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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200397, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285557

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria brizantha proved to be a promising biomass for ethanol production. Fermentation was not impaired by the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural.


Abstract Different lignocellulosic biomasses are found worldwide and each country has its own important industrial crop that can be converted into high-value products, such as ethanol. Therefore, evaluation of new biomasses to be used in biorefineries is important to decrease the dependence on non-renewable resources and to guarantee sustainable development. This work evaluated Brachiaria brizantha, a grass commonly used as animal forage, and the standard biomass for 2G-ethanol, sugarcane bagasse. The chemical compositions of both biomasses were determined and different times and temperature of acid pretreatment were tested. Morphological analysis via scanning electron microscopy showed more deconstructed fibers after harsher biomass pretreatments. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated Brachiaria brizantha presented higher efficiency than when using sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. A biomass conversion of 46 % was achieved when Brachiaria brizantha grass was pretreated with 2% sulfuric acid for 60 minutes. Moreover, fermentation was not impaired by the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. It was concluded that Brachiaria brizantha is a promising biomass for ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Brachiaria/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Ethanol , Microscopy, Electron/instrumentation
2.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e162942, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122180

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of chitosan (CHI) on sugarcane fermentation profile and losses, chemical composition, and in situ degradation. Treatments were: 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 g of CHI/kg of dry matter (DM). Twenty experimental silos (PVC tubing with diameter 28 cm and height 25 cm) were used. Sand (2 kg) was placed at the bottom of each silo to evaluate effluent losses, and silos were weighed 60 d after ensiling to calculate gas losses. Samples were collected from the center of the silo mass to evaluate silage chemical composition, in situdegradation, fermentation profile, and mold and yeast count. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, and the treatment effect was decomposed using polynomial regression. Chitosan linearly increased acetic acid and NH3-N concentration, while yeast and mold count, and ethanol concentration decreased. Intermediary levels of CHI (from 4.47 to 6.34 g/kg DM) showed the lower values of effluent, gas, and total losses. There was a quadratic effect of CHI on the content of non-fiber carbohydrates, neutral and acid detergent, and in situ DM degradation. The lowest fiber content was observed with levels between 7.01 and 7.47 g/kg DM, whereas the highest non-fiber carbohydrate content and in situ DM degradation were found with 6.30 and 7.17 g/kg DM of CHI, respectively. Chitosan linearly increased acetic acid and NH3-N concentration, whereas it linearly reduced ethanol concentration and count of yeast and mold. Thus, intermediary levels of CHI, between 4.47 and 7.47 g/kg of DM, decrease fermentation losses and improve the nutritional value of sugarcane silage.(AU)


Foram avaliados os efeitos do aumento dos níveis de quitosana (CHI) sobre o perfil e as perdas fermentativas, a composição química e degradação in situ da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8 g de CHI / kg de matéria seca (MS). Foram utilizados vinte silos experimentais (tubos de PVC com 28 cm de diâmetro e 25 cm de altura). Areia (2 kg) foi adicionada na porção inferior de cada silo para avaliar as perdas por efluentes e os silos foram pesados 60 dias após a ensilagem para calcular as perdas por gases. Amostras foram coletadas do centro da massa do silo para avaliar a composição química, degradação in situ, perfil fermentativo e a contagem de fungos e leveduras da silagem. Os dados foram analisados como um delineamento inteiramente casualizado e o efeito do tratamento foi decomposto usando regressão polinomial. A CHI aumentou linearmente a concentração de ácido acético e N-NH3, enquanto diminuiu a contagem de leveduras e bolores e a concentração de etanol. Os níveis intermediários de CHI (de 4,47 a 6,34 g/kg MS) mostraram os menores valores de perdas por efluentes, gases e totais. Houve efeito quadrático da CHI sobre o teor de carboidratos não fibrosos, fibra em detergente neutro e ácido e sobre a degradação in situ da MS. Os menores teores de fibras foram observados com níveis de CHI entre 7,01 e 7,47 g/kg MS, enquanto que os maiores teores de carboidratos não fibrosos e degradação in situ da MS foram encontrados com 6,30 e 7,17 g/kg MS de CHI, repectivamente. A CHI aumentou linearmente as concentrações de ácido acético e N-NH3, enquanto reduziu linearmente a concentração de etanol e a contagem de fungos e leveduras. Desta forma, níveis intermediários de CHI, entre 4,47 e 7,47 g / kg de MS, diminuem as perdas fermentativas e melhoram o valor nutricional da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Silage/analysis , Saccharum/chemistry , Chitosan/analysis , Acetic Acid/analysis , Ethanol
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 16-22, Nov. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087350

ABSTRACT

Background: Fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks have a growing demand, and acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) are some relevant examples. These molecules can be produced by the bacterial fermentation process using hydrolysates generated from lignocellulosic biomass as sugarcane bagasse, one of the most abundant sources of lignocellulosic biomass in Brazil. It originates as a residue in mills and distilleries in the production of sugar and ethanol. Results: In the present work, two strategies to generate hydrolysates of sugarcane bagasse were adopted. The fermentation of the first hydrolysate by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 6228 resulted in final concentrations of butanol, acetone and ethanol of 6.4, 4.5 and 0.6 g/L, respectively. On the other hand, the second hydrolysate presented better results (averages of 9.1, 5.5 and 0.8 g/L, respectively), even without the need for nutrient supplementation, since key elements were already present in the medium. The productivity (QP) and yield (YP/S) of the solvents with second hydrolysate were 0.5 g/L•h-1 and 0.4 g/g, respectively. Conclusions: The results described herein open new perspectives for the production of important molecules from residual lignocellulosic biomass for the fuel and chemical industries within the context of second-generation biorefinery.


