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1.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 51(2): 166-175, May-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1094035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dyslexia is a problem of increasing prevalence in school-age students. The latest experiences in the application of neuropsychology to education are interesting because they allow for the evaluation of different neuropsychological variables to obtain a better understanding of the learning processes of students in this population for specific subsequent interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore the following neuropsychological variables related to reading in adolescent students with and without dyslexia. The sample consisted of 60 students between 13 and 15 years of age, 30 with dyslexia and 30 without. The King Devick test was used to assess the saccadic eye movements, specifically the fast and automated denomination of digits; the Harris laterality test was used to evaluate functional laterality, and the ENFEN test for executive functions. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups. Students with dyslexia scored lower on the three neuropsychological skills assessed. These findings suggest that students with dyslexia may manifest poorer performance in those neuropsychological skills that are key to reader development.


Resumen La dislexia es un problema que cada vez afecta más al alumnado en edad escolar. Las últimas experiencias de aplicación de la neuropsicología al ámbito educativo resultan interesantes porque van a permitir evaluar distintas variables neuropsicológicas con el objeto de comprender mejor los procesos de aprendizaje del alumnado para plantear posteriormente intervenciones específicas en esta población. El propósito de este estudio fue explorar variables neuropsicológicas relacionadas con la lectura y escritura en estudiantes con y sin dislexia. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 60 estudiantes de entre 13 y 15 años, 30 con dislexia y treinta sin dislexia. La prueba King Devick fue utilizada para valorar los movimientos oculares sacádicos, la prueba de la lateralidad de Harris para evaluar la lateralidad y la prueba ENFEN para las funciones ejecutivas. Los resultados revelaron diferencias significativas entre los dos grupos. Los estudiantes con dislexia obtuvieron puntuaciones más bajas en las tres habilidades neuropsicológicas evaluadas. Estos hallazgos sugieren que los niños con dislexia podrían manifestar un peor desempeño en habilidades neuropsicológicas que son clave para el desarrollo lector y escritor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Neuropsychology , Saccades , Students , Dyslexia , Functional Laterality , Neuropsychological Tests
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of labyrinthectomy and intratympanic (IT) gentamicin injections on the contralateral labyrinth, we also assessed the response of each individual semicircular canal to each IT gentamicin application. METHODS: We performed a pilot observational study on tertiary, referral, academic settings. Thirteen patients with unilateral vestibular pathology were organized into two groups, group I (seven patients) receiving IT gentamicin and group II undergoing labyrinthectomy (six patients). All patients underwent six-canal video-head-impulse test in predetermined time intervals. Patients receiving gentamicin were additionally tested 3 to 5 days after every sequential injection, until all ipsilateral canals were ablated, to determine the order of response to gentamicin. We recorded the vestibular-ocular reflex gains and the presence of covert/overt saccades for each canal. RESULTS: The posttreatment ipsilateral gains were abnormal. No patient from the gentamicin group developed abnormal contralateral responses, while patients undergoing labyrinthectomy had abnormal contralateral responses from at least one canal, even several months posttreatment. Finally, the lateral semicircular canal was the first one to be affected by IT gentamicin followed by the posterior canal: the superior canal was ablated last. CONCLUSION: In our study, labyrinthectomy had an impact on the responses recorded from the contralateral ear, while IT gentamicin ablated the ipsilateral labyrinthine function without affecting the contralateral responses, possibly because of a milder, more gradual impact. We also show for the first time the order that IT gentamicin application affects the semicircular canals, with the lateral being the first to be affected.


