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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Ethanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Water , Biotransformation , Prospective Studies , Fermentation
2.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e203, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248717

ABSTRACT

El vino tinto variedad Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat en los últimos años ha tomado relevancia por su alta concentración de polifenoles, esto le podría significar un rol protector sobre el genoma disminuyendo la formación de lesiones oxidativas. Los efectos a nivel celular de las radiaciones ionizantes en blancos como el ADN, componentes de cascadas de transducción de señales, resultan en lesiones letales, mutagénicas y recombinogénicas y en retardos en el ciclo celular. Se utilizó como modelo eucariota poblaciones de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en fase exponencial expuestas a radiación gamma (200 Gy) en presencia, o ausencia, de vino Tannat (10 % v/v) o de ácido tánico (60 µg/mL). Se estimaron las probabilidades de sobrevida y frecuencia mutagénica en distintas condiciones. Las muestras celulares expuestas a radiación ionizante presentaron una fracción de sobrevida de 0.21 ± 0.02 mientras que en las muestras irradiadas en presencia de vino Tannat o de ácido tánico la fracción de sobrevida fue de 0.33 ± 0.03 y 0.30 ± 0.03 respectivamente. Se observó en las poblaciones irradiadas un aumento significativo de la probabilidad de mutagénesis. En el caso de los tratamientos combinados se observó que la frecuencia mutagénica fue significativamente menor (gamma Tannat: 33%, gamma ácido tánico: 45% ). Estos resultados preliminares podrían indicar radioprotección moderada por parte de los compuestos estudiados, efecto que podría explicarse por las interacciones redox del ácido tánico y polifenoles contenidos en el vino con los radicales libres formados por las radiaciones ionizantes, además de la activación de vías de reparación genómica.


The red wine variety Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat in recent years has gained relevance due to its high concentration of polyphenols, this could mean a protective role on the genome, reducing the formation of oxidative lesions. The effects at the cellular level of ionizing radiation on targets such as DNA, components of signal transduction cascades, result in lethal, mutagenic and recombinogenic lesions and delays in the cell cycle. Exponential phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to gamma radiation (200 Gy) in the presence or absence of Tannat wine (10% v / v) or tannic acid (60 µg / ml) were used as a eukaryotic model. The probabilities of survival and mutagenic frequency in different conditions were estimated. Cellular samples exposed to ionizing radiation presented a survival fraction of 0.21 ± 0.02, while in samples irradiated in the presence of Tannat wine or tannic acid, the survival fraction was 0.33 ± 0.03 and 0.30 ± 0.03 respectively. A significant increase in the probability of mutagenesis was observed in irradiated populations. In the case of the combined treatments, it was observed that the mutagenic frequency was significantly lower (Tannat gamma: 33%, Tannic acid gamma: 45%). These preliminary results could indicate moderate radioprotection by the compounds studied, an effect that could be explained by the redox interactions of tannic acid and polyphenols contained in wine with the free radicals formed by ionizing radiation, in addition to the activation of genomic repair pathways.


