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Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1304-1308, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010944


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the value of T2 mapping in the assessment of myocardial changes and prognosis in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted. A total of 30 patients with acute STEMI admitted to Tianjin First Central Hospital from January 2021 to March 2022 were enrolled as the experimental group. At the same time, 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers and outpatients with non-specific chest pain with no abnormalities in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) examination were selected as the control group. CMR was performed within 2 weeks after the diagnosis of STEMI, as the initial reference. A plain CMR review was performed 6 months later (chronic myocardial infarction, CMI). Plain scanning includes film sequence (CINE), T2 weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR), native-T1 mapping, and T2 mapping. Enhanced scanning includes first-pass perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and post-contrast T1 mapping. Quantitative myocardial parameters were compared between the two groups, before and after STEMI myocardial infarction. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of native-T1 before myocardial contrast enhancement and T2 values in differentiating STEMI and CMI after 6 months.@*RESULTS@#There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, heart rate and body mass index (BMI) between the two groups, which were comparable. The native-T1 value, T2 value and extracellular volume (ECV) were significantly higher than those in the control group [native-T1 value (ms): 1 434.5±165.3 vs. 1 237.0±102.5, T2 value (ms): 48.3±15.6 vs. 21.8±13.1, ECV: (39.6±13.8)% vs. (22.8±5.0)%, all P < 0.05]. In the experimental group, 12 patients were re-examined by plain CMR scan 6 months later. After 6 months, the high signal intensity on T2-STIR was still visible, but the range was smaller than that in the acute phase, and the native-T1 and T2 values were significantly lower than those in the acute phase [native-T1 value (ms): 1 271.0±26.9 vs. 1 434.5±165.3, T2 value (ms): 34.2±11.2 vs. 48.3±15.6, both P < 0.05]. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of native-T1 and T2 values in differentiating acute STEMI from CMI was 0.71 and 0.80, respectively. When native-T1 cut-off value was 1 316.0 ms, the specificity was 100% and the sensitivity was 53.3%; when T2 cut-off value was 46.7 ms, the specificity was 100% and the sensitivity was 73.8%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The T2 mapping is a non-invasive method for the diagnosis of myocardial changes in patients with acute STEMI myocardial infarction, and can be used to to evaluate the clinical prognosis of patients.

Humans , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Contrast Media , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Gadolinium , Myocardium/pathology , Myocardial Infarction , Predictive Value of Tests
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 113-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356305


Abstract ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Reperfusion therapy is strongly associated with the prognosis of STEMI and must be performed with a high standard of quality and without delay. A systematic review of different reperfusion strategies for STEMI was conducted, including randomized controlled trials that included major cardiovascular events (MACE), and systematic reviews in the last 5 years through the PRISMA ( Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology. The research was done in the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, in addition to a few manual searches. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 90 articles were selected for this review. Despite the reestablishment of IRA patency in PCI for STEMI, microvascular lesions occur in a significant proportion of these patients, which can compromise ventricular function and clinical course. Several therapeutic strategies - intracoronary administration of nicorandil, nitrates, melatonin, antioxidant drugs (quercetin, glutathione), anti-inflammatory substances (tocilizumab [an inhibitor of interleukin 6], inclacumab, P-selectin inhibitor), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), erythropoietin and ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and stem cell therapy - have been tested to reduce reperfusion injury, ventricular remodeling and serious cardiovascular events, with heterogeneous results: These therapies need confirmation in larger studies to be implemented in clinical practice

Prognosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion Injury , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Health Strategies , Thrombectomy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Electrocardiography/methods , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Ischemic Postconditioning , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Myocardial Revascularization
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(4)dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408583