Subject(s)
Acetone/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Butanols/metabolism , Brazil , Cellulose/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Clostridium acetobutylicum/metabolism , Biofuels , Fermentation
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2883-2894, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011891

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo explora um dos aspectos mais interessantes e menos estudados no Brasil: as consequências das experiências complexas e contraditórias da substituição total de bebidas tradicionais indígenas pela cachaça, introduzida pelo contato interétnico. Contribui com a carência de ampliação de estudos na temática, analisando as consequências negativas do uso de álcool Maxakali. Enquanto estudos antropológicos enfatizam funções do beber tradicional e contemporâneo como "lubrificantes" sociais, as percepções sociais Maxakali ressaltam consequências negativas do uso da cachaça vendida ou trocada no contato interétnico. Interpretou-se no cotidiano, símbolos e significados dessas consequências, narradas por 21 lideranças em grupos focais. Com a substituição da Kaxmuk pelos Maxakali, ocorreram adaptações surgidas pelo contato interétnico, com relações negativas para quem bebe, suas família, aldeia e comunidade. No mundo-da-vida, as consequências negativas apresentaram-se em forma de acidentes, desarmonias conjugais, negligências, além de comportamentos violentos, doenças e mortes. Este estudo reforça a importância de produção de conhecimentos aprofundados e abrangentes visando a identificação de grupos vulneráveis em busca de soluções participantes.


Abstract This study explores one of the most interesting and least studied issues in Brazil: the consequences of complex and contradictory experiences by replacing the traditional drinks by cachaça, introduced through interethnic contact. Given the rarity of the study of Maxakali alcohol consumption in research, this study aims to understand, from the native's point of view, the negative aftereffect of alcohol consumption. Although anthropological studies emphasize functions of traditional and contemporary drinking as social "lubricants", social perceptions of the Maxakali highlight the problems of cachaça bought through interethnic contact. Symbols and meanings of these consequences were interpreted through their daily life histories, recorded by 21 leaders in focus group. Through the interethnic contact, some adaptations have occurred in the Maxakali alcohol use, with negative consequences for those who drink, their families, their villages and their community. In the world-of-life, these changes these changes can be seen through accidents, insults, marital disharmony, neglects, violent behavior, illness and death. This study's findings highlight the importance of producing comprehensive and in-depth knowledge in search of to identify vulnerable groups and to develop participatory solutions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Indians, South American/psychology , Saccharum/chemistry , Brazil , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Focus Groups , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Middle Aged
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 289-295, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990040

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Peripheral nerve regeneration is a serious clinical problem. The goal of this work was to evaluate comparatively a biopolymer tube of sugarcane with an expanded polyethylene tube as a tube guide in peripheral nerve regeneration. Fourteen male albino Wistar rats were used, separated into three different groups: control (CG), lesion + polyethylene tube (PG) and lesion + sugarcane biopolymer (SBG). At 60 days old, animals from the PG and SBG underwent surgery for tubulization of the sciatic nerve, and 60 days after the injury they were sacrificed for collection of the nerve. In the analysis of the number of nerve fibers, a smaller number was seen in the PG and SBG groups compared to the CG, no difference was seen between the PG and SBG groups (p<0.05). With regard to the number of blood vessels, the SBG group had a larger number than the CG and PG groups (p<0.05). The SBG also presented increase on axonal diameter and G -ratio compared to PG (p<0.05). Taken together these data revealed that biopolymer tube favors a suitable environment for peripheral nerve regeneration.


RESUMEN: La regeneración nerviosa periférica es un problema clínico grave. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar comparativamente un tubo de biopolímero de caña de azúcar con un tubo de polietileno expandido, como guía de tubo en la regeneración de nervios periféricos. Se utilizaron dieciocho ratas Wistar albinas macho, separadas en tres grupos: control (CG), lesión + tubo de polietileno (PG) y lesión + biopolímero de caña de azúcar (SBG). A los 60 días de edad, los animales del PG y SBG fueron sometidos a una cirugía para la tubulización del nervio ciático, y 60 días después de la lesión fueron sacrificados para la recolección del nervio. En el análisis del número de fibras nerviosas, se observó un número menor en los grupos PG y SBG en comparación con el CG; no se observaron diferencias entre los grupos PG y SBG (p <0,05). Con respecto al número de vasos sanguíneos, el grupo SBG tuvo un número mayor que los grupos CG y PG (p <0,05). El SBG también presentó un aumento en el diámetro axonal y la proporción G en comparación con PG (p <0,05). En conjunto, estos datos revelaron que el tubo de biopolímero favorece un entorno adecuado para la regeneración de nervios periféricos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Biopolymers/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Guided Tissue Regeneration/methods , Nerve Regeneration , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Biocompatible Materials , Rats, Wistar
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 541-555, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886922

