of left ventricular septum and lateral mitral annulus (Em), left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and so on, were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influencing factors of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Results: A total of 123 STEMI patients, aged 59±13 years with 93 (75.6%) males, were enrolled. There were 50 cases in the normal myocardial perfusion group, and 73 cases in the abnormal myocardial perfusion group. The incidence of abnormal myocardial perfusion was 59.3% (73/123). The left ventricular volume index ((62.3±18.4)ml/m2 vs. (55.1±15.2)ml/m2, P=0.018), wall motion score index (WMSI) (1.59 (1.44, 2.00) vs. 1.24(1.00, 1.47), P<0.001) and mitral E/Em (17.8(12.0, 24.3) vs. 12.2(9.2, 15.7), P<0.001) were significantly higher whereas left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) ((-10.8±3.4)% vs. (-13.8±3.5)%, P<0.001) was significantly lower in the abnormal myocardial perfusion group than those in the normal myocardial perfusion group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that left anterior descending (LAD) as culprit vessel (OR=3.733, 95%CI 1.282-10.873, P=0.016), intraoperative no/low-reflow (OR=6.125, 95%CI 1.299-28.872, P=0.022), and peak troponin I (TnI) (OR=1.018, 95%CI 1.008-1.029, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of abnormal myocardial perfusion. As for ultrasonic indexes, deceleration time of mitral E wave (OR=0.979, 95%CI 0.965-0.993, P=0.003), mitral E/Em (OR=1.100, 95%CI 1.014-1.194, P=0.022) and WMSI (OR=7.470, 95%CI 2.630-21.222, P<0.001) were independently related to abnormal myocardial perfusion. Conclusions: The incidence of abnormal myocardial perfusion after PCI is high in patients with acute STEMI. Abnormal myocardial perfusion is related to worse left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. LAD as culprit vessel, intraoperative no/low-reflow and peak TnI are independent risk factors of abnormal myocardial perfusion.

Male , Humans , Female , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Circulation , Echocardiography , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Ventricular Function, Left , Perfusion
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1619-1624, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515392


BACKGROUND: In those patients who do not have timely access to primary angioplasty, the pharmaco-invasive approach, that is, the use of thrombolysis as a bridging measure prior to the coronary angiography, is a safe alternative. AIM: To describe the features of patients with an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with a pharmaco-invasive strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive observational study of 144 patients with mean age of 46 years with STEMI who received a dose of thrombolytic prior to their referral for primary angioplasty at a public hospital between 2018 and 2021. RESULTS: There were no differences the clinical presentation according to the Killip score at admission between thrombolyzed and non-thrombolyzed patients (p = ns). Fifty-three percent of non-thrombolyzed patients were admitted with an occluded vessel (TIMI 0) compared with 27% of thrombolyzed patients (p < 0.001). The thrombolyzed group required significantly less use of thromboaspiration (3.5 and 8.4% respectively; p = 0.014). Despite this, 91 and 92% of non-thrombolyzed and thrombolyzed patients achieved a post-angioplasty TIMI 3 flow. Long-term survival was 91 and 86% in thrombolyzed and non-thrombolyzed patients, respectively (p = ns). CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaco-invasive strategy is a safe alternative when compared to primary angioplasty in centers that don't have timely access to Interventional Cardiology.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Survival Analysis , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
Medisan ; 26(5)sept.-oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405846