Introducción: El síndrome de Wellens constituye un equivalente del síndrome coronario agudo con elevación del segmento ST. Este incluye dos patrones electrocardiográficos que sugieren lesión crítica de la arteria descendente anterior. Objetivo: Evaluar probables factores asociados al síndrome de Wellens en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST y lesiones coronarias significativas en la arteria descendente anterior. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del ST y lesión significativa en la arteria descendente anterior, comprobada mediante coronariografía, ingresados en la unidad de cuidados coronarios intensivos del Hospital Clínico-Quirúrgico Manuel Fajardo entre el 2016 y 2019. Resultados: La edad media fue de 66 años, predominó el sexo masculino (53,9 por ciento) y el antecedente de hipertensión arterial (89,5 por ciento). Los pacientes con síndrome de Wellens tuvieron un significativo menor porcentaje de antecedente de cardiopatía isquémica (58,1 por ciento vs. 84,8 por ciento; p = 0,012). Además, el síndrome arrojó asociación estadísticamente muy significativa con la condición de fumador activo (51,2 por ciento vs. 15,2 por ciento; p < 0,01). No se encontró relación estadística significativa entre el síndrome de Wellens y el resultado angiográfico. Conclusiones: La presencia de los patrones electrocardiográficos del síndrome de Wellens se asocia con el hábito tabáquico en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del segmento ST y lesiones coronarias en la arteria descendente anterior, y su ausencia se asocia con el antecedente de cardiopatía isquémica en el mismo subgrupo de individuos(AU)

Introduction: Wellens' syndrome is equivalent to acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation. It includes two electrocardiographic patterns suggesting a critical lesion in the anterior descending artery. Objective: Evaluate probable factors associated to Wellens' syndrome in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and significant coronary lesions in the anterior descending artery. Methods: A cross-sectional observational analytical study was conducted of patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and significant lesion in the anterior descending artery verified by coronary arteriography, admitted to the intensive coronary care unit at Manuel Fajardo Clinical Surgical Hospital in the period 2016-2019. Results: Mean age was 66 years, with a predominance of the male sex (53.9 percent) and a history of hypertension (89.5 percent). Patients with Wellens' syndrome had a significantly lower percentage of ischemic heart disease antecedents (58.1 percent vs. 84.8 percent; p = 0.012). A very significant statistical association was observed between the syndrome and active smoking (51.2 percent vs. 15.2 percent; p < 0.01). A significant statistical relationship was not found between Wellens' syndrome and angiographic results. Conclusions: The presence of electrocardiographic patterns of Wellens' syndrome is associated to smoking in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and coronary lesions in the anterior descending artery, whereas their absence is associated to a history of ischemic heart disease in the same subgroup of individuals(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Arteries/injuries , Myocardial Ischemia , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Care Units , Observational Study , Tobacco Smoking , Hypertension
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(1): 107-111, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154527


Abstract Left bundle branch block and hypertensive emergency are very common conditions in clinical cardiovascular and emergency practice. Hypertensive emergency encompasses a spectrum of clinical presentations in which uncontrolled blood pressure leads to progressive end-organ dysfunction. Suspected acute myocardial infarction in the setting of a left bundle branch block presents a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. The diagnosis is especially difficult due to electrocardiographic changes caused by altered ventricular depolarization. However, reports on the use of the Sgarbossa's criteria during the management of hypertensive emergency are rare. My current case is a hypertensive emergency patient with acute chest pain and left bundle branch block. Sgarbossa's criteria were initially very weak and, over time, became highly suggestive of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Interestingly, chest pain increased as the Sgarbossa's diagnostic criteria were met. Here, we present a case of developing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with left bundle branch block that is indicating for thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolytic therapy was strongly indicated because of a higher developing of Sgarbossa criteria scoring. Thus, the higher Sgarbossa criteria scoring in the case was the only indication for thrombolytic. Therefore, how did Sgarbossa criteria developing during the course of the case to indicating the need for thrombolytic therapy?

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bundle-Branch Block/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Streptokinase/therapeutic use , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Coronary Occlusion/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(1): 1-11, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156704