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vinasse is a byproduct of the process of distillation of sugarcane juice for the manufacture of sugar and alcohol. Because it is rich in nutrients, mainly potassium (K), is used as fertilizer and applied via fertigation, without concerning for the fate of this compound in the soil. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the interactions of the potassium ion (K+), applied via vinasse in a soil representative of the sugarcane zone of the State of Pernambuco using adsorption isotherms. The methodology was based on physical, chemical and soil mineralogical characterization, as well as equilibrium batch tests, where the experimental curves were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results allowed to infer that the Freundlich model showed better fit of the curve in both forms: linear and non-linear (direct fit); the non-linear model was selected due to the values ​​of coefficient of determination (R²). The interaction between potassium and soil occurred mainly with organic matter and the presence of soil kaolinite, because they showed negative ions on the external surface, thereby promoting potassium adsorption. Soil potassium adsorption capacity was higher for the first layer (0-20 cm) and decreased along the depth profile.


Subject(s)
Potassium/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Reference Values , Linear Models , Adsorption , Saccharum/chemistry , Fertilizers , Ions , Models, Chemical
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3093-3102, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886868

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT One of the most important steps is to clarify the juice, which are added synthetic polymer acrylamide base, aiming the fast settling of impurities present in the juice. However, this input is expensive and may have carcinogenic and neurotoxic actions to humans. The search for new natural flocculants that have similarity with the commercial product is of great value. A bioextract that may be promising and has coagulant action is the Moringa oleifera Lam. In this context, the objective of the research was to evaluate the consequences of the use of moringa seed extracts and various concentrations of commercial polymer, such as sedimentation aids in clarifying sugarcane juice in the ethanol production, comparing the efficiency of the bioextract moringa. In the treatment of the juice, excessive addition of flocculants can result in reduction of sugars. The bioflocculant moringa was similar in technological features and the fermentative viability compared to usual dose of commercial polymer in Brazil. The fermentation efficiency was also higher for this flocculant, followed by moringa extract. The results obtained in this research indicate potential to the moringa bioextract, particularly in countries where the doses of flocculants are higher than 5 mg.L-1.


Subject(s)
Polymers/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Acrylamide/metabolism , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Biofuels , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Ethanol , Fermentation
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 489-496, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780830

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, and full supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30 °C, 200 rpm, for 48 h in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50 mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67 g g-1) was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34 g L-1 h-1) was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.


Subject(s)
Xylitol/biosynthesis , Candida/metabolism , Saccharum/microbiology , Xylose/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Culture Media/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Saccharum/chemistry , Fermentation , Hydrolysis
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(1): 53-58, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771847

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of particulate (granule-shaped) SCB on bone repair relating it to its biocompatibility and bone neoformation. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were submitted to a one 7-mm-diameter defect and divided equally into three experimental groups, with two different postoperative times of evaluation, 90 and 120 days. Each calvaria defect was filled up with clot (control group), particulated autogenous bone or granulated SCB. Five animals of each group were assessed at 90 and 120 days after surgery. In these two periods, histological and histometric analysis were obtained. RESULTS: The clot group showed a bone resorption trend while the autogenous bone group a bone repair trend. However in the SCB group, the critical defect filled up only with fibrous connective tissue and presented none bone neoformation. CONCLUSION : The sugarcane biopolymer when used in critical size defects was a biocompatible material and proved to be a good material to fill bone cavities, keeping them as uniform areas filled with soft tissue and avoiding the tissue shrinkage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Bone Transplantation/methods , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Saccharum/chemistry , Skull/injuries , Bone Substitutes , Biopolymers/administration & dosage , Biopolymers/therapeutic use , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Skull/pathology , Skull/surgery , Time Factors
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 770-777, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the histological response of damaged osteochondral tissue in the femoral condyles of rabbits after repairing the wounds with sugar cane biopolymer gel - compared to the control group. METHODS: The study investigated 16 New Zealand rabbits, at 90, 120 and 180 days after surgery. In all the animals, a lesion of 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm deep was induced in each right and left femoral condyle. Each animal has provided both knees, divided into medial and lateral condyle, resulting in 64 samples. 32 knees were divided into two groups: Right knee, medial and lateral condyles, filled with biopolymer; Left knee, medial and lateral condyles, unfilled. The anatomical specimens were removed, and subjected to histological techniques and morphometric and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In all the periods of the group under study an inflammatory reaction mediated by giant cells and mononuclear cells was found, while in the control group there was early healing produced by fibroblasts and few mononuclear cells with statistical significance between groups. CONCLUSION: The biopolymer gel caused an inflammatory reaction mediated by giant cells and mononuclear cells while the control group there was cicatrization mediated by fibroblasts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Biopolymers/therapeutic use , Cartilage, Articular/injuries , Femur/injuries , Saccharum/chemistry , Wound Healing/drug effects , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Femur/pathology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gels/therapeutic use , Giant Cells/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(6): 456-461, Nov. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907507

ABSTRACT

Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous methanolic extract from Saccharum officinarum on the sporulation and morphology of oocysts of four Eimeria species (Eimeria tenella, E. necatrix, E. mitis, E. brunetti) of poultry. Sporulation inhibition bioassay was used to evaluate the activity of Saccharum officinarum extract (SOE) on the sporulation of coccidian oocysts. In this assay, unsporulated oocysts were exposed to six concentrations of S. officinarum in 10 percent dimethyl sulfoxide solution (w/v; 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.31 percent) while DMSO and potassium dichromate solution (K2Cr2O7) served as control groups. The Petri dishes were partially covered to allow the passage of oxygen and incubated at 25-29° C for 48 h, providing 60-80 percent humidity. The sporulation of the oocyst was confirmed by examining sporocysts under inverted microscope at 40x. Results showed anticoccidial activity of SOE against all Eimeria species as proved by its ability to inhibit the sporulation of the oocysts under laboratory conditions. Inhibition of sporulation was observed in dose dependent manner. S. officinarum extract at higher dose also damaged the normal morphology and shape of oocysts of Eimeria species.