A variedade de vinho tinto Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat nos últimos anos tem ganhado relevância devido à sua alta concentração de polifenóis, o que pode significar um papel protetor do genoma, reduzindo a formação de lesões oxidativas. Os efeitos no nível celular da radiação ionizante em alvos como o DNA, componentes de cascatas de transdução de sinal, resultam em lesões letais, mutagênicas e recombinogênicas e atrasos no ciclo celular. Populações de fase exponencial de Saccharomyces cerevisiae expostas à radiação gama (200 Gy) na presença ou ausência de vinho Tannat (10% v / v) ou ácido tânico (60 µg / ml) foram utilizadas como modelo eucariótico. Foram estimadas as probabilidades de sobrevivência e frequência mutagênica em diferentes condições. As amostras celulares expostas à radiação ionizante apresentaram uma fração de sobrevivência de 0,21 ± 0,02, enquanto nas amostras irradiadas na presença de vinho Tannat ou ácido tânico, a fração de sobrevivência foi de 0,33 ± 0,03 e 0,30 ± 0,03, respectivamente. Um aumento significativo na probabilidade de mutagênese foi observado nas populações irradiadas. No caso dos tratamentos combinados, observou-se que a frequência mutagênica foi significativamente menor (Tannat gama: 33%, ácido tânico gama: 45%). Esses resultados preliminares podem indicar radioproteção moderada pelos compostos estudados, efeito que pode ser explicado pelas interações redox do ácido tânico e polifenóis contidos no vinho com os radicais livres formados pela radiação ionizante, além da ativação de vias de reparo genômico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Tannins/pharmacology , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Survival Rate , Drug Therapy, Combination , Mutation Rate
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 16-22, Mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cecropin P1, acting as an antimicrobial, has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity with some antiviral and antifungal properties. It is a promising natural alternative to antibiotics which is originally isolated from the pig intestinal parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Many studies have shown that Cecropin P1 is helpful for the prevention or treatment of clinical diseases. Therefore, it is very necessary to establish a safe, nontoxic, and efficient expression method of Cecropin P1. RESULTS: The results indicated that the recombinant protein was about 5.5 kDa showed by Tricine­SDS­ PAGE and Western blot. And Cecropin P1 was efficiently secreted and expressed after 12 h of induction, with an increasing yield over the course of the induction. Its maximum concentration was 7.83 mg/L after concentration and purification. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that Cecropin P1 not only exerted a strong inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Pasteurella sp., but also displayed an antiviral activity against PRRSV NADC30-Like strain. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the strategy of expressing Cecropin P1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is harmless, efficient, and safe for cells. In addition, the expressed Cecropin P1 has antiviral and antibacterial properties concurrently.


Subject(s)
Peptides/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Recombinant Proteins , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Blotting, Western
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210002, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278453

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, the effects of Ellagic acid (EA) on protein expression in yeasts and cellular development were investigated. Four groups were formed. Groups: 1) Control group; yeast only cultivated group; 2) Ellagic Acid (EA) group: EA (10%) given group; 3) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Group: The group given H2O2 (15 mM); 4) EA + H2O2 group: EA (10%) + H2O2 (15 mM) group. After sterilization, EA (10%) and H2O2 (15 mM) were added to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cultures and the cultures were grown at 30 °C for 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 24 hours (overnight). S. cerevisiae cell growth, lipid peroxidation MDA (malondialdehyde) analysis and GSH (glutathione) level were analyzed by spectrophotometer. Total protein changes were determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and measured by the Bradford method. According to the obtained results, compared with the H2O2 group, cell development (1, 3, 5 and 24 hours), GSH level and total protein synthesis (24 hours) were increased with EA, while MDA level (24 hours) decreased. These results show that EA reduces oxidative damage, increases cell growth and it has a protective effect to promote protein synthesis in S. cerevisiae culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Ellagic Acid , Hydrogen Peroxide
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2085-2104, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887783

ABSTRACT

Terpenoids are a group of structurally diverse compounds with good biological activities and versatile functions such as anti-cancer and immunity-enhancing effects, and are widely used in food, healthcare and medical industries. Facilitated by the increasing understandings on the natural biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids in recent years, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered into high-yield strains for production of a variety of terpenoids, some of which have reached or become close to the level required by industrial production. In this connection, synthetic biology driven biotechnological production of terpenoids has become a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and traditional extraction approaches. This article summarizes the recent process in engineering S. cerevisiae for terpenoids biosynthesis, highlighting the effect of synthetic biology strategies by taking a couple of typical terpenoids as examples.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology , Terpenes
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2050-2076, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887781

