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1.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 826-836, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007856

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the long-term prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with different reperfusion strategies in Chinese county-level hospitals.@*METHODS@#A total of 2,514 patients with STEMI from 32 hospitals participated in the China Acute Myocardial Infarction registry between January 2013 and September 2014. The success of fibrinolysis was assessed according to indirect measures of vascular recanalization. The primary outcome was 2-year mortality.@*RESULTS@#Reperfusion therapy was used in 1,080 patients (42.9%): fibrinolysis ( n= 664, 61.5%) and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ( n= 416, 38.5%). The most common reason for missing reperfusion therapy was a prehospital delay > 12 h (43%). Fibrinolysis [14.5%, hazard ratio ( HR): 0.59, 95% confidence interval ( CI) 0.44-0.80] and primary PCI (6.8%, HR= 0.32, 95% CI: 0.22-0.48) were associated with lower 2-year mortality than those with no reperfusion (28.5%). Among fibrinolysis-treated patients, 510 (76.8%) achieved successful clinical reperfusion; only 17.0% of those with failed fibrinolysis underwent rescue PCI. There was no difference in 2-year mortality between successful fibrinolysis and primary PCI (8.8% vs. 6.8%, HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.85-2.73). Failed fibrinolysis predicted a similar mortality (33.1%) to no reperfusion (33.1% vs. 28.5%, HR= 1.30, 95% CI: 0.93-1.81).@*CONCLUSION@#In Chinese county-level hospitals, only approximately 2/5 of patients with STEMI underwent reperfusion therapy, largely due to prehospital delay. Approximately 30% of patients with failed fibrinolysis and no reperfusion therapy did not survive at 2 years. Quality improvement initiativesare warranted, especially in public health education and fast referral for mechanical revascularization in cases of failed fibrinolysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , East Asian People , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Reperfusion , Myocardial Infarction , Registries , Hospitals
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 1059-1065, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ventricular remodeling after acute anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (AAMI) is an important factor in occurrence of heart failure which additionally results in poor prognosis. Therefore, the treatment of ventricular remodeling needs to be further optimized. Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP), a traditional Chinese medicine, exerts a protective effect on microcirculatory disturbance caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.@*OBJECTIVE@#This study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDDP in improving ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after AAMI on a larger scale.@*METHODS@#This study is a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. The total of 268 patients with AAMI after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) will be randomly assigned 1:1 to the CDDP group (n=134) and control group (n=134) with a follow-up of 48 weeks. Both groups will be treated with standard therapy of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with the CDDP group administrating 20 tablets of CDDP before pPCI and 10 tablets 3 times daily after pPCI, and the control group treated with a placebo simultaneously. The primary endpoint is 48-week echocardiographic outcomes including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), and left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI). The secondary endpoint includes the change in N terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level, arrhythmias, and cardiovascular events (death, cardiac arrest, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, rehospitalization due to heart failure or angina pectoris, deterioration of cardiac function, and stroke). Investigators and patients are both blinded to the allocated treatment.@*DISCUSSION@#This prospective study will investigate the efficacy and safety of CDDP in improving ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in patients undergoing pPCI for a first AAMI. Patients in the CDDP group will be compared with those in the control group. If certified to be effective, CDDP treatment in AAMI will probably be advised on a larger scale. (Trial registration No. NCT05000411).


Subject(s)
Humans , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Remodeling , Prospective Studies , Microcirculation , Ventricular Function, Left , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
3.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 26(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405617

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La estrategia trombolítica no solo mejora la esperanza de supervivencia del infarto, sino que también reduce la mortalidad general a un mes en los pacientes que reciben este tratamiento. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST tratados con estreptoquinasa recombinante en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Docente «Celia Sánchez Manduley». Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y retrospectivo en 94 pacientes que recibieron tratamiento trombolítico desde diciembre de 2018 a noviembre de 2020. Las variables utilizadas fueron: edad, sexo, comorbilidades, tiempo de ventana terapéutica, causas de suspensión temporal, complicaciones, topografía, criterios de reperfusión clínico, eléctrico y enzimático y mortalidad. Se calculó la frecuencia absoluta y relativa, y la media aritmética con desviación estándar. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino y el grupo de edad entre 61 - 70 años. Prevalecieron los pacientes con antecedentes de hipertensión y diabetes. La hipotensión arterial fue la causa de suspensión más frecuente. El 69,1 % fueron trombolizados pasadas las 6 horas. Solo 27 pacientes sufrieron complicaciones, de las cuales, el bloqueo auriculoventricular y Killip - Kimball II fueron las más vistas. Por otra parte, 9 pacientes no presentaron criterios de reperfusión, y solo el 7,4 % fallecieron. Conclusiones: La trombolisis se realiza en una minoría de los pacientes aun en período de ventana terapéutica. La hipotensión fue la causa más frecuente de suspensión temporal de la trombolisis, y la letalidad fue inferior a la letalidad general por infarto agudo de miocardio.