RESUMEN Introducción: La cardiopatía isquémica, a pesar de que la mortalidad ha disminuido en casi todas las regiones del mundo, continúa siendo un problema de salud. Objetivo: Identificar los factores pronósticos de mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Método: Se realizó un estudio analítico, de casos y controles, de 347 pacientes diagnosticados con infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST tipo I, desde enero de 2018 a diciembre de 2019 en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Docente "Celia Sánchez Manduley", de Manzanillo, Granma. El grupo de estudio lo integraron 46 fallecidos y por cada paciente de este grupo se escogieron, aleatoriamente, 2 egresados vivos, constituyendo los controles. Se utilizó la prueba de la Chi cuadrado para variables cualitativas y la de la t de Student para las cuantitativas. Para determinar los factores pronósticos de mortalidad se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: Se determinó una media de edad de 73,7 años (DE ±8,0). Prevalecieron los antecedentes de tabaquismo, diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial. Resultaron factores de riesgos de mortalidad el antecedente de insuficiencia cardiaca (OR: 5,4 IC 95 % 1,226-23,97), presentarse con insuficiencia cardiaca mayor que I según Killip-Kimball (OR: 12,6 IC 95 % 3,245-49,30), valores de glucemia mayores de 10 mmol/L (OR: 4,7 IC 95 % 1,149-19,79) y de creatinfosfoquinasa MB mayores de 160 UI (OR: 17,7 IC 95 % 3,992-79,07). Conclusiones: Existen variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y analíticas capaces de predecir mortalidad en pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Despite the fact that the mortality has decreased in almost all regions of the world, ischemic heart disease continues to be a health problem. Objective: To identify prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Method: An analytical study of cases and controls was carried out, out of 347 patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation type I, from January 2018 to December 2019 at the Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Docente "Celia Sánchez Manduley" in Manzanillo, Granma. The study group was made up of 46 deceased, and for each deceased patient in this group, 2 living discharged patients were randomly chosen, constituting the control group. The Chi-square test was used for qualitative variables and the Student's T-test for quantitative variables. To determine the prognostic factors of mortality, a logistic regression model was used. Results: A mean age of 73.7 years (SD ± 8.0) was determined. History of smoking, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension prevailed. The mortality risk factors were: history of heart failure (OR: 5.4 95% CI 1,226-23.97); heart failure higher than I according to Killip-Kimball (OR: 12.6 95% CI 3,245-49 , 30); blood glucose values higher than 10 mmol / L (OR: 4.7 95% CI 1.149-19.79) and creatine phosphokinase MB higher than 160 IU (OR: 17.7 95% CI 3.992-79.07). Conclusions: There are epidemiological, clinical and analytical variables capable of predicting mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

RESUMO Introdução: A doença isquêmica do coração, apesar de a mortalidade ter diminuído em quase todas as regiões do mundo, continua sendo um problema de saúde. Objetivo: Identificar fatores prognósticos para mortalidade intra-hospitalar em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST. Método: Foi realizado um estudo analítico, de casos e controles, de 347 pacientes com diagnóstico de infarto agudo do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST tipo I, de janeiro de 2018 a dezembro de 2019, no Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Docente "Celia Sánchez Manduley", Manzanillo, Granma. O grupo de estudo foi composto por 46 falecidos e para cada paciente deste grupo foram escolhidos aleatoriamente 2 que receberam alta vivos, constituindo os controles. O teste Qui-quadrado foi usado para variáveis qualitativas e o teste t de Student para variáveis quantitativas. Para determinar os fatores prognósticos de mortalidade, foi utilizado um modelo de regressão logística. Resultados: Foi determinada uma média de idade de 73,7 anos (DP ± 8,0). Prevaleceu história de tabagismo, diabetes mellitus e hipertensão arterial. Fatores de risco de mortalidade foram história de insuficiência cardíaca (OR: 5,4 IC 95% 1,226-23,97), apresentando-se com insuficiência cardíaca maior que I de acordo com Killip-Kimball (OR: 12,6 IC 95% 3,245-49,30), valores de glicose no sangue maior que 10 mmol/L (OR: 4,7 95% CI 1,149-19,79) e creatina fosfoquinase MB maior que 160 UI (OR: 17,7 95% CI 3,992-79,07). Conclusões: Existem variáveis epidemiológicas, clínicas e analíticas capazes de predizer mortalidade em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio.

Humans , Prognosis , Hospital Mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 421-425, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880676


The de Winter electrocardiogram pattern is an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction equivalent, however this specific electrocardiogram change is easily ignored by clinicians. The de Winter electrocardiogram pattern in patients with acute chest pain mostly indicates sub-complete or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending or the diagonal branch. Patients with acute chest pain and such electrocardiographic finding should undergo emergency coronary angiography immediately to determine the coronary condition, and reperfusion therapy should be performed as soon as possible to reduce the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events.