ABSTRACT

Plant polyphenols are phenylpropanoid derivatives including phenolic acids, stilbenes, curcumins and flavonoids. These compounds display a variety of biological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidation, vasorelaxation, anti-coagulation, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and anti-virus, conferring a huge application potential in the sectors of drugs, foods, cosmetics, and chemicals. Microorganisms have become important hosts for heterologous synthesis of natural products due to the advantages of fast growth, easiness of culture and industrial operation. In recent years, the development of synthetic biology has boosted the microbial synthesis of plant natural products, achieving substantial progress. In this review, we summarize the synthesis of plant polyphenols in engineered Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other microorganisms equipped with the designed biosynthetic pathways of polyphenols. We also discuss the optimization strategies such as precursor engineering, dynamic regulation, and co-cultivation to improve the production of polyphenols and propose future prospects for polyphenol pathway engineering.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Metabolic Engineering , Plants , Polyphenols , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921633

ABSTRACT

Azadirachtin, as a botanical insecticide, is a highly oxidized limonoid triterpenoid existing in the seeds of Azadirachta indica. However, due to the low content in the seeds, the production of azadirachtin by seed extraction has low yield. Chemical synthesis of azadirachtin is characterized by complex process and low yield. Synthetic biology provides an alternative for the supply of azadirach-tin. In this study, two oxidosqualene cyclases AiOSC1 and MaOSC1 respectively derived from A. indica and Melia azedarach were identified in yeast. A yeast strain producing tirucalla-7,24-dien-3β-ol was constructed by integration of AiOSC1, Arabidopsis thaliana-derived squalene synthase gene(AtAQS2), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-derived truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene(PgtHMGR) into the delta site of yeast. Then, the function of MaCYP71BQ5 was successfully verified in yeast after this gene was introduced into the constructed yeast strain. This study not only laid a foundation for the biosynthesis of tirucalla-7,24-dien-3β-ol, but also provided a chassis cell for the functional identification of cytochrome oxidases(CYP450 s) in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway.


Subject(s)
Azadirachta , Limonins , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Triterpenes
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4373-4381, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921513

ABSTRACT

Lager yeast is the most popular yeast strain used for beer production in China. The flocculation of yeast plays an important role in cell separation at the end of fermentation. Therefore, appropriately enhancing the flocculation capability of the lager yeast without affecting its fermentation performance would be desirable for beer industry. Our previous study showed that the defect of gene RIM21 might contribute to the enhanced flocculation capability of a lager yeast G03. To further investigate the role of the RIM21 gene in flocculation of strain G03, this study constructed a RIM21-deleted mutant strain G03-RIM21Δ through homologous recombination. Deletion of RIM21 improved the flocculation capability of strain G03 during wort fermentation at 11 °C without changing its fermentation performance significantly. The expression of FLO5, Lg-FLO1 and some other genes involved in cell wall integrity pathway were up-regulated in strain G03-RIM21Δ. In addition, the disruption of RIM21 enhanced resistance of yeast cells to cell wall inhibitors. These results provide a basis for elucidating the flocculation mechanism of lager yeast under low-temperature fermentation conditions.


Subject(s)
Beer , Fermentation , Flocculation , Receptors, Cell Surface , Saccharomyces/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4293-4302, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921506

ABSTRACT

Acetic acid is a common inhibitor present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Development of acetic acid tolerant strains may improve the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals using lignocellulosic biomass as raw materials. Current studies on stress tolerance of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly focused on transcription control, but the role of transfer RNA (tRNA) was rarely investigated. We found that some tRNA genes showed elevated transcription levels in a stress tolerant yeast strain. In this study, we further investigated the effects of overexpressing an arginine transfer RNA gene tR(ACG)D and a leucine transfer RNA gene tL(CAA)K on cell growth and ethanol production of S. cerevisiae BY4741 under acetic acid stress. The tL(CAA)K overexpression strain showed a better growth and a 29.41% higher ethanol productivity than that of the control strain. However, overexpression of tR(ACG)D showed negative influence on cell growth and ethanol production. Further studies revealed that the transcriptional levels of HAA1, MSN2, and MSN4, which encode transcription regulators related to stress tolerance, were up-regulated in tL(CAA)K overexpressed strain. This study provides an alternative strategy to develop robust yeast strains for cellulosic biorefinery, and also provides a basis for investigating how yeast stress tolerance is regulated by tRNA genes.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Fermentation , Leucine , RNA, Transfer/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3975-3987, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921494