Introducción: La diabetes mellitus se encuentra entre las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles más comunes en el mundo, y se estima que para el 2030 será diagnosticada en 7,7 % de la población mayor de 18 años, es decir, en 430 millones de individuos. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes diabéticos que presentaron infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, según variables clinicoepidemiológicas, electrocardiográficas, ecocardiográficas y terapéuticas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2019, de 137 pacientes con antecedente de diabetes mellitus que presentaron infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, atendidos en el Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron la edad, el sexo, la clase funcional, las complicaciones, la función sistólica y la diastólica del ventrículo izquierdo, la terapia de reperfusión empleada y el estado del paciente al egreso. Resultados: En la serie predominaron el sexo masculino y el grupo etario mayor de 60 y más años. Se observó que el infarto agudo de miocardio en la topografía anterior presentara más complicaciones, así como mayor número de pacientes con tratamiento trombolítico y combinado. Asimismo, la mayoría de los pacientes egresaron vivos, lo cual se correspondió, además, con que recibieran terapia trombolítica. Al analizar a los pacientes con alteraciones segmentarias en el estudio ecocardiográfico, se obtuvo una primacía de los fallecidos en ese grupo en cuestión. Conclusiones: Los pacientes diabéticos que presentan infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST constituyen un grupo independiente con especificidades clínicas y ecocardiográficas y mayor riesgo de complicaciones mortales.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is not among the most common chronic non communicable diseases in the world, and is considered that by 2030 it will be diagnosed in the 7.7 % of the population over 18 years, that is to say, in 430 million individuals. Objective: To characterize diabetic patients that presented acute heart attack with elevation of the ST segment, according to clinical epidemiological, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and therapeutic variables. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from January to December, 2019 of 137 patients with history of diabetes mellitus that presented acute heart attack with elevation of the ST segment, assisted in the Cardiology Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba. Among the analyzed variables figured the age, sex, functional class, complications, systolic and dyastolic function of the left ventricle, the therapy of reperfusion used and the state of the patient when discharged from the hospital. Results: In the series there was a prevalence of the male sex and the 60 and over age group. It was observed that the acute heart attack in the previous topography presented more complications, as well as higher number of patients with thrombolitic and combined treatment. Also, most of the patients were alive when discharged from the hospital, which also corresponded with the thrombolitic therapy received. When analyzing the patients with segmental alterations in the echocardiographic study, a primacy of the deceaseds was obtained in that group. Conclusions: The diabetic patients that present acute heart attack with elevation of the ST segment constitute an independent group with clinical and echocardiographic specificities, and more risk of mortal complications.

Diabetes Mellitus , Myocardial Infarction , Echocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Lima; Perú. ESSALUD. Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación; 1 ed; May. 2022. 125 p. ilus.(GPC, 51).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1373372


La presente publicación en versión extensa, describe las recomendaciones para el manejo infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntomas, con el fin de contribuir a reducir la mortalidad, mejorar la calidad de vida, y reducir las complicaciones de los pacientes con esta condición, la población a la cual se aplicará la GPC:, o sea los pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntoma. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) es una emergencia médica, producto de la oclusión de las arterias coronarias, que conllevan a la isquemia miocárdica transmural, y que de persistir lleva a una lesión miocárdica o necrosis. Se ha reportado una mortalidad de la enfermedad del 23 % antes de llegar al hospital, 13% durante el ingreso hospitalario, y de 10% posterior al alta. Lo cual, inclusive, puede aumentar en ausencia de tratamiento entre un 5 a 10% (2). En el caso de Perú, se ha reportado una por IMCEST de aproximadamente 9%, pero con una incidencia de insuficiencia cardíaca posinfarto fue de 28% y de choque cardiogénico de 12% (3). Esta alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad hace hincapié en la necesidad de garantizar una evaluación y manejo adecuado de la enfermedad. Por ello, el Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) priorizó la realización de la presente guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para establecer lineamientos basados en evidencia para gestionar de la mejor manera los procesos y procedimientos asistenciales de la presente condición

Patients , Shock, Cardiogenic , Wounds and Injuries , Myocardial Ischemia , Coronary Vessels , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction
Lima; Perú. ESSALUD. Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación; 1 ed; May. 2022. 24 p. ilus.(GPC, 51).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1373371


La publicación en versión corta, describe las recomendaciones para el manejo infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación persistente del segmento ST (IMCEST) dentro de las primeras 12 horas de inicio de los síntomas, con el fin de contribuir a reducir la mortalidad, mejorar la calidad de vida, y reducir las complicaciones de los pacientes con esta condición.

Patients , Shock, Cardiogenic , Myocardial Ischemia , Coronary Vessels , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Absenteeism , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 142-148, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367399


Introducción: la mortalidad asociada a infarto del miocardio (IM) no solo se debe a complicaciones cardiovasculares, sino también a complicaciones intrahospitalarias no cardiovasculares (CIHNC). El índice leuco-glucémico (ILG) se ha utilizado como un marcador pronóstico para el desarrollo de complicaciones cardiovasculares en el IM. Centramos este estudio en identificar el punto de corte de ILG para el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST). Material y métodos: en este diseño de un solo centro y transversal, incluimos pacientes con IAMCEST. El análisis bioquímico incluyó glucosa y leucocitos; se calculó ILG. Se realizaron análisis univariados y bivariados, curva ROC y análisis multivariado para el desarrollo de IAMCEST. Resultados: incluimos 1294 pacientes, 79.8% hombres y 20.2% mujeres. Las principales comorbilidades fueron: hipertensión arterial sistémica, diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia. Seiscientos cuarenta y cuatro pacientes (49.8%) presentaron CIHNC. El ILG > 1200 con área bajo la curva (AUC) 0.817 predice el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST. Las variables que aumentaron el desarrollo de CIHNC fueron: ILG > 1200, creatinina > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus y edad > 65 años. La neumonía intrahospitalaria y las complicaciones cardiovasculares aumentaron el riesgo de muerte entre los pacientes con IAMCEST. Conclusión: un LGI > 1200 aumentó más de nueve veces el riesgo de desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST.