ABSTRACT Introduction: thrombolytic strategy not only improves survival expectancy after infarction, but also reduces overall one-month mortality in patients receiving this treatment. Objective: to characterize patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction treated with recombinant streptokinase at "Celia Sánchez Manduley" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital. Methods: a descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted in 94 patients who received thrombolytic treatment from December 2018 to November 2020. Age, gender, comorbidities, time-related therapeutic window, causes of temporary suspension, complications, topography, clinical, electrical and enzymatic reperfusion criteria as well as mortality were the variables used in this study. Absolute and relative frequency and arithmetic mean with standard deviation were calculated. Results: male gender and group aged 61-70 years predominated. Patients with a history of hypertension and diabetes predominated. Arterial hypotension was the most frequent cause of thrombolysis discontinuation. The 69.1 % were thrombolyzed after 6 hours. Only 27 patients suffered complications; atrioventricular block and Killip-Kimball II were the most frequently seen complications. On the other hand, 9 patients did not show reperfusion criteria and only 7.4 % died. Conclusions: thrombolysis is performed in a minority of patients even in the therapeutic window period. Hypotension was the most frequent cause of temporary suspension of thrombolysis, and case fatality was lower than the overall case fatality for acute myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Thrombolytic Therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 556-564, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364349

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Cerca de 40% dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST) no Brasil não recebem terapia de reperfusão. Objetivo A utilização de uma rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® poderia aumentar a porcentagem de pacientes que recebem terapia de reperfusão. Métodos Estudo transversal do tipo antes e depois da organização de uma rede de telemedicina para envio e análise do eletrocardiograma através do WhatsApp® dos pacientes suspeitos de IAMCSST oriundos dos 25 municípios integrantes do Departamento Regional de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII), para hospital terciário que poderia autorizar a transferência imediata do paciente utilizando o mesmo sistema. O desfechos analisados foram a porcentagem de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Considerou-se valor de p <0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Foram comparados 82 pacientes antes desta rede (1º de fevereiro de 2016 a 31 de janeiro de 2018) com 196 pacientes depois da implantação da mesma (1º de fevereiro de 2018 a 31 de janeiro de 2020). Após a implantação da rede, houve aumento significativo da proporção de pacientes que receberam terapia de reperfusão (60% vs. 92%), risco relativo (RR): 1,594 [intervalo de confiança (IC) 95% 1,331 - 1,909], p <0,0001 e redução da mortalidade intra-hospitalar (13,4% vs. 5,6%), RR: 0,418 [IC 95% 0,189 - 0,927], p = 0,028. Conclusão Rede de telemedicina baseada no WhatsApp® associou-se a aumento da porcentagem de pacientes com IAMCSST que receberam terapia de reperfusão e a redução na mortalidade intra-hospitalar.


Abstract Background About 40% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Brazil do not receive reperfusion therapy. Objective The use of a telemedicine network based on WhatsApp® could increase the percentage of patients receiving reperfusion therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study analyzed outcomes before and after the organization of a telemedicine network to send the electrocardiogram via WhatsApp® of patients suspected of STEMI from 25 municipalities that are members of the Regional Health Department of Ribeirão Preto (DRS−XIII) to a tertiary hospital, which could authorize immediate patient transfer using the same system. The analyzed outcomes included the percentage of patients who received reperfusion therapy and the in-hospital mortality rate. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The study compared 82 patients before (February 1, 2016 to January 31, 2018) with 196 patients after this network implementation (February 1, 2018 to January 31, 2020). After implementing this network, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients who received reperfusion therapy (60% vs. 92%), relative risk (RR): 1.594 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.331 - 1.909], p < 0.0001 and decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate (13.4% vs. 5.6%), RR: 0.418 [95%CI 0.189 - 0.927], p = 0.028. Conclusion The use of WhatsApp®-based telemedicine has led to an increase in the percentage of patients with STEMI who received reperfusion therapy and a decrease in the in-hospital mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Telemedicine , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Mortality , Electrocardiography
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 113-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356305

ABSTRACT

Abstract ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Reperfusion therapy is strongly associated with the prognosis of STEMI and must be performed with a high standard of quality and without delay. A systematic review of different reperfusion strategies for STEMI was conducted, including randomized controlled trials that included major cardiovascular events (MACE), and systematic reviews in the last 5 years through the PRISMA ( Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology. The research was done in the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, in addition to a few manual searches. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 90 articles were selected for this review. Despite the reestablishment of IRA patency in PCI for STEMI, microvascular lesions occur in a significant proportion of these patients, which can compromise ventricular function and clinical course. Several therapeutic strategies - intracoronary administration of nicorandil, nitrates, melatonin, antioxidant drugs (quercetin, glutathione), anti-inflammatory substances (tocilizumab [an inhibitor of interleukin 6], inclacumab, P-selectin inhibitor), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), erythropoietin and ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and stem cell therapy - have been tested to reduce reperfusion injury, ventricular remodeling and serious cardiovascular events, with heterogeneous results: These therapies need confirmation in larger studies to be implemented in clinical practice


Subject(s)
Prognosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion Injury , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Health Strategies , Thrombectomy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Electrocardiography/methods , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Ischemic Postconditioning , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Myocardial Revascularization
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(1): 20-28, março 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361697

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar os tempos de tratamento dor-porta e porta-balão em indivíduos com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento ST com os desfechos cardiovasculares em 30 dias. Métodos: Trata-se de uma coorte histórica, realizada por meio da pesquisa de prontuários eletrônicos e dos bancos de dados já existentes dos serviços de hemodinâmica de todos os indivíduos atendidos com diagnóstico de infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento ST e submetidos à angioplastia, no período de março de 2015 a setembro de 2016, em dois hospitais públicos de grande porte de Porto Alegre (RS). Os desfechos foram o óbito intra-hospitalar e em 30 dias e os eventos cardíacos maiores hospitalares e em 30 dias. Resultados: Foram avaliadas as informações de 808 indivíduos, sendo 26,9% provenientes do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre e 73,1% do Instituto de Cardiologia ­ Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia. Não houve diferença significativa na caracterização da amostra. Um terço dos indivíduos analisados apresentou tempo dor- -porta menor ou igual a 180 minutos, e 72% tiveram tempo porta-balão menor que 90 minutos. A mediana do tempo total de isquemia foi de 338 minutos. Na avaliação dos tempos não houve diferença significativa entre os dois hospitais. Para eventos cardíacos maiores e óbitos intra- -hospitalares, o único tempo que se mostrou significativo, após o ajuste multivariado, foi o porta-balão, em que os indivíduos com tempo maior que 90 minutos apresentaram razão de risco de 1,06 (IC95% 1,02-1,11) e 5,78 (IC95% 1,44-23,2), respectivamente, para eventos cardíacos maiores e óbitos intra-hospitalares. Para eventos cardíacos maiores total e óbito total, nenhum dos três tempos se associou significativamente com o desfecho após ajuste. Contudo, o tempo porta-balão maior ou igual a 90 minutos também foi significativo para razão de risco bruto para ambos, assim como a dor-porta para óbito total. Conclusão: Os dados da pesquisa corroboram as recomendações internacionais para cumprimento dos menores tempos de atendimento, em especial do tempo porta-balão, para o bom prognóstico. Infelizmente, no país, o tempo de isquemia miocárdica ainda está muito aquém do ótimo, necessitando de melhorias na área para melhorar os desfechos nesses indivíduos.


Objective: To compare symptom-onset-to-door and door- -to-balloon times in individuals with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to the 30-day cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: This is a historical cohort, using electronic medical records and the existing databases of hemodynamic services of all individuals diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing angioplasty between March 2015 and September 2016, in two large public hospitals in Porto Alegre. The outcomes were in-hospital death and death in 30 days, and major adverse cardiac events in hospital and in 30 days. Results: The information of 808 patients was evaluated, with 26.9% from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and 73.1% from the Instituto de Cardiologia ­ Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia. There was no significant difference in the characterization of the sample. One-third of the individuals evaluated presented symptom-onset-to-door of 180 minutes or less, and 72% had door-to- -balloon time below 90 minutes. The median total ischemic time was 338 minutes. In the evaluation of the times, there was no significant difference between the two hospitals. For more major cardiac events and intra-hospital deaths, the only time that proved to be significant after the multivariate adjustment was the door-to-balloon time, in which individuals with time higher than 90 minutes had a risk ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 1.02-1.11) for major cardiac events and 5.78 (95% CI 1.44-23.2), for intra-hospital deaths. For total major adverse cardiac events and total death, none of the 3 times was significantly associated with the outcome after adjustment; however, door-to-balloon of 90 minutes or more was also significant for crude risk ratio for both, as well as symptom-onset-to-door for total death. Conclusion: The research data corroborate the international recommendations to meet shorter service times, especially door-to-balloon time, for a good prognosis. Unfortunately, in the country, the time of myocardial ischemia is still far from optimal, requiring improvement in the area to improve the outcomes in these individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Angioplasty , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Time Factors , Cohort Studies
9.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(3): e201, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1366972