ABSTRACT

Sterols, a class of cyclopentane poly-hydrophenanthrene derivatives, are the predominant membrane constituent of eukaryotes. These substances have a variety of biological activities and have been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. The presence of endogenous ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells make it an ideal chassis for the de novo synthesis of sterol and its derivatives. Most recently, the rational modification of organelles provides a novel strategy for the directed transportation and storage of target products and the ultimate enhanced product synthesis. This review summarizes the phenotypic responses of S. cerevisiae cells upon different physiological stimulations and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Reinforcement of sterol production through directed storage, transportation, and excretion of sterols offers a novel strategy for breaking the limitation of de novo biosynthesis of sterols in yeast.


Subject(s)
Ergosterol , Phytosterols , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sterols
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3348-3360, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921430

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine is an important aromatic amino acid. Besides its nutritional value, tyrosine is also an important precursor for the synthesis of coumarins and flavonoids. Previously, our laboratory constructed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain LTH0 (ARO4K229L, ARO7G141S, Δaro10, Δzwf1, Δura3) where tyrosine feedback inhibition was released. In the present study, heterologous expression of betaxanthins synthesis genes DOD (from Mirabilis jalapa) and CYP76AD1 (from sugar beet B. vulgaris) in strain LTH0 enabled production of yellow fluorescence. The engineered strain LTH0-DOD-CYP76AD1 was subjected to UV combined with ARTP mutagenesis, followed by flow cytometry screening. Among the mutants screened, the fluorescence intensity of the mutant strain LTH2-5-DOD-CYP76AD1 at the excitation wavelength of 485 nm and emission wavelength of 505 nm was (5 941±435) AU/OD, which was 8.37 times higher than that of strain LTH0-DOD-CYP76AD1. Fourteen mutant strains were subjected to fermentation to evaluate their tyrosine producing ability. The highest extracellular tyrosine titer reached 26.8 mg/L, which was 3.96 times higher than that of strain LTH0-DOD-CYP76AD1. Heterologous expression of the tyrosine ammonia lyase FjTAL derived from Flavobacterium johnsoniae further increased the titer of coumaric acid to 119.8 mg/L, which was 1.02 times higher than that of the original strain LTH0-FjTAL.


Subject(s)
Flavobacterium , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Mirabilis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Tyrosine
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3334-3347, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921429

ABSTRACT

Cordycepin is the key active component of medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris, and it shows multiple functional activities such as anti-tumor and anti-virus. Cordycepin was conventionally produced by liquid fermentation of C. militaris, but the long production cycle and the low productivity constrained its development and application. In this study, two key genes for cordycepin biosynthesis (ScCNS1 and ScCNS2) were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C, producing 67.32 mg/L cordycepin at 240 h. Analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that ZWF1, PRS4, ADE4, ScCNS1 and ScCNS2 which encode enzymes involved in pentose phosphate pathway, purine metabolism and cordycepin biosynthesis pathway, were significantly up-regulated in the late phage of fermentation. Optimization of fermentation medium determined that 50 g/L initial glucose followed by feeding, supplemented with 5 mmol/L Cu²⁺ and 1.0 g/L adenine were the best condition. Fed-batch fermentation using the engineered yeast in a 5 L stirred fermenter produced 137.27 mg/L cordycepin at 144 h, with a productivity up to 0.95 mg/(L·h) reached, which was 240% higher than that of the control.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Culture Media , Deoxyadenosines , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1578-1602, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878656