Background: The myocardial infarction-associated (MI) mortality is not only due cardiovascular complications, but intrahospital non-cardiovascular complications (IHnCVCs). The leuko-glycemic index (LGI) has been used as a prognostic marker for the development of cardiovascular complications in MI. We focused this study on identifying the cut-off point of LGI for the IHnCVCs development in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Material and methods: In this single-center and cross-sectional design, we included patients with STEMI. The biochemical analysis included glucose and leucocytes; with them we calculated the LGI. Receiver operating characteristic curve, univariate and bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis for IHnCVCs development were performed. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We included 1294 patients, 79.8% were men and 20.2% women. The main comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Six hundred forty-four (49.8%) patients presented IHNCVCs. The LGI > 1200 (AUC 0.817) predict the IHNCVCs development in STEMI patients. The variables that increased the IHNCVCs development were LGI > 1200, creatinine > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus and age > 65 years. Hospital acquired pneumonia and cardiovascular complications increase the risk of death among STEMI patients. Conclusion: A LGI > 1200 increased, just over nine times, the risk of IHnCVC development in STEMI patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Glycemic Index , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Nonagenarians , Mexico/epidemiology
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 184-190, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364983


Abstract Background: ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a pathological process that involves cardiac muscle tissue death. Intravenous thrombolysis with fibrinolytics or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), an invasive technique, can be performed for tissue revascularization. PCI has been preferred as compared to non-invasive methods, although few studies have described its use in Brazil. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze data on the use of primary PCI and investigate the relevance of hospitalizations for the treatment of STEMI in the country. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Unified Health system (SUS) Department of Informatics (DATASUS) from 2010 to 2019 was conducted. Results: Hospitalizations for STEMI represented 0.6% of all hospital admissions in Brazil in the analyzed period, 0.9% of hospital costs, and 2.1% of deaths. The number of hospitalizations due to STEMI was 659,811, and 82,793 for PCIs. Length of hospital stay was 36.0% shorter and mortality rate was 53.3% lower in PCI. The mean cost of PCI was 3.5-fold higher than for treatment of STEMI. Conclusions: Data on hospitalizations for STEMI treatment in Brazil revealed high hospitalization and mortality rates, elevated costs, and long hospital stay. Although primary PCI is a more expensive and less used technique than other methods, it can reduce the length of hospital stay and mortality in the treatment of STEMI.

Humans , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Disease/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 26(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405617


RESUMEN Introducción: La estrategia trombolítica no solo mejora la esperanza de supervivencia del infarto, sino que también reduce la mortalidad general a un mes en los pacientes que reciben este tratamiento. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST tratados con estreptoquinasa recombinante en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Docente «Celia Sánchez Manduley». Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo en 94 pacientes que recibieron tratamiento trombolítico desde diciembre de 2018 a noviembre de 2020. Las variables utilizadas fueron: edad, sexo, comorbilidades, tiempo de ventana terapéutica, causas de suspensión temporal, complicaciones, topografía, criterios de reperfusión clínico, eléctrico y enzimático y mortalidad. Se calculó la frecuencia absoluta y relativa, y la media aritmética con desviación estándar. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino y el grupo de edad entre 61 - 70 años. Prevalecieron los pacientes con antecedentes de hipertensión y diabetes. La hipotensión arterial fue la causa de suspensión más frecuente. El 69,1 % fueron trombolizados pasadas las 6 horas. Solo 27 pacientes sufrieron complicaciones, de las cuales, el bloqueo auriculoventricular y Killip - Kimball II fueron las más vistas. Por otra parte, 9 pacientes no presentaron criterios de reperfusión, y solo el 7,4 % fallecieron. Conclusiones: La trombolisis se realiza en una minoría de los pacientes aun en período de ventana terapéutica. La hipotensión fue la causa más frecuente de suspensión temporal de la trombolisis, y la letalidad fue inferior a la letalidad general por infarto agudo de miocardio.