Humans , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Cognition , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 569-579, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249969


Resumen Introducción: México tiene la mortalidad más alta a 30 días por infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), el cual constituye una de las principales causas de mortalidad en el país: 28 % versus 7.5 % del promedio de los países de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. Objetivo: Establecer las rutas críticas y las estrategias farmacológicas esenciales interinstitucionales para la atención de los pacientes con IAM en México, independientemente de su condición socioeconómica. Método: Se reunió a un grupo de expertos en diagnóstico y tratamiento de IAM, representantes de las principales instituciones públicas de salud de México, así como las sociedades cardiológicas mexicanas, Cruz Roja Mexicana y representantes de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología, con la finalidad de optimizar las estrategias con base en la mejor evidencia existente. Resultados: Se diseñó una guía de práctica clínica interinstitucional para el diagnóstico temprano y tratamiento oportuno del IAM con elevación del segmento ST, siguiendo el horizonte clínico de la enfermedad, con la propuesta de algoritmos que mejoren el pronóstico de los pacientes que acuden por IAM a los servicios de urgencias. Conclusión: Con la presente guía práctica, el grupo de expertos propone universalizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento en el IAM, independientemente de la condición socioeconómica del paciente.

Abstract Introduction: Mexico has the highest 30-day acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality rate: 28% versus 7.5% on average for the OECD countries, and it constitutes one of the main causes of mortality in the country. Objective: To establish critical pathways and essential interinstitutional pharmacological strategies for the care of patients with AMI in Mexico, regardless of their socioeconomic status. Method: A group of experts in AMI diagnosis and treatment, representatives of the main public health institutions in Mexico, as well as the Mexican cardiology societies, the Mexican Red Cross and representatives of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, were brought together in order to optimize strategies based on the best existing evidence. Results: An interinstitutional clinical practice guideline was designed for early diagnosis and timely treatment of AMI with ST elevation, following the clinical horizon of the disease, with the proposal of algorithms that improve the prognosis of patients who attend the emergency services due to an AMI. Conclusion: With these clinical practice guidelines, the group of experts proposes to universalize AMI diagnosis and treatment, regardless of patient socioeconomic status.

Humans , Consensus , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Societies, Medical , Spain , Biomarkers/blood , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Cause of Death , Electrocardiography , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Cardiac Rehabilitation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mexico
Rev. méd. Maule ; 35(1): 52-57, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366683


INTRODUCTION: Acute Myocardial Infarction is a medical emergency, being his early and adequate treatment highly effective mainly in relation to reperfusion therapy. Unfortunately, COVID ­ 19 pandemic, has brought changes in its management due to availability of conditioned hemodynamic rooms, infection risk of the professionals, patient conditions and availability of critical unit beds. A review of the topic was made aimed to give a guide for the management of these patients with the available tools. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A review of the topic was made using the Medline/ Pubmed platform, in English and Spanish. Further, published articles in journals as The journal of the American college of cardiology and Circulation were included. CONCLUSIONS: The reperfusion strategies must be used according to the clinical context of the patient. In the acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation, fibrinolytic treatment may be chosen in low risk and without hemodynamic instability. In patients with hemodynamic instability, not eligible for fibrinolytic treatment or in whom this therapy fails, percutaneous angioplasty is indicated considering the protection of personnel. In the case of acute myocardial infarction without ST elevation, the treatment by urgent percutaneous angioplasty is considered in cases of hemodynamic instability or malignant arrhythmias.

Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Infection Control/methods , Risk Assessment , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Contraindications, Drug , Tenecteplase/administration & dosage
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 372-378, sep.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249934


Resumen Introducción: México es el país con mayor mortalidad por infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAM CEST), por lo que el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social desarrolló el protocolo de atención para los servicios de urgencias denominado Código Infarto. En este artículo se discuten aspectos de la medicina traslacional con una perspectiva bioética e integral. Objetivo: Analizar el protocolo Código Infarto desde la perspectiva de la bioética traslacional. Método: Se realizó una aproximación centrada en el problema a través del equilibrio reflexivo, así como la aplicación del método integral para el discernimiento ético. Resultados: El protocolo de atención para los servicios de urgencias Código Infarto se rige por la medicina basada en la evidencia y la medicina basada en valores; se orienta por el principio de integridad que considera las seis dimensiones de la calidad para la atención de pacientes con IAM CEST. Conclusión: El protocolo supera algunos determinantes sociales adversos que afectan la atención médica del IAM CEST, disminuye la mortalidad, la carga económica global de la enfermedad y desarrolla una medicina de excelencia de alto alcance social.