ABSTRACT

Since its birth in the early 1990s, metabolic engineering technology has gone 30 years rapid development. As one of the preferred chassis for metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae cells have been engineered into microbial cell factories for the production of a variety of bulk chemicals and novel high value-added bioactive compounds. In recent years, synthetic biology, bioinformatics, machine learning and other technologies have also greatly contributed to the technological development and applications of metabolic engineering. This review summarizes the important technological development for metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae in the past 30 years. Firstly, classical metabolic engineering tools and strategies were reviewed, followed by reviewing systems metabolic engineering and synthetic biology driven metabolic engineering approaches. The review is concluded with discussing future perspectives for metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae in the light of state-of-the-art technological development.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1042-1057, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878613

ABSTRACT

Effective utilization of xylose is a basis for economic production of biofuels or chemicals from lignocellulose biomass. Over the past 30 years, through metabolic engineering, evolutionary engineering and other strategies, the metabolic capacity of xylose of the traditional ethanol-producing microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been significantly improved. In recent years, the reported results showed that the transcriptome and metabolome profiles between xylose and glucose metabolism existed significant difference in recombinant yeast strains. Compared with glucose, the overall process of xylose metabolism exhibits Crabtree-negative characteristics, including the limited glycolytic pathway activity, which reduces the metabolic flux of pyruvate to ethanol, and the enhanced cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis and respiratory energy metabolism. These traits are helpful to achieve efficient synthesis of downstream products using pyruvate or acetyl-CoA as precursors. This review provides a detailed overview on the modification and optimization of xylose metabolic pathways in S. cerevisiae, the characteristics of xylose metabolism, and the construction of cell factories for production of chemicals using xylose as a carbon source. Meanwhile, the existed difficulties and challenges, and future studies on biosynthesis of bulk chemicals using xylose as an important carbon source are proposed.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Ethanol , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Xylose
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 966-979, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878607

ABSTRACT

Methylotrophic yeasts are considered as promising cell factories for bio-manufacturing due to their several advantages such as tolerance to low pH and high temperature. In particular, their methanol utilization ability may help to establish a methanol biotransformation process, which will expand the substrate resource for bio-refinery and the product portfolio from methanol. This review summarize current progress on engineering methylotrophic yeasts for production of proteins and chemicals, and compare the strengths and weaknesses with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The challenges and possible solutions in metabolic engineering of methylotrophic yeasts are also discussed. With the developing efficient genetic tools and systems biology, the methylotrophic yeasts should play more important roles in future green bio-manufacturing.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Engineering , Methanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Yeasts
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 950-965, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878606

ABSTRACT

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important hosts in metabolic engineering. Advanced gene editing technology has been widely used in the design and construction of S. cerevisiae cell factories. With the rapid development of gene editing technology, early gene editing technologies based on recombinase and homologous recombination have been gradually replaced by new editing systems. In this review, the principle and application of gene editing technology in S. cerevisiae are summarized. Here, we first briefly describe the classical gene editing techniques of S. cerevisiae. Then elaborate the genome editing system of MegNs, ZFNs and TALENs based on endonuclease. The latest research progress is especially introduced and discussed, including the CRISPR/Cas system, multi-copy integration of heterologous metabolic pathways, and genome-scale gene editing. Finally, we envisage the application prospects and development directions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene editing technology.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Endonucleases/genetics , Gene Editing , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Technology
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 806-815, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878597

ABSTRACT

Yeast are comprised of diverse single-cell fungal species including budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and various nonconventional yeasts. Budding yeast is well known as an important industrial microorganism, which has been widely applied in various fields, such as biopharmaceutical and health industry, food, light industry and biofuels production. In the recent years, various yeast strains from different ecological environments have been isolated and characterized. Novel species have been continuously identified, and strains with diverse physiological characteristics such as stress resistance and production of bioactive compounds were selected, which proved abundant biodiversity of natural yeast resources. Genome mining of yeast strains, as well as multi-omics analyses (transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, etc.) can reveal diverse genetic diversity for strain engineering. The genetic resources including genes encoding various enzymes and regulatory proteins, promoters, and other elements, can be employed for development of robust strains. In addition to exploration of yeast natural diversity, phenotypes that are more suitable for industrial applications can be obtained by generation of a variety of genetic diversity through mutagenesis, laboratory adaptation, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology design. The optimized genetic elements can be used to efficiently improve strain performance. Exploration of yeast biodiversity and genetic diversity can be employed to build efficient cell factories and produce biological enzymes, vaccines, various natural products as well as other valuable products. In this review, progress on yeast diversity is summarized, and the future prospects on efficient development and utilization of yeast biodiversity are proposed. The methods and schemes described in this review also provide a reference for exploration of diversity of other industrial microorganisms and development of efficient strains.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Biofuels , Industrial Microbiology , Metabolic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Synthetic Biology
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 429-447, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878573