ABSTRACT Introduction: thrombolytic strategy not only improves survival expectancy after infarction, but also reduces overall one-month mortality in patients receiving this treatment. Objective: to characterize patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction treated with recombinant streptokinase at "Celia Sánchez Manduley" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital. Methods: a descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted in 94 patients who received thrombolytic treatment from December 2018 to November 2020. Age, gender, comorbidities, time-related therapeutic window, causes of temporary suspension, complications, topography, clinical, electrical and enzymatic reperfusion criteria as well as mortality were the variables used in this study. Absolute and relative frequency and arithmetic mean with standard deviation were calculated. Results: male gender and group aged 61-70 years predominated. Patients with a history of hypertension and diabetes predominated. Arterial hypotension was the most frequent cause of thrombolysis discontinuation. The 69.1 % were thrombolyzed after 6 hours. Only 27 patients suffered complications; atrioventricular block and Killip-Kimball II were the most frequently seen complications. On the other hand, 9 patients did not show reperfusion criteria and only 7.4 % died. Conclusions: thrombolysis is performed in a minority of patients even in the therapeutic window period. Hypotension was the most frequent cause of temporary suspension of thrombolysis, and case fatality was lower than the overall case fatality for acute myocardial infarction.

Thrombolytic Therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 556-564, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364349


Resumo Fundamento Cerca de 40% dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST) no Brasil não recebem terapia de reperfusão. Objetivo A utilização de uma rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® poderia aumentar a porcentagem de pacientes que recebem terapia de reperfusão. Métodos Estudo transversal do tipo antes e depois da organização de uma rede de telemedicina para envio e análise do eletrocardiograma através do WhatsApp® dos pacientes suspeitos de IAMCSST oriundos dos 25 municípios integrantes do Departamento Regional de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII), para hospital terciário que poderia autorizar a transferência imediata do paciente utilizando o mesmo sistema. O desfechos analisados foram a porcentagem de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Considerou-se valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Foram comparados 82 pacientes antes desta rede (1º de fevereiro de 2016 a 31 de janeiro de 2018) com 196 pacientes depois da implantação da mesma (1º de fevereiro de 2018 a 31 de janeiro de 2020). Após a implantação da rede, houve aumento significativo da proporção de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão (60% vs. 92%), risco relativo (RR): 1,594 [intervalo de confiança (IC) 95% 1,331 - 1,909], p <0,0001 e redução da mortalidade intra-hospitalar (13,4% vs. 5,6%), RR: 0,418 [IC 95% 0,189 - 0,927], p = 0,028. Conclusão Rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® associou-se a aumento da porcentagem de pacientes com IAMCSST que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a redução na mortalidade intra-hospitalar.

Abstract Background About 40% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Brazil do not receive reperfusion therapy. Objective The use of a telemedicine network based on WhatsApp® could increase the percentage of patients receiving reperfusion therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study analyzed outcomes before and after the organization of a telemedicine network to send the electrocardiogram via WhatsApp® of patients suspected of STEMI from 25 municipalities that are members of the Regional Health Department of Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII) to a tertiary hospital, which could authorize immediate patient transfer using the same system. The analyzed outcomes included the percentage of patients who received reperfusion therapy and the in-hospital mortality rate. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study compared 82 patients before (February 1, 2016 to January 31, 2018) with 196 patients after this network implementation (February 1, 2018 to January 31, 2020). After implementing this network, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients who received reperfusion therapy (60% vs. 92%), relative risk (RR): 1.594 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.331 - 1.909], p < 0.0001 and decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate (13.4% vs. 5.6%), RR: 0.418 [95%CI 0.189 - 0.927], p = 0.028. Conclusion The use of WhatsApp®-based telemedicine has led to an increase in the percentage of patients with STEMI who received reperfusion therapy and a decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate.