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las medidas sanitarias de emergencia impuestas para contener el SARS-CoV-2 pueden tener efectos colaterales en la atención de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Los datos mundiales de los países sobre la incidencia de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST) durante la pandemia son fundamentales para la política sanitaria futura. Objetivos: nuestro objetivo fue determinar si las medidas sanitarias de emergencia impuestas en Uruguay tuvieron un impacto directo en la calidad de la atención en la reperfusión del IAMCEST. Métodos: realizamos un estudio retrospectivo poblacional de todo el país para determinar la incidencia de reperfusión de IAMCEST (fibrinolíticos e intervención coronaria percutánea, FBL e ICP respectivamente) durante el período sanitario de emergencia. La tasa de incidencia de la reperfusión, el tiempo hasta la reperfusión y la mortalidad asociada se recopilaron de la base de datos del Fondo Nacional de Recursos (organización gubernamental única a cargo de la financiación de la reperfusión del IAMCEST en Uruguay). Estos mismos datos se recuperaron para 2019, 2018 y 2017. Resultados: se trataron durante el periodo de estudio del 2020 (136 pacientes) en comparación con 2019 (180 pacientes), 2018 (182 pacientes) y 2017 (174 pacientes). Se realizó FBL como tratamiento único en 5,1%, 7,2%, 7,7% y 12,1%, respectivamente. La razón de tasa de incidencia de IAMCEST durante el período estudiado en 2020 fue de 0,7 (IC95%: 0,59-0,91). La mediana del tiempo hasta la reperfusión fue similar en comparación con 2019, 2018 y 2017 (p = 0,4). No hubieron diferencias en la mortalidad a 15 dias entre los años evaluados.


Introduction: the emergency health measures imposed to contain SARS-CoV-2 can have collateral effects in the care of cardiovascular diseases. Global country data on the incidence of ST acute myocardial infarction during the pandemic are critical for future health policy. Objectives: our objective was to determine if the emergency health measures imposed in Uruguay had a direct impact on the quality of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction care. Methods: we carried out a population-based retrospective study of the entire country to determine the incidence of reperfusion of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (fibrinolytic and percutaneous) during the emergency health period. The incidence rate of reperfusion, time to reperfusion, and associated mortality were collected from the Fondo Nacional de Recursos (the only government organization in charge of the reperfusion of ST elevation myocardial infarction in Uruguay). These same data were recovered for 2019, 2018 and 2017. Results: fewer patients were treated in 2020 (136 patients) compared to 2019 (180 patients), 2018 (182 patients), and 2017 (174 patients). Fibrinolytics was performed as the only treatment in 5.1%, 7.2%, 7.7% and 12.1% respectively. The proportion in incidence rate of ST elevation myocardial infarction during the study period in 2020 was lower (0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.91). The median time to reperfusion was similar compared to 2019, 2018, and 2017 (p = 0.4). Mortality at 15 days was similar in 2017 (8%), 2018 (6%), 2019 (11%) and 2020 (8%). Conclusion: emergency health measures were associated with a decrease in the incidence of reperfusion of ST elevation myocardial infarction without affecting the time to reperfusion and mortality.


Introdução: as medidas emergenciais de saúde impostas para conter o SARS-CoV-2 podem ter efeitos colaterais no cuidado das doenças cardiovasculares. Os dados globais do país sobre a incidência de infarto agudo do miocárdio durante a pandemia são essenciais para a futura política de saúde. Objetivos: nosso objetivo foi determinar se as medidas de saúde de emergência impostas no Uruguai tiveram um impacto direto na qualidade do atendimento infarto agudo do miocárdio. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de base populacional em todo o país para determinar a incidência de reperfusão do infarto agudo do miocárdio (fibrinolítico e percutâneo) durante o período de emergência de saúde. A taxa de incidência de reperfusão, tempo de reperfusão e mortalidade associada foram coletados do Fondo Nacional de Recursos (a única organização governamental responsável pela reperfusão de infarto agudo do miocárdio no Uruguai). Esses mesmos dados foram recuperados para 2019, 2018 e 2017. Resultados: menos pacientes foram tratados em 2020 (136 pacientes) em comparação com 2019 (180 pacientes), 2018 (182 pacientes) e 2017 (174 pacientes). Fibrinolisis foi realizado como o único tratamento em 5,1%, 7,2%, 7,7% e 12,1%, respectivamente. A proporção na taxa de incidência de infarto agudo do miocárdio durante o período estudado em 2020 foi menor (0,74, IC 95%: 0,59-0,91). O tempo médio para reperfusão foi semelhante em comparação com 2019, 2018 e 2017 (p = 0,4). A mortalidade em 15 dias foi semelhante em 2017 (8%), 2018 (6%), 2019 (11%) e 2020 (8%). Conclusão: as medidas emergenciais de saúde foram associadas à diminuição da incidência de reperfusão do infarto agudo do miocárdio, sem afetar o tempo de reperfusão e a mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 916-924, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1142262

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (STEMI) é uma das principais apresentações clínicas da cardiopatia isquêmica. Dados de base populacional são relevantes para entendimento contemporâneo da epidemiologia da doença. Objetivo: Descrever incidência, manejo terapêutico, desfechos clínicos hospitalares e eventos cardiovasculares do primeiro ano de seguimento dos indivíduos hospitalizados por STEMI. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectiva de base populacional com registro consecutivo das hospitalizações por STEMI em uma cidade do Sul do Brasil entre 2011 e 2014. Foram incluídos indivíduos com STEMI que apresentaram sintomas de isquemia miocárdica aguda nas últimas 72 horas. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: A incidência anual de hospitalizações por STEMI foi de 108 casos por 100.000 habitantes. A incidência ajustada foi maior entre os mais velhos (risco relativo 64,9; IC95% 26,9 - 156,9; p para tendência linear < 0,001) e entre os homens (risco relativo 2,8; IC95% 2,3 - 3,3; p < 0,001). Ocorreram 530 hospitalizações durante o período avaliado e a taxa de reperfusão foi de 80,9%. A mortalidade hospitalar e a taxa de eventos cardiovasculares em 1 ano foram, respectivamente, 8,9% e 6,1%. Os mais velhos apresentaram maior mortalidade hospitalar (risco relativo 3,72; IC95% 1,57 - 8,82; p para tendência linear = 0,002) e mais eventos cardiovasculares em 1 ano (hazard ratio 2,35; IC95% 1,12 - 4,95; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este registro demonstra abordagem terapêutica e mortalidade hospitalar semelhante às observadas em países desenvolvidos. Entretanto, a taxa de hospitalizações foi maior comparada com esses países.


Abstract Background: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the main clinical manifestations of ischemic heart disease. Population-based data are relevant to better understand the current epidemiology of this condition. Objective: To describe the incidence, therapeutic management, hospital clinical outcomes and cardiovascular events in the first year of follow-up of individuals hospitalized for STEMI. Methods: Population-based prospective cohort study with consecutive registries of hospitalization for STEMI in a city in southern Brazil from 2011 to 2014. It included patients with STEMI who presented acute myocardial ischemia symptoms in the last 72 hours. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The annual incidence of STEMI hospitalizations was 108 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Adjusted incidence was higher among older individuals (relative risk 64.9; 95% CI 26.9-156.9; p for linear trend < 0.001) and among men (relative risk 2.8; 95% CI 2.3-3.3; p < 0.001). There were 530 hospitalizations in the period under evaluation and the reperfusion rate reached 80.9%. Hospital mortality and the one-year follow-up cardiovascular event rate were, respectively, 8.9% and 6.1%. The oldest patients had higher hospital mortality (relative risk 3.72; 95% CI 1.57-8.82; p for linear trend = 0.002) and more one-year follow-up cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.12-4.95; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study shows that both the therapeutic approach and hospital mortality are similar to the ones found in developed countries. However, the hospitalization rate was higher in these countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Registries , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization
11.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 372-378, sep.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249934

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: México es el país con mayor mortalidad por infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAM CEST), por lo que el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social desarrolló el protocolo de atención para los servicios de urgencias denominado Código Infarto. En este artículo se discuten aspectos de la medicina traslacional con una perspectiva bioética e integral. Objetivo: Analizar el protocolo Código Infarto desde la perspectiva de la bioética traslacional. Método: Se realizó una aproximación centrada en el problema a través del equilibrio reflexivo, así como la aplicación del método integral para el discernimiento ético. Resultados: El protocolo de atención para los servicios de urgencias Código Infarto se rige por la medicina basada en la evidencia y la medicina basada en valores; se orienta por el principio de integridad que considera las seis dimensiones de la calidad para la atención de pacientes con IAM CEST. Conclusión: El protocolo supera algunos determinantes sociales adversos que afectan la atención médica del IAM CEST, disminuye la mortalidad, la carga económica global de la enfermedad y desarrolla una medicina de excelencia de alto alcance social.


Abstract Introduction: Mexico is the country with the highest mortality due to ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), and the IMSS has therefore developed the protocol of care for emergency departments called Código Infarto (Infarction Code). In this article, aspects of translational medicine are discussed with a bioethical and comprehensive perspective. Objective: To analyze the Código Infarto protocol from the perspective of translational bioethics. Method: A problem-centered approach was carried out through reflective equilibrium (or Rawls' method), as well as by applying the integral method for ethical discernment. Results: The protocol of care for emergency services Código Infarto is governed by evidence-based medicine and value-based medicine; it is guided by a principle of integrity that considers six dimensions of quality for the care of patients with STEMI. Conclusion: The protocol overcomes some adverse social determinants that affect STEMI medical care, reduces mortality and global economic disease burden, and develops medicine of excellence with high social reach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion/ethics , Clinical Protocols , Bioethical Issues , Emergency Service, Hospital/ethics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stakeholder Participation , Mexico
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(5): 497-505, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134399

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Hyperglycemia at the time of admission is related to increased mortality and poor prognosis in patients diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objective We aimed to investigate whether tight glucose control during the first 24 hours of STEMI decreases the scintigraphic infarct size. Methods The study population consisted of 56 out of 134 consecutive patients hospitalized with STEMI in a coronary care unit. Twenty-eight patients were treated with continuous insulin infusion during the first 24 hours of hospitalization, while the other 28 patients were treated with subcutaneous insulin on an as-needed basis. The final infarct size was evaluated with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in all patients on days 4 to 10 of hospitalization. The groups were compared and then predictors of final infarct size were analyzed with univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean glucose level in the first 24 hours was 130 ± 20 mg/dL in the infusion group and 152 ± 31 mg/dL in the standard care group (p = 0.002), while the mean final infarct size was 20 ± 12% and 27 ± 15% (p = 0.06), respectively. The multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the mean 24-hour glucose level was an independent predictor of the final infarct size (beta 0.29, p = 0.026). Conclusion Tight glucose control with continuous insulin infusion was not associated with smaller infarct size when compared to standard care in STEMI patients. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Insulin/administration & dosage , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Hospitalization , Hyperglycemia/therapy
15.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 137-141, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131022

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of PHASE-MX registry is to validate the efficacy and safety of the pharmacoinvasive strategy in comparison with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI) in a metropolitan region of Mexico. The primary outcome will consist of the composite of cardiovascular death, re-infarction, stroke and cardiogenic shock. Methods: The PHASE-MX registry will include a prospective cohort of patients with STEMI who received reperfusion treatment (mechanical of pharmacological) in the first 12 h after the onset of symptoms. The registry is designed to compare the efficacy and safety of primary PCI and pharmacoinvasive strategy. The simple size was calculated in 344 patients divided into two groups, with an estimated loss rate of 10%. Patients included in the PHASE-MX cohort will be followed for up to one year. Conclusion: In Mexico, only 5 out of 10 patients with STEMI have access to reperfusion therapy. Pharmacoinvasive strategy is takes advantage of the accessibility of fibrinolysis and the effectiveness of PCI. The present research protocol aims to provide information that serves as a link between information derived from controlled clinical trials and records derived from real world experience.


Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo del registro PHASE-MX es validar la eficacia y seguridad de la estrategia farmacoinvasiva en comparación con la angioplastia coronaria transluminal percutánea primaria (ACTPp) en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST) en una región metropolitana de México. El desenlace primario es el compuesto de muerte cardiovascular, reinfarto, accidente vascular cerebral y choque cardiogénico. Métodos: El registro PHASE-MX es una cohorte prospectiva de pacientes con IAMCEST que recibieron tratamiento de reperfusión (mecánico o farmacológico) en las primeras 12 horas desde el inicio de los síntomas, atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. El análisis estadístico se basa en la no inferioridad de la estrategia farmacoinvasiva en comparación con la ACTPp. Se calcula un tamaño de muestra de 344 pacientes divididos en dos grupos (angioplastia primaria y estrategia farmacoinvasiva), considerada una tasa de pérdidas de 10%. Los pacientes incluidos en la cohorte PHASE-MX se seguirán durante un año. Discusión: En México, sólo 5 de cada 10 pacientes con IAMCEST tienen acceso al tratamiento de reperfusión. La estrategia farmacoinvasiva aprovecha la accesibilidad de la fibrinólisis y la efectividad de la ACTPp, por lo que podría resultar el método de elección en el tratamiento del IAMCEST en la mayoría de los casos. El presente protocolo de investigación pretende aportar información que sirva como enlace entre la información derivada de los estudios clínicos controlados y los registros derivados de la experiencia del mundo real.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Reperfusion/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Research Design , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Registries , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Mexico
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 35-44, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055080

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: A significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality related to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been achieved with the development of reperfusion therapies. Early diagnosis and correct initial management are important to ensure this benefit. In Brazil, recent graduates in medicine are responsible for a large part of the initial care provided for these patients. Objective: To assess the clinical competence in the diagnosis and initial treatment of STEMI by newly graduated physicians applying for a medical residency program. Methods: We assessed the performance of 771 applicants for the direct entry selection process of the FMRP-USP Clinical Hospital Medicine Residency Program, performed in a simulated setting of STEMI, with professional actors and medical evaluators, using a standardized checklist following the recommendations of the Brazilian Guidelines for the management of this disease. Results: The general performance score presented a median of 7 and an interquartile range of 5.5-8.0. In relation to the items assessed: 83% required ECG monitoring, 57% requested the insertion of a peripheral venous access catheter, 95% administered acetylsalicylic acid, 80% administered a second antiplatelet agent (p2y12 inhibitor), 66% administered nitrate, 71% administered morphine, 69% recognized the diagnosis of STEMI, 71% assessed the pain duration, 63% recognized the need for immediate transfer, 34% showed adequate communication skills and only 25% insisted on the transfer even in case of non-availability of beds. Conclusions: The initial diagnosis and management of STEMI need to be improved in medical undergraduate courses and inserted into the reality of the hierarchical network structure of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS).


Resumo Fundamento: Houve importante redução da morbimortalidade do infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST) com o desenvolvimento das terapias de reperfusão. Para garantir este benefício é importante o diagnóstico precoce e manejo inicial correto. No Brasil, recém-formados do curso de medicina são responsáveis por grande parte dos atendimentos iniciais a estes pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a competência clínica no reconhecimento e manejo inicial do IAMCSST por médico recém-formado candidato à residência médica. Métodos: Realizada análise do desempenho de 771 candidatos do concurso de acesso direto para residência médica do Hospital das Clínicas da FMRP-USP em estação prática de simulação de atendimento de paciente com IAMCSST com atores profissionais e avaliadores médicos com uma lista de checagem padronizada de acordo com recomendações da diretriz brasileira para manejo desta patologia. Resultados: O escore de desempenho geral apresentou mediana de 7 e intervalo interquartil de 5,5-8,0. Em relação aos itens avaliados: 83% solicitou monitorização eletrocardiográfica, 57% solicitou inserção de um acesso venoso periférico, 95% administrou ácido acetilsalicílico, 80% administrou segundo antiagregante (inibidor do P2Y12), 66% administrou nitrato, 71% administrou morfina, 69% reconheceu o diagnóstico de IAMCSST, 71% avaliou o tempo de duração da dor, 63% reconheceu a necessidade de transferência imediata, 34% apresentou habilidade de comunicação adequada e somente 25% insistiu na transferência mesmo na ausência de vaga. Conclusões: O reconhecimento e gerenciamento inicial do IAMCSST precisa ser aprimorado na graduação médica e inserido dentro da realidade da estrutura de rede hierarquizada do sistema de saúde público brasileiro.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Checklist , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis
17.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 641-647, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941152