ABSTRACT

Higher alcohols are one of the main by-products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in brewing. High concentration of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages easily causes headache, thirst and other symptoms after drinking. It is also the main reason for chronic drunkenness and difficulty in sobering up after intoxication. The main objective of this review is to present an overview of the flavor characteristics and metabolic pathways of higher alcohols as well as the application of mutagenesis breeding techniques in the regulation of higher alcohol metabolism in S. cerevisiae. In particular, we review the application of metabolic engineering technology in genetic modification of amino transferase, α-keto acid metabolism, acetate metabolism and carbon-nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, key challenges and future perspectives of realizing optimization of higher alcohols metabolism are discussed. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive understanding of metabolic regulation system of higher alcohols in S. cerevisiae and to provide insights into the rational development of the excellent industrial S. cerevisiae strains producing higher alcohols.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages , Alcohols/analysis , Fermentation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 439-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergic effects of a novel oral supplement formulation, containing prebiotics, yeast β-glucans, minerals and silymarin (Silybum marianum), on lipid and glycidic metabolism, inflammatory and mitochondrial proteins of the liver, in control and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.@*METHODS@#After an acclimation period, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: nonfat diet (NFD) vehicle, NFD supplemented, high-fat diet (HFD) vehicle and HFD supplemented. The vehicle and experimental formulation were administered orally by gavage once a day during the last four weeks of the diet (28 consecutive days). We then evaluated energy homeostasis, inflammation, and mitochondrial protein expression in these groups of mice.@*RESULTS@#After four weeks of supplementation, study groups experienced reduced glycemia, dyslipidemia, fat, and hepatic fibrosis levels. Additionally, proliferator-activated receptor-α, AMP-activated protein kinase-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression levels were augmented; however, levels of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase subunit α and p65 nuclear factor-κB expression, and oxidative markers were reduced. Notably, the cortisol/C-reactive protein ratio, a well-characterized marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis immune interface status, was found to be modulated by the supplement.@*CONCLUSION@#We discovered that the novel supplement was able to modify different antioxidant, metabolic and inflammatory pathways, improving the energy homeostasis and inflammatory status, and consequently alleviated hepatic steatosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Dietary Supplements , Glucans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Milk Thistle , Minerals , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prebiotics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 46-52, nov. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fructose and single cell protein are important products for the food market. Abundant amounts of low-grade dates worldwide are annually wasted. In this study, highly concentrated fructose syrups and single cell protein were obtained through selective fermentation of date extracts by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: The effect of air flow (0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 vvm) and pH (4.5, 4.8, 5, 5.3 and 5.6) was investigated. Higher air flow led to lower fructose yield. The optimum cell mass production of 10 g/L was achieved at air flow of 1.25 vvm with the fructose yield of 91%. Similar cell mass production was obtained in the range pH of 5.0­5.6, while less cell mass was obtained at pH less than 5. Controlling the pH at 4.5, 5.0 and 5.3 failed to improve the production of cell mass which were 5.6, 5.9 and 5.4 g/L respectively; however, better fructose yield was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Extension of the modified Gompertz enabled excellent predictions of the cell mass, fructose production and fructose fraction. The proposed model was also successfully validated against data from literatures. Thus, the model will be useful for wide application of biological processes.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Phoeniceae , Fructose/biosynthesis , Aerobiosis , Mathematical Concepts , Fermentation , Garbage , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
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