Abstract Introduction: Mexico is the country with the highest mortality due to ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), and the IMSS has therefore developed the protocol of care for emergency departments called Código Infarto (Infarction Code). In this article, aspects of translational medicine are discussed with a bioethical and comprehensive perspective. Objective: To analyze the Código Infarto protocol from the perspective of translational bioethics. Method: A problem-centered approach was carried out through reflective equilibrium (or Rawls' method), as well as by applying the integral method for ethical discernment. Results: The protocol of care for emergency services Código Infarto is governed by evidence-based medicine and value-based medicine; it is guided by a principle of integrity that considers six dimensions of quality for the care of patients with STEMI. Conclusion: The protocol overcomes some adverse social determinants that affect STEMI medical care, reduces mortality and global economic disease burden, and develops medicine of excellence with high social reach.

Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion/ethics , Clinical Protocols , Bioethical Issues , Emergency Service, Hospital/ethics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stakeholder Participation , Mexico
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(4): 310-320, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139191


RESUMEN Introducción: En el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja" de Baracoa, Guantánamo, hasta la fecha, no se ha caracterizado la morbilidad y mortalidad por infarto agudo del miocardio. Objetivo: Caracterizar la morbilidad y mortalidad por infarto agudo del miocardio en el citado hospital durante el trienio 2017-2019. Método: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y de corte transversaldel total de pacientes infartados en el trienio 2017-2019 (n=75). Se estudió la edad, sexo, características del infarto (semiología del dolor, localización, clasificación pronóstica-clínica, complicaciones, estado al egreso y causas de muerte). Resultados: El 72,0 % de los pacientes fueron hombres y el 37,3 % tenía 50 y 59 años de edad. La letalidad representó el 14,7 %. Fue más común el infarto anterior del ventrículo izquierdo (53,4 %). El 28,0 % presentó una clase IV, según criterios de Killip-Kimball y de Forrester. El 49,3 % mostró alto riesgo según la escala GRACE. El 88,0 % tuvo complicaciones, la más común del tipo mecánica (60,0 %). La encefalopatía isquémica-hipóxica posparada cardiorrespiratoria secundaria a fibrilación ventricular (54,5 %) fue la causa directa de muerte más frecuente. Conclusiones: Se elabora un referente que describe el infarto agudo del miocardio en el contexto territorial.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbidity and mortality by myocardial infarction has not been characterized so far in the General Teaching Hospital "Dr. Octavio de la Concepcion y la Pedraja" in Baracoa, Guantanamo. Objective: Tocharacterize the morbidity and mortality by myocardial infarction on the institution in the triennium 2017-2019. Method: A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the patients diagnosed with infarction in the triennium 2017-2019 (n=75). Were taken into account the following variables: age, gender, clinical characteristics of infarction (painful symptoms, location, prognostic and clinical classification, complications, status of the patient at the time of discharge and cause of death). Results: 72.0 % of the patients were male, and the 37.3 % had an age ranging from 50 to 59 years old. Lethality represented a 14.7 %. The anterior left ventricle wall infarction was the most common (53.4 %). 28.0 % presented a class IV type, according to the Killip-Kimball and the Forrester classifications. 49.3 % presented high risks according to the GRACE score. 88.0 % had complications, the most common of them being the mechanical type (60.0 %). The most common cause of death was the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy caused by secondary atrial fibrillation (54.5 %). Conclusions: A reference to describe the myocardial infarction in the province was elaborated.