El presente estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el efecto del extracto metanólico acuoso a partir de Saccharum officinarum en la esporulación de los ooquistes y la morfología de cuatro especies de Eimeria tenella (Eimeria, E. necatrix, E. mitis, E. brunetti) de aves de corral. Bioensayos de la inhibición de la esporulación se utilizaron para evaluar la actividad de extracto de Saccharum officinarum (SOE) en la esporulación de ooquistes de coccidios. En este ensayo, los ooquistes no esporulados se expusieron a seis concentraciones de S. officinarum en solución de dimetil sulfóxido 10 por ciento (w / v; 10, 5, 2,5, 1,25, 0,625 y 0,31 por ciento), mientras DMSO y una solución de dicromato de potasio (K2Cr2O7) sirvió como grupos de control. Las placas de Petri se cubren parcialmente para permitir el paso de oxígeno y se incubaron a 25-29° C durante 48 h, proporcionando el 60-80 por ciento de humedad. La esporulación de los ooquistes fue confirmado mediante el examen de esporoquistes bajo microscopio invertido a 40x. Los resultados mostraron actividad anticoccidial de SOE contra todas las especies de Eimeria como se ha demostrado por su capacidad para inhibir la esporulación de los ooquistes en condiciones de laboratorio. Se observó una inhibición de la esporulación de manera dependiente de la dosis. Extracto de S. officinarum en dosis más alta también dañó la morfología normal y la forma de ooquistes de las especies de Eimeria.


Subject(s)
Coccidiostats/pharmacology , Eimeria , Oocysts , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Saccharum/chemistry , Biological Assay , In Vitro Techniques
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(2): 511-518, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-747064

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se o efeito do ambiente ruminal sobre a degradação da FDN de 12 cultivares de cana. As dietas continham: 87,1% de cana (Cana) ou 42,0% de cana e 58,0% de concentrado com milho (Milho) ou polpa cítrica (Polpa). Seis vacas com cânula ruminal formaram quadrados latinos 3x3. Por 11 dias de cada período experimental, o consumo de matéria seca foi fixado em 1,2% do peso vivo. No dia 12, baixo pH ruminal foi induzido no Milho e na Polpa por infusão intrarruminal de milho ou polpa cítrica. Simultaneamente, ureia foi adicionada ao rúmen em todos os tratamentos. Sacos de náilon contendo os cultivares foram incubados por 24h nos dias 11 e 12. O pH ruminal no dia 11 foi 7,01 e NH3 foi 3,4, 4,4 e 6,2mg/dL para Cana, Milho e Polpa, respectivamente. O pH no dia 12 foi 6,98 para Cana, 6,49 para Milho e 6,04 para Polpa, e NH3 foi 13,0mg/dL. Para Cana, a degradabilidade ruminal da FDN foi 21% no dia 11 e 28% no dia 12; para Milho e Polpa esta foi ao redor de 21% em ambos os dias. O ordenamento dos cultivares por degradabilidade ruminal da FDN foi similar nos ambientes ruminais distintos.(AU)


The effect of the rumen environment on NDF degradability of 12 sugarcane cultivars was evaluated. Diets contained: 87.1% of sugarcane (Cane) or 42.0% of sugarcane and 58.0% of concentrates with corn (Corn) or citrus pulp (Citrus). Six rumen cannulated cows formed 3x3 Latin Squares. For 11 days of each experimental period, the intake of dry matter was fixed at 1.2% of body weight. On day 12, low ruminal pH was induced on Corn and Citrus by pulse dosing corn or citrus pulp into the rumen. Simultaneously, urea was added to the rumen in all treatments. Nylon bags containing the cultivars were incubated for 24 h on the 11th and 12th days. Rumen pH on day 11 was 7.01 and NH3 was 3.4, 4.4 and 6.2 mg/dl for Cane, Corn and Citrus, respectively. Ruminal pH on day 12 was 6.98 for Cane, 6.49 for Corn and 6.04 for Citrus and NH3 was 13.0 mg/dl. For Cane, ruminal NDF degradability was 21% on day 11 and 28% on day 12, for Corn and Citrus it was around 21% in both days. The ranking of cultivars based on ruminal NDF degradability was similar in distinct rumen environments.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Rumen/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Rumination, Digestive , Animal Feed/analysis
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(1): 181-188, 2/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741111

ABSTRACT

This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal (CM) content on the chemical-bromatological composition, as well as the fermentation characteristics and dry matter losses of sugarcane silage. The treatments consisted of four levels (0, 7, 14 and 21% natural matter) of addition of castor bean meal. The design was completely randomized, with five replicates. The material was ensiled in PVC silos of 50-cm in height and 10-cm in diameter, which were opened after 60 days. The density of fodder maintained in the silos was equal to 750kg of natural matter/m3. In order to quantify the gas and effluent losses, the silos were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The addition of castor bean meal has increased the levels of DM and crude protein and reduced the levels of neutral detergent fiber, N-NH3, ethanol, and gas and effluent losses from silages, but did not affect pH values. During ensiling, alcoholic fermentation was controlled with the inclusion of the additive.