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of regional transport to percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) hospitals from non-PCI hospitals after thrombolysis in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI) in northwest China. Methods: In this retrospective study, 1 062 STEMI patients who were transferred from non-PCI hospitals within 24 hours from symptom onset, during January 2015 and January 2019 in the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, were included. According to the treatment strategy, they were divided into two groups, namely intravenous thrombolysis combined with PCI group(n=240), and primary PCI group(n=822). Observation endpoint were in-hospital adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and bleeding events, Including all-cause death, ischemic stroke, malignant arrhythmia, intracranial hemorrhage and hemorrhage with hemoglobin decrease≥50 g/L. Results: A total of 1 062 STEMI patients were included(age was (61±12) years old), with 905 males (85.2%). The proportion of grade 0 TIMI blood flow in the primary PCI group before operation was significantly higher than that in the thrombolysis combined with PCI group(63.0%(518/822) vs. 36.3%(87/240), P<0.001). Compared with primary PCI group, the time from symptom onset to first medical contact(2.11(1.00, 4.00)hours vs.3.00(1.13, 7.07)hours, P<0.001) and reperfusion in thrombolysis combined with PCI group(3.07(1.83, 4.87)hours vs. 6.92(4.07, 11.15) hours, P<0.001) were significantly shorter. The proportion of all-cause death was significantly higher in the primary PCI group than that in the thrombolysis combined with PCI group (1.8%(15/822) vs. 0, P=0.03). There was no significant difference in hemorrhage, ischemic stroke and malignant arrhythmia between the two groups(all P>0.05). Conclusions: For STEMI patients initially hospitalized in non-PCI hospitals, regional transport combined with PCI is feasible and effective. It does not significantly increase the risk of bleeding and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, with shorter time from symptom onset to myocardial reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , China , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(supl.1): 33-35, may. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152840

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las comunicaciones acumuladas en las últimas semanas dejan claro que no existe un acuerdo para definir la mejor estrategia de tratamiento en los pacientes con un síndrome coronario agudo (SICA). En los pacientes que se presentan con un infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCESST) se ha sugerido privilegiar la fibrinólisis (FL) sobre la intervención coronaria percutánea primaria (ICPp), reservando el ICP para los casos de FL fallidar1,2; sin embargo algunas sociedades han mantenido la indicación de la ICPp como el método de repercusión de elecciónr3. En los SICA sin elevación del segmento ST (SICASESST) las recomendaciones son muy similares, favoreciendo el tratamiento medico sobre el intervencionismo coronario percutáneo, en este subgrupo de pacientes1. Varias sociedades consideran el estado de contagio, en particular en los SICASESST, para decidir que estrategia de repercusión seguir3. Anticipando que la curva epidemiológica en México será similar a la observada en la mayoría de los países, recomendamos continuar la atención de los pacientes con SICA, las salas de cateterismo deben mantener su funcionamiento.


Abstract The communications accumulated in the last weeks make it clear that there is no agreement to define the best treatment strategy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (SICA). In patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (IAMCESST), it has been suggested to favor fibrinolysis (FL) over primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), reserving ICP for cases of failed FL1,2; however, some societies have maintained the indication of the ICPp as the repercussion method of choice3. In SICAs without ST segment elevation (SICASESST) the recommendations are very similar, favoring medical treatment over percutaneous coronary intervention in this subgroup of patients1. Several companies consider the contagion status, particularly in the SICASESST, to decide which repercussion follow3. Anticipating that the epidemiological curve in Mexico will be similar to that observed in most countries, we recommend continuing the care of patients with SICA, the catheterization rooms must maintain their operation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Cardiac Catheterization , Disease Outbreaks , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19 , Mexico/epidemiology
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(supl.1): 62-66, may. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152846

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las terapias de reperfusión, tales como intervención coronaria y fibrinólisis, son las principales medidas de atención en pacientes con síndromes coronarios agudos. La angioplastia primaria se considera el estándar de oro, sin embargo, en pacientes con infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), la estrategia de reperfusión más recomendada es la terapia fibrinolítica, debido al menor tiempo requerido para realizarla y menor exposición al agente infeccioso. Esta pandemia representa una problemática de contagio en el personal de salud, ya que los casos van en aumento a nivel mundial, por lo cual es importante conocer las medidas que se deben seguir a fin de evitar la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).


Abstract Reperfusion therapy is a measure of care in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which should be performed once we have the diagnosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the gold standard, however in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the reperfusion strategy is more focused on fibrinolytic therapy due to the shorter time required to perform and less exposure. This pandemic represents a contact problem in health personnel, since cases are increasing worldwide, so it is important to know the measures that must be followed to avoid coronavirus disease (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Health Personnel , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , COVID-19
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