Humans , Telemedicine , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Mortality , Electrocardiography
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 113-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356305


Abstract ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Reperfusion therapy is strongly associated with the prognosis of STEMI and must be performed with a high standard of quality and without delay. A systematic review of different reperfusion strategies for STEMI was conducted, including randomized controlled trials that included major cardiovascular events (MACE), and systematic reviews in the last 5 years through the PRISMA ( Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology. The research was done in the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, in addition to a few manual searches. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 90 articles were selected for this review. Despite the reestablishment of IRA patency in PCI for STEMI, microvascular lesions occur in a significant proportion of these patients, which can compromise ventricular function and clinical course. Several therapeutic strategies - intracoronary administration of nicorandil, nitrates, melatonin, antioxidant drugs (quercetin, glutathione), anti-inflammatory substances (tocilizumab [an inhibitor of interleukin 6], inclacumab, P-selectin inhibitor), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), erythropoietin and ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and stem cell therapy - have been tested to reduce reperfusion injury, ventricular remodeling and serious cardiovascular events, with heterogeneous results: These therapies need confirmation in larger studies to be implemented in clinical practice

Prognosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion Injury , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Health Strategies , Thrombectomy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Electrocardiography/methods , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Ischemic Postconditioning , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Myocardial Revascularization
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 14-21, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360123


Resumo Fundamento A fetuína-A é um fator anti-inflamatório e anticalcificação envolvido no curso da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Em alinhamento com essas funções, investigou-se a fetuína-A como marcador de risco cardiovascular em vários estudos. Porém, a associação entre a fetuína-A e o prognóstico dos pacientes com DAC ainda é controversa. Objetivos O presente estudo foi conduzido para identificar a associação entre o nível de fetuína-A sérica e doença cardiovascular (DCV) de longo prazo e a mortalidade global por infarto do agudo do miocárdio por supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (STEMI). Métodos Foram cadastrados no estudo cento e oitenta pacientes consecutivos com STEMI. A população do estudo foi dividida em subgrupos (mais baixo, ≤288 µg/ml; e mais alto, >288 µg/ml) de acordo com a mediana do nível de fetuína-A. Dados de acompanhamento clínico foram obtidos por contato telefônico anual com pacientes ou familiares. As causas das mortes também foram confirmadas pelo banco de dados de saúde nacional. P-valores bilaterais <0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Durante um acompanhamento médio de 10 anos, foram registradas 71 mortes, das quais 62 foram devidas a DCV. Identificou-se um índice de mortalidade global e por DCV significativamente mais alto no grupo com nível de fetuína-A mais baixo que no grupo com nível de fetuína-A mais alto (44% versus 24%, p= 0,005; 48% versus 31%, p= 0,022, respectivamente). Nas análises de risco proporcionais por regressão de Cox, detectou-se que a fetuína-A era um preditor independente de mortalidade global e por DCV. Conclusões A baixa concentração de fetuína-A está associada ao prognóstico de longo prazo ruim pós-STEMI, independentemente de fatores de risco cardiovascular tradicionais. Nossos achados fortaleceram estudos prévios demonstrando consistentemente o papel determinante dos mediadores anti-inflamatórios em síndromes coronárias agudas.

Abstract Background Fetuin-A is an anti-inflammatory and anti-calcification factor involved in the course of coronary artery disease (CAD). In line with these functions, fetuin-A has been investigated as a cardiovascular risk marker in many studies. However, the association between fetuin-A and the prognosis of CAD patients is still controversial. Objectives The present study was conducted to identify the association between serum fetuin-A level and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods One hundred eigthy consecutive patients with STEMI were enrolled in the study. The study population was divided into subgroups (lower, ≤288 µg/ml; and higher, >288 µg/ml) according to the median fetuin-A level. Clinical follow-up data was obtained by annual contact with the patients or family members by telephone. The causes of death were also confirmed by the national health database. Two-sided p-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results During a median follow-up of 10 years, 71 deaths were recorded , 62 of whom died from CVD. Both CVD and all-cause mortality were found to be significantly higher in the lower fetuin-A group than the higher fetuin-A group (44% vs 24%, p= 0.005; 48% vs 31%, p= 0.022, respectively). In Cox regression proportional hazard analyses, fetuin-A was found to be an independent predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality. Conclusions Low fetuin-A concentration is associated with a poor long-term prognosis after STEMI, regardless of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings have strengthened previous studies that consistently demonstrate the determining role of anti-inflammatory mediators in acute coronary syndromes.