Humans , Morbidity , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/classification , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 35-44, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055080


Abstract Background: A significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality related to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been achieved with the development of reperfusion therapies. Early diagnosis and correct initial management are important to ensure this benefit. In Brazil, recent graduates in medicine are responsible for a large part of the initial care provided for these patients. Objective: To assess the clinical competence in the diagnosis and initial treatment of STEMI by newly graduated physicians applying for a medical residency program. Methods: We assessed the performance of 771 applicants for the direct entry selection process of the FMRP-USP Clinical Hospital Medicine Residency Program, performed in a simulated setting of STEMI, with professional actors and medical evaluators, using a standardized checklist following the recommendations of the Brazilian Guidelines for the management of this disease. Results: The general performance score presented a median of 7 and an interquartile range of 5.5-8.0. In relation to the items assessed: 83% required ECG monitoring, 57% requested the insertion of a peripheral venous access catheter, 95% administered acetylsalicylic acid, 80% administered a second antiplatelet agent (p2y12 inhibitor), 66% administered nitrate, 71% administered morphine, 69% recognized the diagnosis of STEMI, 71% assessed the pain duration, 63% recognized the need for immediate transfer, 34% showed adequate communication skills and only 25% insisted on the transfer even in case of non-availability of beds. Conclusions: The initial diagnosis and management of STEMI need to be improved in medical undergraduate courses and inserted into the reality of the hierarchical network structure of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS).

Resumo Fundamento: Houve importante redução da morbimortalidade do infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST) com o desenvolvimento das terapias de reperfusão. Para garantir este benefício é importante o diagnóstico precoce e manejo inicial correto. No Brasil, recém-formados do curso de medicina são responsáveis por grande parte dos atendimentos iniciais a estes pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a competência clínica no reconhecimento e manejo inicial do IAMCSST por médico recém-formado candidato à residência médica. Métodos: Realizada análise do desempenho de 771 candidatos do concurso de acesso direto para residência médica do Hospital das Clínicas da FMRP-USP em estação prática de simulação de atendimento de paciente com IAMCSST com atores profissionais e avaliadores médicos com uma lista de checagem padronizada de acordo com recomendações da diretriz brasileira para manejo desta patologia. Resultados: O escore de desempenho geral apresentou mediana de 7 e intervalo interquartil de 5,5-8,0. Em relação aos itens avaliados: 83% solicitou monitorização eletrocardiográfica, 57% solicitou inserção de um acesso venoso periférico, 95% administrou ácido acetilsalicílico, 80% administrou segundo antiagregante (inibidor do P2Y12), 66% administrou nitrato, 71% administrou morfina, 69% reconheceu o diagnóstico de IAMCSST, 71% avaliou o tempo de duração da dor, 63% reconheceu a necessidade de transferência imediata, 34% apresentou habilidade de comunicação adequada e somente 25% insistiu na transferência mesmo na ausência de vaga. Conclusões: O reconhecimento e gerenciamento inicial do IAMCSST precisa ser aprimorado na graduação médica e inserido dentro da realidade da estrutura de rede hierarquizada do sistema de saúde público brasileiro.

Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Checklist , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(1): 38-40, jan.-mar. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026183


A pericardite é um processo inflamatório do pericárdio de múltiplas causas, sendo a infecção viral a mais comum. O infarto agudo do miocárdio é um dos principais diagnósticos diferenciais. O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar um caso de pericardite aguda com supradesnivelamento de segmento ST. Os dados foram coletados em um hospital de ensino do Estado de Minas Gerais. O paciente era do sexo masculino, tinha 24 anos e era negro. Foi encaminhado ao serviço médico terciário devido à hipótese de síndrome coronariana aguda com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST. Nos exames do serviço médico de origem, apresentava supradesnivelamento do segmento ST de caráter difuso simultaneamente em paredes inferior e anterior, e alteração da isoenzima MB da creatina quinase de 100ng/mL e troponina I de 21ng/mL. No momento da admissão, encontrava-se em bom estado geral, afebril, estável hemodinamicamente e sem queixa de dor. Referiu que 4 dias antes da admissão, apresentou febre, mal-estar geral, odinofagia e tratamento de amigdalite. Os exames da admissão demonstravam ritmo sinusal, frequência cardíaca de 75bpm, supradesnivelamento de ST em D2, D3, aVF, V1 a V6, isoenzima MB da creatina quinase de 152ng/mL, troponina I de 1,28ng/mL, hemograma normal; ecocardiograma mostrou pericárdio de aspecto anatômico normal e fração de ejeção de 64%. O diagnóstico foi de pericardite aguda de provável etiologia infecciosa. O tratamento foi realizado com ibuprofeno por 7 dias e colchicina por 3 meses. Paciente evoluiu com alta hospitalar após 5 dias. O diagnóstico correto proporcionou a condução adequada do caso, permitindo a redução dos custos hospitalares e eliminando riscos de procedimentos desnecessários. (AU)