O experimento foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de níveis de farelo de mamona destoxificado sobre a composição químico-bromatológica, as características fermentativas e as perdas de matéria seca da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Os tratamentos consistiam em quatro níveis (0, 7, 14 e 21% da matéria natural) de inclusão do farelo de mamona. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Foram usados silos de PVC, com 50cm de altura e 10cm de diâmetro, para a produção das silagens, que foram abertos após 60 dias. A densidade de forragem nos silos foi correspondente a 750kg de matéria natural/m3. Os silos foram pesados no início e ao final do período experimental para quantificar as perdas por gases e efluentes. A inclusão de farelo de mamona elevou os teores de MS e proteína bruta e reduziu os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, N-NH3, etanol e as perdas por gases e efluentes das silagens, não ocasionando efeito nos valores de pH. A fermentação alcoólica durante a ensilagem foi controlada com a inclusão do aditivo.


Subject(s)
Ricinus/chemistry , Saccharum/classification , Saccharum/chemistry , Fermentation
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(4): 271-276, dic. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752707

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química, consumo voluntário e digestibilidade aparente de dietas contendo resíduo oriundo da produção de palmito da palmeira Real Australiana (Archontophoenix alexandrae) em substituição à cana-de-açúcarem ovinos. Foram utilizados 12 ovinos com peso vivo médio de 23,3 ± 2,8 kg, mantidos em gaiolas metabólicas distribuídos em seis quadrados latinos 2x2 implementado em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (três tipos de resíduo - folha, bainha e composta - e dois níveis de substituição do resíduo, 5% e 15%). Verificou-se maior consumo de matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO), carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF) na substituição pelo resíduo composta. Os valores médios de digestibilidade aparente da MS, MO, Proteína bruta (PB), fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro corrigido para cinzas e proteína(FDNcp) e nível dietético de NDT foram maiores para o resíduo folha. Constatou- se efeito de interação entre resíduo e o nível de substituição sobre as excreções urinárias de nitrogênio total (EUN), balanço nitrogenado aparente (BNA) e compostos nitrogenados microbianos (NMIC). Resíduos da produção de palmito oriundos da palmeira Real Australiana podem ser utilizados como alimentos volumosos na dieta de animais ruminantes, sendo destes, o resíduo folha e composta os que apresentaram melhores respostas nas características avaliadas.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of the diets containing residue from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae) to replace sugar cane on sheep. Twelve sheep were used with average live weight of 23,3 ± 2,8 Kg and they placed in metabolism cages and distributed in six latin square 2 x 2 in a factorial design 3 x 2 (three types of residue -sheet, bark and composed - and two levels of residue’s replacement, 5% and 15%). It was observed higher intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) by substitution of composed residue. The average values of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre correct for ash and protein (NDFap) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were higher for sheet residue. There was interaction between type of residue and level of residue’s replacement on the urinary excretion of total nitrogen (NUE), apparent nitrogen balance (BNA) and microbial nitrogen compost (NMIC). Residues from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm can be used as roughage in the ruminants’diet, and of these residues, the sheet and composed residue showed better response in the evaluated characteristics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arecaceae/chemistry , Feeding Behavior , Saccharum/chemistry , Sheep, Domestic/metabolism , Silage/analysis , Brazil , Digestion , Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism , Dietary Fiber/metabolism , Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Eating , Food Quality , Feces/chemistry , Feces/microbiology , Nitrogen/urine , Plant Leaves/chemistry
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(3): 870-878, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-718086

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a variabilidade do valor nutritivo entre cultivares de cana-de-açúcar, estimar a correlação entre digestibilidade e produtividade da planta e definir características químicas e agronômicas mais correlacionadas ao valor nutritivo. Vinte cultivares de cana-de-açúcar foram cultivados em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em Campos, RJ, Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas com Brix superior a 18 por cento, a partir de 370 dias do corte da segunda soca. Características agronômicas e químicas e as degradabilidades ruminais in situ da FDN e da MS foram avaliadas. A produtividade foi 21,2±5,7t de MS/ha, e a degradabilidade ruminal da MS (DEG MS) foi 57,1±2,6 por cento do incubado (média±DP). A degradabilidade ruminal da FDN foi 19,8±2,42 por cento do incubado. Nenhuma variável avaliada foi correlacionada à degradabilidade da FDN (P>0,10). Obter cultivares que conciliam alta produtividade com alta DEG MS é viável, pois a correlação tanto fenotípica quanto genética entre esses caracteres foi pequena. A h2 para a DEG MS foi superior a 85 por cento. Variáveis indiretamente correlacionadas à DEG MS tiveram menor h2 que o desta variável. Canas com baixo conteúdo de fibra, com colmos curtos e com alta relação entre colmos e folhas, foram mais digestíveis...


The objective was to evaluate the variability of nutritive value among sugarcane cultivars, to estimate the correlation between plant digestibility and productivity, and to define agronomical and chemical traits most correlated with nutritive value. Twenty sugarcane cultivars were cultivated in a completely randomized block design with four replicates in Campos, RJ, Brazil. Plants were harvested when the Brix was superior to 18 percent, starting at 370 days after the second ratoon cut. Agronomical and chemical traits and the ruminal NDF and DM in situ degradability were evaluated. Productivity was 21.2±5.7t of DM/ha and ruminal DM degradability (DM DEG) was 57.1±2.6 percent of incubated (mean±SD). Ruminal NDF degradability was 19.8±2.42 percent of incubated, and none of the variables evaluated were correlated to the NDF degradability (P>0.10). Obtaining cultivars that conciliate high productivity to high digestibility is feasible, since the phenotypic and the genetic correlation between these traits were low. The estimated h2 for the DM DEG was superior to 85 percent. Variables indirectly correlated to the digestibility had smaller h2 than the one for this variable. Sugarcane with low fiber content, short stalk length and high stalk to leaves ratio were more digestible...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Animal Feed , Cattle/physiology , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Saccharum/growth & development , Saccharum/chemistry , Dietary Fiber , Nutrients
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 529-538, Jan.-Apr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709294

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the most adequate level of calcium oxide (CaO) in the treatment of sugar cane by evaluating the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. The sugar cane was homogenized with CaO levels 0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25, 3.0, 3.75 and 4.5 percent, in natura matter, for 24 hours. The dry matter and mineral matter increased, while the organic matter of the sugar cane decreased (P <0.05) linearly as a result of the CaO levels. The CaO had no effect on the levels of crude protein and ether extract. The phosphorus concentration remained unchanged, but there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the calcium content. The contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and cellulose decreased linearly with the levels of CaO. The average levels of indigestible dry matter and indigestible neutral detergent fiber significantly decreased with increasing levels of CaO. The results showed that the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was different between fresh sugar cane and sugar cane with added levels of CaO from 1.5 percent. The IVDMD and nutritional value of the sugar cane was improved by adding 1.5 percent CaO based on fresh content...


O objetivo foi identificar o nível mais adequado de óxido de cálcio (CaO) no tratamento da cana-de-açúcar por meio da avaliação da composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. A cana-de-açúcar foi homogeneizada adicionando os níveis de CaO 0; 0,75; 1,5; 2,25; 3,0; 3,75 e 4,5 por cento em porcentagem de matéria natural, por 24 horas. Os teores de matéria seca e matéria mineral aumentaram, ao passo que o teor de matéria orgânica da cana-de-açúcar diminuiu (P<0,05) de forma linear em função dos níveis de CaO. Não houve efeito dos níveis do CaO sobre o teor de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Os teores médios de fósforo mantiveram-se inalterados, porém ocorreu um aumento (P<0,05) no teor de cálcio. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e celulose diminuíram linearmente em função dos níveis de CaO. Os teores médios da matéria seca indigestível e da fibra em detergente neutro indigestível tiveram redução significativa com o aumento dos níveis de CaO. Os resultados da digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVDM) mostraram-se diferentes entre cana-de-açúcar in natura e a com níveis de CaO. Níveis de CaO a partir de 1,5 por cento melhoram o valor nutritivo e a DIVDM da cana-de-açúcar...


Subject(s)
Calcium Oxide , Saccharum , Saccharum/chemistry , Cattle , Digestion , Organic Matter
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(1): 243-250, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715579

ABSTRACT

The cellulase proteins have a great importance in the enzymatic hydrolysis of woody biomass. Despite of costs being a major concern, it has been a stimulus to study basidiomycetes biochemical properties which degrade lignocellulosic material and have prompted the processes' study for obtaining cellulolytic enzymes in fungi. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the initial nitrogen content on (ammonium sulfate) and on sugar cane bagasse, which hereby, acts as an inducer of hydrolytic enzymes to produce cellulases and xylanases, using three Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler strains as a transformation agent. A factorial design with 22 replications in the central point was conducted, varying concentrations of ammonium sulfate and sugar cane bagasse. The submerged cultures carried out in synthetic culture medium and incubated at 25°C for 7 days on an orbital shaker at 150 rpm. The total protein and cellulase activity as endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase and the xylanase was also determined. The results showed that the production of hydrolytic enzymes was stimulated by the presence of high concentrations of sugar cane bagasse (30g/L), characterizing it as an inducer due to the demonstrated proportional relationship. Thus, ammonium sulfate acted as a reducing agent in the synthesis of enzymes, being the low concentrations (0.1g/L) indicated for the enzyme production system under study. Among the studied strains, the EF52 showed higher activity for xylanase, endoglucanases, β-glucosidase and also protein.


As celulases são proteínas de grande importância na hidrólise enzimática de biomassa florestal. No entanto, seu custo elevado tem estimulado o estudo de processos de obtenção de enzimas celulolíticas por fungos filamentosos, tais como os basidiomicetos que apresentam propriedades bioquímicas para degradação de material lignocelulósico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do teor inicial de nitrogênio (sulfato de amônia) e de um indutor de enzimas hidrolíticas (bagaço de cana de açúcar) na produção de xilanases e celulases utilizando três isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler como agente de transformação. Foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 22 com repetição no ponto central, variando as concentrações de sulfato de amônia e bagaço de cana de açúcar. O cultivo submerso realizado em meio de cultivo sintético e incubado a 25°C por 7 dias em agitador orbital a 150 rpm. Foram determinados o teor de proteínas totais e a atividade de celulase como: endoglucanase, exoglucanase e β-glucosidase e ainda xilanase. Os resultados demonstraram que a produção das enzimas hidrolíticas foi estimulada pela presença de alta concentração de bagaço de cana (30g/L), caracterizando-o como agente indutor devido à relação de proporcionalidade demonstrada. Por sua vez, o sulfato de amônio atuou como redutor da síntese de enzimas, sendo as baixas concentrações (0,1g/L) indicadas para o sistema de produção das enzimas em estudo. Quanto às linhagens, a EF52 mostrou maior atividade para xilanase, endoglucanases, β-glucosidase e proteínas.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Sulfate/pharmacology , Cellulose/pharmacology , Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Saccharum/chemistry , Shiitake Mushrooms/enzymology , Fermentation
18.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 17(4): 267-268, out.-dez.2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758599

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão de níveis crescentes (5, 10 e 15%) de caroço de algodão à uma dieta de silagem cana-de-açúcar confeccionada com 1% de ureia em base de matéria seca e concentrado composto de milho e farelo de algodão. Foram avaliadas a composição química, as concentrações de ácidos graxos, nitrogênio amoniacal e valores de pH da amostra do líquido ruminal, a cinética ruminal, os parâmetros de degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Além da eficácia dos indicadores externos LIPE® e dióxido de titânio nas estimativas de produção fecal. Foram utilizadas quatro vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu fistuladas no rúmen, em um delineamento em Quadrado Latino 4 x 4, no terço inicial da lactação (60 ± 25 dias) e com produção média de 11,1±3,3 kg de leite/dia. Dentre os parâmetros de fermentação e cinética ruminal, somente a concentração ruminal (mMoles/100 mL) e a proporção molar (%) do propionato não sofreram influência (P>0,05) dos tratamentos. Dentre os parâmetros de degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca, tanto a taxa de degradação (c) (0,0458; 0,0372; 0,033 e 0,0147 /h) quanto a degradabilidade efetiva (DE) para uma taxa de passagem de 3,9% (44,26; 46,06; 44,53; e 38,74%) para os tratamentos com 0; 5; 10 e 15% de caroço de algodão, respectivamente, reduziram seus valores com a adição de caroço de algodão a um nível de significância de 5%...


The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclusion of increasing levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) of cottonseed to a basic sugarcane silage diet made with 1% urea in dry matter basis and concentrate composed of corn and cottonseed meal. The chemical and kinetic parameters were analyzed on in situ dry matter of sugarcane silage, as well as neutral detergent fiber were analyzed. The effectiveness of LIPE® external indicators and titanium dioxide were analyzed in the estimates of fecal production. Four crossbred Holstein dairy cows, fitted with rumen cannulas, in a randomized Latin Squares 4x4 design in the early lactation stage (60 ± 25 days) and average production of 11.1 ±3.3kg milk/day were analyzed. Among the fermentation and kinetic parameters, only ruminal concentration (mMoles/100 ml) and the propionate molar ratio (%)were not influenced (P> 0.05) by the treatments. Among the parameters of in situ dry matter, both the rate of degradation (c) (0.0458, 0.0372, 0.033 and 0.0147 / h) and the effective degradability (DE) for a passage rate of 3.9% (44.26, 46.06, 44.53, and 38.74%) for 0, 5, 10 and 15% cottonseed treatments, respectively, reduced their values with the addition of whole cottonseed at a 5% significance level...


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la inclusión de niveles crecientes (5, 10 y 15%) de semilla de algodón a una dieta de ensilaje de caña de azúcar con 1% de urea en base de materia seca y concentrado compuesto por maíz y harina de semilla de algodón. Se evaluó la composición química, concentraciones de ácidos grasos, nitrógeno amoniacal y valores de pH de muestra del líquido ruminal, la cinética ruminal, los parámetros de degrabilidad in situ de la materia seca y de la fibra en detergente neutra de ensilado de caña de azúcar. Además de la eficacia de los indicadores externos LIPE® y dióxido de titanio en las estimaciones de producción de heces. Se utilizó cuatro vacas mestizas Holstein y Cebú fistuladas en el rumen, en un delineamiento en Cuadrado Latino 4 x 4, en el tercio inicial de la lactación (60 ± 25 días) y con producción promedia de 11,1 ± 3,3 kg de leche/día. Entre los parámetros de fermentación y cinética ruminal, sólo la concentración ruminal (mMoles/100 ml) y la proporción molar (%) de propionato no sufrieron influencia (P> 0,05) de los tratamientos...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Saccharum/metabolism , Saccharum/chemistry , Silage/analysis , Silage , Fermentation , Gossypium/chemistry
19.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 17(4): 269-270, out.-dez.2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758600