Subject(s)
Ear , Ear, Inner , Gentamicins , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Observational Study , Pathology , Referral and Consultation , Reflex , Saccades , Semicircular Canals
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761292

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptors of the neuromuscular junction characterized by weakness and abnormal fatigability of the muscles. Therefore, the diagnosis of MG depends on the recognition of this distinctive pattern of fatigable weakness. Previous studies presented the diagnostic efficacy of saccadic eye movements in patients with ocular MG. We here in report 2 patients of ocular MG showing the fatigue effects during repetitive sustained smooth pursuit, and the effects of the administration of edrophonium on myasthenic smooth pursuit. Changes in smooth pursuits reflecting peripheral and secondary central mechanisms were demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Diagnosis , Edrophonium , Fatigue , Humans , Muscles , Myasthenia Gravis , Neuromuscular Junction , Pursuit, Smooth , Receptors, Cholinergic , Saccades
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP) in video head impulse test is now newly used to test vestibular function. The aim of this study was to analyze normative values of SHIMP for healthy Korean subjects in each decade of life. METHODS: SHIMP and HIMP responses were measured with the video head impulse test in 70 healthy subjects. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain and anticompensatory saccade were analyzed and compared at each decade of life. RESULTS: All subjects produced anticompensatory saccades in SHIMP. Gain values did not vary significantly with age. Gain values in SHIMP were lower than gain values in HIMP. The gain values of rightward impulse were higher than the gain values of leftward impulse. CONCLUSIONS: Gain values and anticompensatory saccades in SHIMP were consistently equal in each decade of life. Normative values of SHIMP seems largely unaffected by aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , Head , Head Impulse Test , Healthy Volunteers , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765843

ABSTRACT

Abnormal eye movements are commonly observed in movement disorders. Ocular motility examination should include bedside evaluation and laboratory recording of ocular misalignment, involuntary eye movements, including nystagmus and saccadic intrusions/oscillations, triggered nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit (SP), and the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) mostly show hypometric saccades, especially for the self-paced saccades, and impaired SP. Early vertical saccadic palsy is characteristic of progressive supranuclear palsy-Richardson's syndrome. Patients with cortico-basal syndrome typically show a delayed onset of saccades. Downbeat and gaze-evoked nystagmus and hypermetric saccades are characteristic ocular motor findings in ataxic disorders due to cerebellar dysfunction. In this review, we discuss various ocular motor findings in movement disorders, including PD and related disorders, ataxic syndromes, and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Systemic evaluation of the ocular motor functions may provide valuable information for early detection and monitoring of movement disorders, despite an overlap in the abnormal eye movements among different movement disorders.


Subject(s)
Ataxia , Cerebellar Diseases , Eye Movements , Humans , Hyperkinesis , Movement Disorders , Paralysis , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Pursuit, Smooth , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conflicting results about vestibular function in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) prompted a systematic examination of the semicircular canal function, otolith function, and postural stability. METHODS: Sixteen patients with probable PSP [9 females, age=72±6 years (mean±SD), mean disease duration=3.6 years, and mean PSP Rating Scale score=31] and 17 age-matched controls were examined using the video head impulse test, caloric testing, ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (o- and cVEMPs), video-oculography, and posturography. RESULTS: There was no evidence of impaired function of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (gain=1.0±0.1), and caloric testing also produced normal findings. In terms of otolith function, there was no significant difference between PSP patients and controls in the absolute peakto-peak amplitude of the oVEMP (13.5±7.2 µV and 12.5±5.6 µV, respectively; p=0.8) or the corrected peak-to-peak amplitude of the cVEMP (0.6±0.3 µV and 0.5±0.2 µV, p=0.3). The total root-mean-square body sway was significantly increased in patients with PSP compared to controls (eyes open/head straight/hard platform: 9.3±3.7 m/min and 6.9±2.1 m/min, respectively; p=0.032). As expected, the saccade velocities were significantly lower in PSP patients than in controls: horizontal, 234±92°/sec and 442±66°/sec, respectively; downward, 109±105°/sec and 344±72°/sec; and upward, 121±110°/sec and 348±78°/sec (all p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of impairment of either high- or low-frequency semicircular function or otolith organ function in the examined PSP patients. It therefore appears that other causes such as degeneration of supratentorial pathways lead to postural imbalance and falls in patients with PSP.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Caloric Tests , Female , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Movement Disorders , Otolithic Membrane , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades , Semicircular Canals , Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive , Tauopathies , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dizzy patients with abnormal otolith function tests, despite a normal caloric response, are defined as having specific (isolated) otolith organ dysfunction. This study was performed to compare the differences in clinical presentation between isolated otolith dysfunction (iOD) patients with lab- and Sx-based iOD group and lab-based iOD symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 23 iOD patients with normal caloric response but abnormal cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP), ocular VEMP, or subjective visual vertical were reviewed. Non-spinning vertigo was considered as otolith-related symptoms. The patients’ age, onset of dizziness, Numeric Rating Scale on the severity of dizziness, and concomitant vestibular disorders were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients in the lab-based iOD group were significantly older than those in the lab- and Sx-based iOD group. Known vestibular disorders were significantly more common in the lab-based iOD group (83.3%) compared to the lab- and Sx-based iOD group (18.2%). Despite the normal caloric response, catch-up saccade was found in the video head impulse test in more than half (54.5%) of the lab-based iOD group patients. There was no catch-up saccade in the lab- and Sx-based iOD group. There were no significant differences in gender ratio, frequency of dizziness attacks, and duration of illness. CONCLUSIONS: We propose new definitions of definite iOD (lab- and Sx-based iOD) and probable iOD (lab- or Sx-based iOD). These new definitions may help researchers to identify patients who are more likely to have true iOD, and facilitate comparisons of results between different studies.


Subject(s)
Dizziness , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Medical Records , Otolaryngology , Otolithic Membrane , Saccades , Vertigo
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The suppression head impulse (SHIMP) test has emerged as one of the new vestibular function tests. The SHIMP test is an analysis of anti-compensatory saccadic movements in gazing moving targets as the head moves. In this study, we investigated the accuracy and sensitivity of the test. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We analyzed the results of SHIMP test (gain, amplitude, and latency) in 24 cases, which included normal, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease, bilateral vestibular function loss, temporal bone fracture, tuberculosis meningitis and acoustic schwannoma patients. We also carried out a physical exam, audiologic study, video electronystagmography (vENG) and a conventional video head impulse test to evaluate the feasibility of SHIMP test in cases of vesitibulopathy. RESULTS: In patients with vestibulopathy, the analysis of SHIMP test indicated high sensitivity and accuracy, which were supported by accompanying audio-vestibular studies. Patients suspected with BPPV, vestibular neuronitis and Meniere's disease showed low vestibulo ocular reflex (VOR) gain and delayed anticompensatory saccade with smaller and more scattered amplitudes than the control. Patients with bilateral vestibular function loss, temporal bone fracture, tuberculosis meningitis, and acoustic schwannoma showed delayed latency, and small amplitude or few anticompensatory saccades. Finally, changes in the SHIMP test values might be a hint that patients had recovered from vestibular neuronitis and tuberculosis meningitis. CONCLUSION: We found the feasibility of SHIMP test in detecting the pathologic condition of VOR in vestibulopathy patients. We argue that the usefulness of SHIMP test might be extended to evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo , Electronystagmography , Head Impulse Test , Head , Humans , Meniere Disease , Methods , Neuroma, Acoustic , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Rehabilitation , Saccades , Temporal Bone , Tuberculosis, Meningeal , Vestibular Function Tests , Vestibular Neuronitis
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761277

ABSTRACT

Recently with the introduction of video head impulse test (vHIT), it can be easily performed quantitative and objective measurement of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). vHIT has been used as a clinical vestibular function test that can individually evaluate the function of each semicircular canal. Loss of VOR gain and corrective catch-up saccades that occur during the vHIT usually indicate peripheral vestibular hypofunction, whereas in acute vestibular syndrome, normal vHIT should prompt a search for a central lesion. In this study, we will examine the principle of vHIT and its interpretation, and explain its clinical application in peripheral and central vestibulopathy. In addition, we will compare the caloric test and the differences, and review the most recently introduced suppression head impulse paradigm test.


Subject(s)
Caloric Tests , Head Impulse Test , Head , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades , Semicircular Canals , Vestibular Function Tests
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761268

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of the vestibular function tests (VFTs) and the predictability of lesion side of vestibular asymmetry parameters in acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy. METHODS: Medical records and results of VFTs (caloric, rotatory chair, and head impulse tests) of 57 patients with acute unilateral vestibulopathy were reviewed retrospectively. The VFTs were examined within 7 days after the clinical onset. RESULTS: For the caloric test, 74% showed significant canal paresis and the predictability of lesion side was 88%. For the sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test, 91% had low gain in at least 1 Hz, phase lead showed 70%, 89% showed phase asymmetry and the predictability of lesion side was 90%. For velocity step test, 67% had abnormal Tc asymmetry and the predictability of lesion side was 95%. In bedside head impulse test (HIT), abnormal catch up saccades were observed in 89% and the predictability of lesion side was 100%. For the video HIT, cover or overt catch-up saccades were observed in 95% and the predictability of lesion side was 100%. One hundred percent (100%) had low gain on the video HIT, but the lesion sides were uncertain because of bilateral involvements or artifacts. CONCLUSIONS: The most important things in the diagnosis of acute unilateral vestibulopathy are typical clinical symptoms and spontaneous nystagmus. A combination of rotatory, caloric, and HITs will result in a more complete examination of the vestibular system. Among them, HIT is recommended as the best tool in acute unilateral vestibulopathy.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Artifacts , Caloric Tests , Diagnosis , Exercise Test , Head , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Medical Records , Paresis , Retrospective Studies , Saccades , Treatment Outcome , Vestibular Function Tests
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Magical ideation refers to belief in forms of causation that by conventional standards are invalid, and is considered to be one of prodromal psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between magical ideation and eye gaze pattern in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Eye gaze data were recorded in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls while performing the reality evaluation task, in which participants should judge the realness of real or unreal pictures. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed decreased fixation, saccade and area of interest (AOI) fixation counts, and reduced scanpath length. Magical Ideation Scale score in patients with schizophrenia showed negative correlation with the scanpath length in the real condition and the AOI fixation count in the unreal condition. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia show restricted visual scanning during reality evaluation, and their restricted visual scanning may play an important role in the magical ideation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magic , Saccades , Schizophrenia
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765830

ABSTRACT

Human locomotion involves a complex interplay among multiple brain regions and depends on constant feedback from the visual system. We summarize here the current understanding of the relationship among fixations, saccades, and gait as observed in studies sampling eye movements during locomotion, through a review of the literature and a synthesis of the relevant knowledge on the topic. A significant overlap in locomotor and saccadic neural circuitry exists that may support this relationship. Several animal studies have identified potential integration nodes between these overlapping circuitries. Behavioral studies that explored the relationship of saccadic and gait-related impairments in normal conditions and in various disease states are also discussed. Eye movements and locomotion share many underlying neural circuits, and further studies can leverage this interplay for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Eye Movements , Gait , Humans , Locomotion , Posture , Saccades
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300824

ABSTRACT

To assess the clinical application of video head impulse test (vHIT) for vestibular function in vestibular neuritis (VN) and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) patients.Thirty-three patients with VN and 43 patients with BPPV were enrolled from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital and Ningbo Second Hospital from March 15 to September 10, 2015; and 50 healthy controls were also enrolled in the study. vHIT was used to quantitatively test the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains of a pair of horizontal semicircular canals. VOR gains two pairs of vertical semicircular canals, and the corresponding asymmetrical value of three VOR gains. The saccades information was also recorded.Compared with the healthy control group and BPPV patients, the affected horizontal and vertical VOR gains were declined and the corresponding asymmetries were increased in VN patients (all<0.01). BPPV group also showed higher vertical VOR gain asymmetries compared with the healthy control group (all<0.01), but no significant difference was observed in VOR gains and horizontal VOR gain asymmetry (all>0.05). The sensibility of vHIT in diagnosis of VN was 87.9%. Among 33 VN patients, 22 were diagnosed with superior vestibular nerve dysfunction, 7 were found with inferior vestibular nerve dysfunction and 3 were with both dysfunction; and 1 case was not distinguished.Video head impulse test can quantitatively evaluate the vestibular dysfunction of VN and can help early diagnosis of VN, which may be widely used in clinic.


Subject(s)
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo , Diagnosis , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Physiology , Saccades , Physiology , Semicircular Canals , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vestibular Diseases , Classification , Diagnosis , Vestibular Nerve , Pathology , Vestibular Neuronitis , Classification , Diagnosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210880

ABSTRACT

A brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to restore some communication as an alternative interface for patients suffering from locked-in syndrome. However, most BCI systems are based on SSVEP, P300, or motor imagery, and a diversity of BCI protocols would be needed for various types of patients. In this paper, we trained the choice saccade (CS) task in 2 non-human primate monkeys and recorded the brain signal using an epidural electrocorticogram (eECoG) to predict eye movement direction. We successfully predicted the direction of the upcoming eye movement using a support vector machine (SVM) with the brain signals after the directional cue onset and before the saccade execution. The mean accuracies were 80% for 2 directions and 43% for 4 directions. We also quantified the spatial-spectro-temporal contribution ratio using SVM recursive feature elimination (RFE). The channels over the frontal eye field (FEF), supplementary eye field (SEF), and superior parietal lobule (SPL) area were dominantly used for classification. The α-band in the spectral domain and the time bins just after the directional cue onset and just before the saccadic execution were mainly useful for prediction. A saccade based BCI paradigm can be projected in the 2D space, and will hopefully provide an intuitive and convenient communication platform for users.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Classification , Cues , Eye Movements , Frontal Lobe , Haplorhini , Humans , Parietal Lobe , Primates , Quadriplegia , Saccades , Support Vector Machine
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Saccade test, smooth pursuit test, and optokinetic nystagmus test are clinically useful tests to accurately diagnose vertigo. However, there have only been a few studies regarding a correlation between the anatomical site of the lesion and the abnormality of eyeball movement in patients with vertigo. METHODS: The medical records of 97 patients with vertigo between January 2006 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. We classified many kinds of abnormalities regarding the saccade test, smooth pursuit test and optokinetic nystagmus test into several categories and analyzed the localizing lesion of vertigo. RESULTS: According to the saccade test, both total saccade abnormality (S-total) and slow velocity of saccade (S-type 3) were shown to be significantly higher in the central lesion of vertigo. According to the smooth pursuit test, symmetrical unidirectional smooth pursuit abnormality (SP-type 2) was observed to be significantly higher in the peripheral lesion over vertigo. Moreover, according to the optokinetic nystagmus test, total optokinetic nystagmus abnormalities (OKN-total) were shown to be significantly useful findings in the diagnosis of the central lesion of vertigo. The coexisting abnormalities of all three tests (S+SP+OKN abnormalities) were shown to be significantly higher in the central lesion of vertigo. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that all these tests, saccade test, smooth pursuit test, and optokinetic nystagmus test, are very useful to distinguish between the central lesion and the peripheral lesion of vertigo. However, these tests are not beneficial in localizing the central lesion of vertigo.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Medical Records , Nystagmus, Optokinetic , Pursuit, Smooth , Retrospective Studies , Saccades , Vertigo
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The bedside head impulse test (bHIT) in bare eyes often overlooks possible vestibular losses by missing the corrective saccade. This is why it is necessary to compare bHIT against video head impulse test (vHIT), which is more accurate in identifying vestibular losses than the bedside test. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A total of 51 vHIT positive ears underwent the study, and out of those, 47 were diagnosed with dizziness. bHIT and vHIT were performed for patients, and the occurrence rate of overt saccade (OS) was calculated. RESULTS: Among the 51 vHIT positive ears, 33 (64.7%) were bHIT positive ears and 18 ears (35.3%) were bHIT negative. Patterns of positive vHIT were classified as A: no corrective saccade, B: covert saccade (CS) only, C: OS only, and D: CS with OS (CS+OS), which were 45 out of 51 ears (88%). The occurrence rate of OS was higher in the bHIT positive group than in the bHIT negative group (p=0.05), and higher in the CS negative group (CS-) than in the CS positive group (CS+) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Possible causes of false negative results of bHIT are seen as following: the absence of corrective (covert and overt) saccade, the occurrence of CS only, and missing the OS during the bHIT (probably due to low occurrence rate of OS). The occurrence of CS should be considered as an important factor in false negative bHIT when lowering the occurrence rate of OS.


Subject(s)
Dizziness , Ear , Head Impulse Test , Head , Humans , Methods , Saccades
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Saccade test, smooth pursuit test, and optokinetic nystagmus test are clinically useful tests to accurately diagnose vertigo. However, there have only been a few studies regarding a correlation between the anatomical site of the lesion and the abnormality of eyeball movement in patients with vertigo.METHODS: The medical records of 97 patients with vertigo between January 2006 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. We classified many kinds of abnormalities regarding the saccade test, smooth pursuit test and optokinetic nystagmus test into several categories and analyzed the localizing lesion of vertigo.RESULTS: According to the saccade test, both total saccade abnormality (S-total) and slow velocity of saccade (S-type 3) were shown to be significantly higher in the central lesion of vertigo. According to the smooth pursuit test, symmetrical unidirectional smooth pursuit abnormality (SP-type 2) was observed to be significantly higher in the peripheral lesion over vertigo. Moreover, according to the optokinetic nystagmus test, total optokinetic nystagmus abnormalities (OKN-total) were shown to be significantly useful findings in the diagnosis of the central lesion of vertigo. The coexisting abnormalities of all three tests (S+SP+OKN abnormalities) were shown to be significantly higher in the central lesion of vertigo.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that all these tests, saccade test, smooth pursuit test, and optokinetic nystagmus test, are very useful to distinguish between the central lesion and the peripheral lesion of vertigo. However, these tests are not beneficial in localizing the central lesion of vertigo.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Medical Records , Nystagmus, Optokinetic , Pursuit, Smooth , Retrospective Studies , Saccades , Vertigo
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(9): 761-766, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796046

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chorea is an abnormal movement characterized by a continuous flow of random muscle contractions. This phenomenon has several causes, such as infectious and degenerative processes. Chorea results from basal ganglia dysfunction. As the control of the eye movements is related to the basal ganglia, it is expected, therefore, that is altered in diseases related to chorea. Sydenham’s chorea, Huntington’s disease and neuroacanthocytosis are described in this review as basal ganglia illnesses that can present with abnormal eye movements. Ocular changes resulting from dysfunction of the basal ganglia are apparent in saccade tasks, slow pursuit, setting a target and anti-saccade tasks. The purpose of this article is to review the main characteristics of eye motion in these three forms of chorea.


RESUMO Coreia é um movimento anormal caracterizado pelo fluxo contínuo de contrações musculares ao acaso. Este fenômeno possui variadas causas, como processos infecciosos e degenerativos. A coreia resulta de disfunção dos núcleos da base, os quais estão envolvidos no controle da motricidade ocular. É esperado, então, que esta esteja alterada em doenças com coreia. A coreia de Sydenham, a doença de Huntington e a neuroacantocitose são apresentadas como modelos que têm por característica este distúrbio do movimento, por ocorrência de processos que acometem os núcleos da base. As alterações oculares decorrentes de disfunção dos núcleos da base se manifestam em tarefas de sacadas, perseguição lenta, fixação de um alvo e em tarefas de antissacadas. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar as principais características dos movimentos oculares nestas três formas de coreias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Saccades/physiology , Chorea/physiopathology , Huntington Disease/physiopathology , Neuroacanthocytosis/physiopathology , Basal Ganglia/physiopathology
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761220

ABSTRACT

The anterior cerebellar vermis has been known to act in coordination of gait and postural adjustment of the trunk and legs. However, oculomotor abnormalities in an isolated anterior vermian lesion have not been described in the literature. A 59-year-old man presented with acute non-rotatory dizziness and disequilibrium. Neuro-ophthalmologic examination found impaired smooth pursuit and hypometric saccades in the contralesional direction, and disconjugate ipsiversive ocular torsion, but without spontaneous or gaze-evoked nystagmus. Imaging study showed an infarction restricted to the rostral end of right cerebellar vermis involving the lingual and central lobules. The anterior cerebellar vermis participates in the maintenance of axial posture and gait, and also in the control of ocular motor and vestibular systems.


Subject(s)
Cerebellar Vermis , Cerebellum , Dizziness , Gait , Humans , Infarction , Leg , Middle Aged , Posture , Pursuit, Smooth , Saccades
20.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 21: e1704, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-950618

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os movimentos oculares de sácadas, perseguição e o nistagmo optocinético em adultos, analisando o efeito da idade e das alterações visuais. Métodos Foram avaliados 40 sujeitos de ambos os gêneros, com faixa etária de 20 a 49 anos de idade, sem queixas auditivas ou vestibulares e que apresentaram avaliação audiológica básica dentro dos padrões da normalidade e ausência de nistagmo espontâneo de olhos abertos, nistagmo semi-espontâneo e nistagmo espontâneo de olhos fechados maior que 6º/s. Todos os participantes foram submetidos às provas de nistagmo espontâneo, nistagmo optocinético, movimentos sacádicos fixos, aleatórios e rastreio pendular, por meio da vectoeletronistagmografia computadorizada. Os achados foram analisados segundo as variáveis idade e presença de alteração visual, do tipo ametropias. Os resultados passaram por análise estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados Não houve diferença nas provas de nistagmo optocinético, sacádico fixo, aleatório e rastreio pendular, quando analisadas com relação à idade. Quanto à variável alteração visual, a preponderância direcional do nistagmo, observada na prova do nistagmo optocinético, foi maior em indivíduos com alterações visuais. Nos movimentos sacádicos aleatórios, também se observou diferença em relação à velocidade máxima, sendo maior em indivíduos sem alterações visuais. Conclusão As provas oculomotoras não sofreram influência do fator idade na faixa etária pesquisada, porém, a presença de alterações visuais exerceu influência em alguns dos parâmetros das provas oculomotoras.


ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate saccadic and pursuit ocular movements and optokinetic nystagmus in adults, analyzing the effect of age and visual alterations. Methods We evaluated 40 subjects of both genders, aged 20-49 years, with no auditory or vestibular complaints and who presented a normal basic audiology evaluation, absence of spontaneous nystagmus with open eyes, semi-spontaneous nystagmus, and spontaneous nystagmus with eyes closed greater than 6º/s. All participants underwent the tests of spontaneous nystagmus, optokinetic nystagmus, fixed and random saccadic movements, and pendular tracking using computerized vectoelectronystagmography. The findings were analyzed according to age and visual changes (ametropias). The results underwent a descriptive and inferential analysis. Results There was no difference in the tests of optokinetic nystagmus, fixed and random saccadic movement, and pendular tracking when analyzed with regard to age. As for the variable presence of visual alteration, directional preponderance of nystagmus, observed in the optokinetic nystagmus test, was higher in individuals with visual alterations. In the random saccadic movement, there was also a difference in relation to the maximum velocity, which was higher in individuals with no visual alterations. Conclusion The oculomotor tests were not affected by the age factor in the studied age group, but the presence of visual alterations exerted influence on some of the parameters of the oculomotor tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saccades , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Nystagmus, Physiologic , Nystagmus, Optokinetic , Vision Disorders , Electronystagmography , Postural Balance , Age Effect
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