Pericarditis is an inflammatory process of the pericardium of multiple causes, being the most common viral infection. Acute myocardial infarction is one of the main differential diagnoses. The objective of this article was to report a case of acute pericarditis with ST-segment elevation. Data were collected at a teaching hospital in the state of Minas Gerais. The patient was a man of 24 years, black. He was referred to the tertiary medical service due to the hypothesis of Acute Coronary Syndrome with ST-segment elevation. In the tests from the medical service of origin, there was diffuse ST-segment elevation, simultaneously on lower and anterior walls, and a change in the Creatinine Kinase MB Isoenzyme of 100ng/ml, and troponin I of 21ng/ml. At the time of admission, he was in good general condition, afebrile, hemodynamically stable, with no complaint of pain. He said that 4 days before admission he had fever, malaise, odynophagia, and treatment for tonsillitis. The admission tests showed sinus rhythm, heart rate of 75bpm, ST-elevation in D2, D3, aVF, V1 to V6, MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase of 152ng/ml, troponin I of 1.28ng/ml, normal complete blood count; echocardiogram showed pericardium of normal anatomical aspect and ejection fraction of 64%. The diagnosis was acute pericarditis of probable infectious etiology. Treatment was performed with ibuprofen for seven days, and colchicine for three months. The patient was discharged from hospital after 5 days. The correct diagnosis provided adequate case management, allowing for reduced hospital costs, and eliminating risks of unnecessary procedures. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Pericarditis/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Penicillin G Benzathine/therapeutic use , Pericarditis/drug therapy , Pericarditis/diagnostic imaging , Troponin/blood , Chest Pain , Echocardiography , Deglutition Disorders , Tonsillitis/diagnosis , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Fever , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(1): 25-30, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038473


Resumen La presencia de un bloqueo de rama izquierda del haz de His nuevo o presumiblemente nuevo junto con síntomas isquémicos se ha considerado tradicionalmente un equivalente electrocardiográfico de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST, el cual debe ser llevado a reperfusión emergente. Para su definición se han propuesto varios criterios, pero ninguno ha alcanzado un rendimiento diagnóstico óptimo. A continuación detallaremos dichos criterios, sus principales problemas y las ventajas que han demostrado.

Abstract A new or presumably new left bundle branch block along with ischemic symptoms has traditionally been considered an electrocardiographic equivalent of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, which should be brought to emergent reperfusion. However, several criteria have been proposed for its definition, but none has reached out an optimal diagnostic yield. Below we detail these criteria, their main problems and the advantages they have shown.

Humans , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 45(4): 1-11, set.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960565


Introducción: la cardiopatía isquémica constituye la primera causa de muerte en Cuba. Existen diferencias entre sexos en cuanto a los distintos factores de riesgo, las formas de presentación y la respuesta al tratamiento. Objetivo: describir las diferencias entre hombres y mujeres con síndrome coronario agudo con elevación del segmento ST tratados con intervención coronaria percutánea. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y transversal a 395 pacientes tratados con intervención coronaria percutánea en el Hospital Militar Central Dr. Carlos Juan Finlay, de Cuba, con diagnóstico de síndrome coronario agudo con elevación del segmento ST, en el período comprendido entre octubre del 2006 y marzo del 2015. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino (68,1 por ciento), la edad media de las mujeres fue 63,30 ± 22,50 vs 59,35 ± 32 años la de los hombres. Predominaron todos los factores de riesgo en el sexo masculino, excepto accidente vascular encefálico previo. La enfermedad de un vaso fue superior en hombres (58,7 por ciento), pero sin significación estadística (p=0,0544), siendo la arteria descendente anterior la más afectada en ambos géneros (54,4 por ciento). La tasa de éxito en la angioplastia percutánea fue superior al 90 por ciento en ambos sexos. Conclusiones: con respecto al sexo, existen diferencias en cuanto a la edad y principales factores de riesgo coronario, no así en relación al número de vasos enfermos y al resultado del proceder intervencionista(AU)