ABSTRACT

Entre os co-produtos existentes, o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar merece destaque, visto que são produzidas, anualmente no país, cerca de 75 milhões de toneladas por ano. Este bagaço proveniente de usinas de açúcar, álcool ou aguardente constitui um problema, por ser pouco utilizado, sendo muitas vezes queimado ao ar livre, enquanto poderia ser usado na alimentação de ruminantes. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição da amônia anidra (NH3 ) sobre o valor nutritivo do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.) em quatro carneiros adultos machos, castrados, sem raça definida, com peso inicial de 40,75 kg mantidos em gaiolas individuais de metabolismo, com sal mineralizado e água ad libitum. Quatro dietas isoproteicas, foram testadas e fornecidas aos animais em um delineamento em quadrado latino 4x4, sendo: Dieta 1 – Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar “in natura”, Dieta 2 - Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar + 2% de NH3 , com base na matéria seca (MS), Dieta 3 - Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar + 3% de NH3 , com base na MS, Dieta 4 - Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar + 4% de NH3 , com base na MS. As dietas eram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia no período da manhã e tarde sempre nos horários de oito e 16 horas, respectivamente. Para a determinação da digestibilidade aparente utilizaram-se bolsas coletoras de fezes e as amostras do alimento e sobras eram mensuradas diariamente. A coleta da urina foi realizada utilizando-se baldes localizados sob as gaiolas de metabolismo, cujos baldes continham 100 mL de ácido clorídrico (HCL 2N) para prevenir fermentação e perda de nitrogênio. As amostras coletadas dos alimentos, sobras, fezes e urina foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos e conservadas em refrigeração, separando-se as amostras por tratamento e período experimental...


Among the existing co-products, crushed sugarcane bagasse is noteworthy, since the country has an annual production of approximately 75 million tons. The sugarcane bagasse from sugar, alcohol or cachaça mills is an issue, since it is underused and is often burned in open air, while it could be used as ruminant feed. This study assesses the effects of the addition of anhydrous ammonia (NH3 ) on the nutritional value of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse in four adult, male, mixed breed, castrated sheep, with 40.75kg initial weight, kept in individual metabolism cages, with mineral supplement and water ad libitum. Four isoproteic diets have been tested and fed to the animals in a 4x4 Latin square design. These treatments were: Diet 1 – Sugarcane bagasse in natura; Diet 2 - Sugarcane bagasse + 2% NH3 , based on dry matter (DM); Diet 3 - Sugarcane bagasse + 3% NH3 , based on DM; Diet 4 - Sugarcane bagasse NH3 + 4% based on DM. The diets were fed twice a day, in the morning and afternoon, always at 08:00 am and 04:00 pm, respectively. For the determination of apparent digestibility, fecal collection bags were used and samples of food and leftovers were daily measured. Urine collection was performed using buckets placed under the metabolism cages. These buckets contained 100-ml hydrochloric acid (2N HCl) to avoid fermentation and nitrogen loss. Feed, leftover, feces and urine samples were stored in plastic bags under refrigeration, separated by treatment and trial period. After thawing the feces, diet and leftover samples were pre-dried at 55 °C for 72 hours and then ground in a mill with 1.00-mm mesh sieve. Urine samples were previously dried in an oven at 55 °C stored in plastic bags and then placed in a calorimeter for determining the energy content...


Entre los coproductos existentes, el bagazo de caña de azúcar merece destaque, visto que es producido todo el año en el país, cerca de 75 millones de toneladas por año. Este bagazo proveniente de usinas de azúcar, alcohol o aguardiente constituye un problema, por ser poco utilizado, con frecuencia se queman al aire libre, mientras podría ser utilizado en la alimentación de rumiantes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la adición de amoníaco anhidro (NH3 ) en el valor nutritivo del bagazo de caña azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.) para cuatro carneros machos adultos, castrados, sin raza definida, con peso inicial de 40,75 kg en jaulas individuales para el metabolismo, con sales minerales y agua ad libitum. Cuatro dietas isoproteicas han sido testadas y suministradas a los animales en un delineamiento en cuadrado latino 4x4, siendo: Dieta 1 - Bagazo de caña de azúcar “in natura”, Dieta 2 - Bagazo de caña de azúcar + 2% NH3 , con base en la materia seca (MS), Dieta 3 - Bagazo de caña de azúcar + 3% NH3 , basado en MS, Dieta 4 - Bagazo de caña de azúcar + 4% de NH3 , basado en la MS. Las dietas eran suministradas dos veces al día en el período de la mañana y tarde siempre en los horarios de ocho y 16 horas, respectivamente. Para la determinación de la digestibilidad aparente se utilizaron bolsas de plástico para recogido de heces, muestras de los alimentos y las sobras eran mensuradas diariamente...


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/physiology , Sheep/metabolism , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Feed/classification , Animal Feed , Saccharum/growth & development , Saccharum/chemistry , Ammonia/administration & dosage
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Nov; 51(11): 992-996
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149408

ABSTRACT

The optimization of biomass loading enzyme loading, surfactant concentration and incubation time, using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box Behnken design for enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane tops (SCT) for maximum recovery of fermentable sugars using crude cellulases, resulted in 90.24% saccharification efficiency. Maximum saccharification yield of 0.376 g/g glucose as substrate for ethanol production was observed at optimal conditions of 10% biomass loading (pretreated), 100FPU/g of cellulase loading, 0.04% (w/w) surfactant concentration and 72 h of incubation time.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Biomass , Enzymes/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Microwaves , Saccharum/chemistry , Surface Properties
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