Humans , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/analysis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 24-32, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360124


Resumo Fundamento O paradoxo do fumante tem sido motivo de debate para pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio (IM) há mais de duas décadas. Embora haja muitas evidências demonstrando que não existe tal paradoxo, publicações defendendo desfechos melhores em fumantes pós-IM ainda são lançadas. Objetivo Explorar o efeito do fumo na mortalidade de longo prazo após infarto do miocárdio por elevação de ST (STEMI). Métodos Este estudo incluiu pacientes com STEMI que foram diagnosticados entre 2004 e 2006 em três centros terciários. Os pacientes foram categorizados de acordo com a exposição ao tabaco (Grupo 1: não-fumantes; Grupo 2: <20 pacotes*anos; Grupo 3: 2-040 pacotes*anos; Grupo 4: >40 pacotes*anos). Um modelo de regressão de Cox foi utilizado para estimar os riscos relativos para mortalidade de longo prazo. O valor de p <0,05 foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Trezentos e treze pacientes (201 fumantes e 112 não-fumantes) foram acompanhados por um período médio de 174 meses. Os fumantes eram mais novos (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0,001), e a presença de fatores de risco cardiometabólicos foi mais prevalente entre os não-fumantes. Uma análise univariada do impacto do hábito de fumar na mortalidade revelou uma curva de sobrevivência melhor no Grupo 2 do que no Grupo 1. Porém, após ajustes para fatores de confusão, observou-se que os fumantes tinham um risco de morte significativamente maior. O risco relativo tornou-se maior de acordo com a maior exposição (Grupo 2 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 1,141; IC95%: 0,599 a 2.171; Grupo 3 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,130; IC95%: 1,236 a 3,670; Grupo 4 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,602; IC95%: 1,461 a 4,634). Conclusão O hábito de fumar gradualmente aumenta o risco de mortalidade por todas as causas após STEMI.

Abstract Background The smoking paradox has been a matter of debate for acute myocardial infarction patients for more than two decades. Although there is huge evidence claiming that is no real paradox, publications supporting better outcomes in post-MI smokers are still being released. Objective To explore the effect of smoking on very long-term mortality after ST Elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods This study included STEMI patients who were diagnosed between the years of 2004-2006 at three tertiary centers. Patients were categorized according to tobacco exposure (Group 1: non-smokers; Group 2: <20 package*years users, Group 3: 20-40 package*years users, Group 4: >40 package*years users). A Cox regression model was used to estimate the relative risks for very long-term mortality. P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results There were 313 patients (201 smokers, 112 non-smokers) who were followed-up for a median period of 174 months. Smokers were younger (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0.001), and the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors were more prevalent in non-smokers. A univariate analysis of the impact of the smoking habit on mortality revealed a better survival curve in Group 2 than in Group 1. However, after adjustment for confounders, it was observed that smokers had a significantly increased risk of death. The relative risk became higher with increased exposure (Group 2 vs. Group 1; HR: 1.141; 95% CI: 0.599 to 2.171, Group 3 vs Group 1; HR: 2.130; 95% CI: 1.236 to 3.670, Group 4 vs Group 1; HR: 2.602; 95% CI: 1.461 to 4.634). Conclusion Smoking gradually increases the risk of all-cause mortality after STEMI.

Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Smoking/adverse effects , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-8, 19 May 2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380567


Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The condition remains a management challenge in resource-constrained environments. This study analysed the management and outcomes of patients presenting with AMI at a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal. Methods: A descriptive study that assessed hospital records of all patients diagnosed with AMI over a 2-year period (01 August 2016 to 31 July 2018). Data extracted recorded patient demographics, risk factors, timing of care, therapeutic interventions, follow up with cardiology and mortality of patients. Results: Of the 140 patients who were admitted with AMI, 96 hospital records were analysed. The mean (standard deviation [s.d.]) age of patients was 55.8 (±12.7) years. Smoking (73.5%) and hypertension (63.3%) were the most prevalent risk factors for patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in contrast to dyslipidaemia (70.2%) and hypertension (68.1%) in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Almost 49.5% of patients arrived at hospital more than 6 h after symptom onset. Three (12.5%) patients received thrombolytic therapy within the recommended 30-min time frame. The mean triage-to-needle time was 183 min ­ range (3; 550). Median time to cardiology appointment was 93 days. The in-hospital mortality of 12 deaths considering 140 admissions was 8.6%. Conclusion: In a resource-constrained environment with multiple systemic challenges, in-hospital mortality is comparable to that in private sector conditions in South Africa. This entrenches the role of the family physician. There is need for more coordinated systems of care for AMI between district hospitals and tertiary referral centres.

Ischemic Stroke , Heart Diseases , Hospitals, District , Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Patient Reported Outcome Measures