Introduction: ischemic cardiopathy constitutes the first fatal cause in Cuba. There are differences among sexes as to the factors of risk, the forms of presentation and the answer to the treatment. Objective: to study the differences between men and women with acute coronary syndrome with elevation of the segment ST treated with coronary intervention at the Military Central Hospital Dr. Carlos Juan Finlay. Methods: it is a retrospective, descriptive and transversal study, of 395 patients, treated with percutaneous coronary intervention at the Military Central Hospital Dr. Carlos Juan Finlay, of Cuba, with diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome with elevation of the segment ST in the period between Octoberof 2006 and March of 2015. Results: the male sex predominated (68.1 percent), the women's medium age was 63.30 ± 22.50 years vs. 59.35 ± 32 years the men`s medium age. All factors of risk predominated in the male sex except previous vascular encephalic accident. The one coronary artery disease was superior in men (58.7 percent), but without signification (p< 0.0544).The descending anterior artery was the more affected in both sexes (54.4 percent). The successful rate in the percutaneous intervention was superior to the 90 percent in both sexes. Conclusions: there are differences regarding the age and principal factors of coronary risk, but it doesn`t exist in relation to the number of arteries disease and to the results of the coronary intervention(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Factors , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 45(3): 332-343, jul.-set. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960547


Introducción: el infarto con elevación del segmento ST es uno de los diagnósticos más frecuentes de los ingresos en unidades de cuidados intensivos en cualquier institución de salud cubana. Objetivo: analizar los principales factores de riesgo relacionados con el infarto agudo del miocardio y sus complicaciones intrahospitalarias, así como los predictores de estas complicaciones. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo desde 2013 hasta 2016 que incluyó a 272 pacientes consecutivos que ingresaron en la Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios Intensivos del Hospital Militar Central Dr. Carlos J. Finlay con el diagnóstico de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Resultados: La edad media fue de 63,4 ± 11,7 años, predominó el sexo masculino (61,8 por ciento). Los principales factores de riesgo: hipertensión arterial y tabaquismo (66,5 por ciento en ambos casos). Del total de pacientes, 109 sufrieron complicaciones intrahospitalarias, la angina postinfarto fue la más frecuente (34,9 por ciento). El shock cardiogénico y las complicaciones mecánicas se asociaron significativamente con la mortalidad intrahospitalaria (p = 0,007 y p < 0,001, respectivamente). La edad ≥ 60 años, la clase funcional Killip-Kimball ≥ II y la no realización de intervención coronaria percutánea constituyeron factores pronósticos de eventos adversos durante el ingreso. Conclusiones: las complicaciones intrahospitalarias del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST no son frecuentes. Existen factores pronóstico de complicaciones como la edad avanzada, clase funcional Killip-Kimball ≥ II y la no realización del intervención coronaria percutánea(AU)

Introduction: ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent diagnoses of admission in intensive care units at any health institution in our country. Objective: Analyze the principal risk factors related with the acute myocardial infarction and its complications in the admission, as well as these complications predictors. Method: A descriptive, prospective study was conducted in 272 consecutive patients who were admitted in Coronary Intensive Care Unit of Dr. Carlos J. Finlay Central Military Hospital. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was their diagnosis. They period studied was from September 2013 to August 2016. Results: The patients` median age was 63.4 ± 11.7 years, and 168 (61.8 percent were male. The main risk factors were hypertension and smoking (66.5 percent in both cases). One hundred nine (109) patients suffered complications in hospital; the post-infarct angina was the most frequent (34.9 percent). The association among cardiogenic shock and mechanical complications with mortality was significant (p< 0.007 and p< 0.001, respectively). Independent associations were found between age ? 60 years, the Killip-Kimball functional classification ? II, non-performing percutaneous coronary intervention were prognostic factors for adverse events during admission. Conclusions: The complications of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction during hospital admittance are not frequent. There are prognosis factors of complications like advanced age, functional Killip-Kimball classification ? II and non-performing percutaneous coronary intervention(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Shock, Cardiogenic/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies