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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 324-329, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362983

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En el espacio retrorrectal o presacro pueden desarrollarse lesiones tumorales, tanto benignas como malignas. La mayoría de los pacientes son asintomáticos y, cuando presentan síntomas, éstos son inespecíficos. Entre los tumores retrorrectales se destaca el grupo de origen neurogénico, donde el Schwannoma es el más frecuente.Caso clínico. Mujer de 32 años, con tumor retrorrectal, que producía una sintomatología escasa e imprecisa, diagnosticado durante una intervención quirúrgica por mioma uterino, que finalmenteresultó ser un Schawnnoma. Conclusión. La tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética son importantes para el diagnóstico y para establecer el nivel de la lesión en relación con el sacro. La piedra angular del tratamiento es la resección quirúrgica. El abordaje puede ser anterior (abdominal), posterior (perineal, transsacro o parasacrococígeo) o combinado, de acuerdo con su localización al nivel S4


Introduction. Both benign and malignant tumors can develop in the retrorectal or presacral space. Most patients are asymptomatic and, when they do present symptoms, they are nonspecific. Among retrorectal tumors, the group of neurogenic origin stand out, where Schwannoma is the most frequent one. Clinical case. A 32-year-old woman with a retrorectal tumor, which present with imprecise symptoms, diagnosed during a surgical procedure due to a uterine myoma, which finally turned out to be a Schawnnoma. Conclusion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are important for diagnosis and for establishing the level of the lesion in relation to the sacrum. The cornerstone of treatment is surgical resection. The approach can be anterior (abdominal), posterior (perineal, transsacral or parasacrococcygeal), or combined, according to its location at the S4 level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Surgery , Neurilemmoma , Rectal Neoplasms , Sacrum , Neoplasms
3.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(3): 229-231, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339755

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of the different complications of partial, total or extended sacrectomy for the treatment of spinal tumors. Method This study is a descriptive analysis of medical records from a series of 18 patients who underwent sacrectomy between 2010 and 2019 at a tertiary center specializing in spinal tumor surgeries. The variables analyzed were sex, age, hospitalization time, oncologic diagnosis, posterior fixation pattern, rate of complications, and Frankel, ASA and ECOG scales. Results Of the 18 patients, 10 (55.5%) were male and 8 (44.5%) were female, and the mean age was 48 years. The mean hospitalization time was 23 days. Of the 18 patients, 8 (44.5%) contracted postoperative infections requiring surgery. Perioperative complications included liquoric fistula (22.25%), hemodynamic instability requiring vasoactive drugs in the immediate postoperative period (22.25%), wound dehiscence (11.1%), acute obstructive abdomen (11.1%), occlusion of the left external iliac artery (11.1%), immediate postoperative death due to acute myocardial infarction (11.1%), and intraoperative death due to hemodynamic instability (11.1%). Conclusions Partial, total or extended sacrectomy is a complex procedure with high morbidity and mortality, even in centers specializing in the treatment of spinal tumors. Level of evidence IV; case series study.


RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é fazer um levantamento das diferentes complicações da sacrectomia parcial, total ou estendida para tratamento de tumores da coluna vertebral. Métodos O estudo é uma análise descritiva de prontuários de uma série de 18 pacientes submetidos à sacrectomia entre 2010 e 2019 em um centro terciário especializado em cirurgias de neoplasia na coluna. As variáveis analisadas foram sexo, idade, tempo de internação, diagnóstico oncológico, padrão de fixação posterior, taxa de complicações e escalas de Frankel, ASA e ECOG. Resultados Dos 18 pacientes, 10 (55,5%) eram homens e 8 (44,5%) mulheres com média de idade de 48 anos. O tempo médio de internação foi de 23 dias. Dos 18 pacientes, 8 (44,5%) contraíram infecções pós-operatórias com necessidade de cirurgia. As complicações perioperatórias incluíram fistula liquórica (22,25%), instabilidade hemodinâmica com necessidade de medicação vasoativa no pós-operatório imediato (22,25%), deiscência da ferida operatória (11,1%), abdome obstrutivo agudo (11,1%), oclusão da artéria ilíaca externa esquerda (11,1%), óbito pós-operatório imediato por infarto agudo do miocárdio (11,1%) e óbito intraoperatório por instabilidade hemodinâmica (11,1%). Conclusões A sacrectomia parcial, total ou estendida é um procedimento complexo com alta taxa de mortalidade e morbidade, mesmo em centros especializados no tratamento de tumores na coluna. Nível de evidência IV; Série de casos.


RESUMEN Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las diferentes complicaciones de la sacrectomía parcial, total o extendida para el tratamiento de tumores vertebrales. Métodos El estudio es un análisis descriptivo de las historias clínicas de 18 pacientes sometidos a sacrectomía entre 2010 y 2019 en un centro terciario especializado en cirugías de neoplasia de columna. Las variables analizadas fueron sexo, edad, estancia hospitalaria, diagnóstico de cáncer, patrón de fijación posterior, tasa de complicaciones, escalas de Frankel, ASA y ECOG. Resultados De los 18 pacientes, 10 (55,5%) eran hombres y 8 (44,5%) mujeres con una edad promedio de 48 años. La estancia hospitalaria promedio fue de 23 días. De los 18 pacientes, 8 (44,5%) contrajeron infecciones posoperatorias que requirieron cirugía. Las complicaciones perioperatorias incluyeron fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (22,25%), inestabilidad hemodinámica que requirió medicación vasoactiva en el posoperatorio inmediato (22,25%), dehiscencia de la herida quirúrgica (11,1%), abdomen obstructivo agudo (11,1%), oclusión de la arteria ilíaca externa izquierda (11,1%), muerte posoperatoria inmediata por infarto agudo de miocardio (11,1%) y muerte intraoperatoria por inestabilidad hemodinámica (11,1%). Conclusiones La sacrectomía parcial, total o extendida es un procedimiento complejo con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad, incluso en centros especializados en el tratamiento de tumores de la columna. Nivel de evidencia IV; Series de casos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications , Sacrum/surgery , Spinal Neoplasms/surgery , Intraoperative Complications , Length of Stay
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of iliolumbar fixation in the treatment of U-shaped sacral fractures.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted on the 14 complex U-shaped sacral fractures which had been treated from January 2014 to December 2019, involved 10 males and 4 females, aged 24 to 48 (35.4±6.5) years. Fracture healing time, nerve function, clinical function and complications were observed in the patients.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 9 to 16(26.0±5.9) months. The complete weight-bearing time for bone healing was(12.4±2.0) weeks. One case of surgical incision infection occurred after operation, and one case of sacrum nailspenetrated to the outer plate of sacrum. No complications such as pressure ulcers, loosening or rupture of internal fixation occurred. According to Gibbons scoring, the neurological function recovered from preoperative 2.9±0.9 to postoperative 2.1±1.1, there were statistically significant differences between preoperative and postoperative (@*CONCLUSION@#Sacral lumbar fixation is an effective method for the treatment of U-shaped sacrum fractures. It has the advantages of strong internal fixation and satisfactory functional recovery.


Subject(s)
Bone Screws , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Sacrum/surgery , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 891-901, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134270

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To review current literature regarding sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) focused on indications, barriers and latest technological developments. Material and Methods A PubMed database search was performed in April 2020, focusing on SNM and various neuro-urological conditions. Results SNM has been increasingly indicated for lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in neuro-urological patients. Most studies are cases series with several methodological limitations and limited follow-up, lacking standardized definition for SNM clinical success. Most series focused on neurogenic overactive bladder in spinal cord injured (incomplete lesions) and multiple sclerosis patients. Barriers for applying this therapy in neurogenic LUTD were mainly related to magnetic resonance imaging incompatibility, size of the implantable pulse generator (IPG), and battery depletion. Newer technological advances have been made to address these limitations and will be widely available in the near future. Conclusions SNM seems a promising therapy for neurogenic LUTD in carefully selected patients with incomplete lesions. Further studies are still needed to define which subgroups of neurological patients benefit the most from this minimally invasive technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Sacrum
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 702-707, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156200

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Description of the sacropelvic parameters measurement method for S2-alar iliac (S2AI) screw insertion. Methods Descriptive study of the method for measuring sacropelvic parameters for the insertion of the S2AI screw using computed tomography (CT). The data evaluated in multiplanar reconstructions were the parameters of the screw trajectory, including length, diameter and angles of the trajectory in the axial and sagittal planes. Results From the sagittal reconstruction, the axis of the series of axial slices is angled three-dimensionally so that it is possible to visualize the S2 vertebra, the screw entry point, and the anteroinferior iliac spine (AIIS) in the same plane. The entry point is demarcated at the midpoint between the dorsal foramina of S1 and S2. To measure the length of the screw, lines are drawn tangent to the inner and outer cortices of the iliac. The diameter is determined by the shortest distance between the inner and outer iliac faces minus half of the diameter of the screw chosen medially and laterally. The path angle in the axial plane is formed by the anteroposterior midline of the sacrum and the line of the screw length. The craniocaudal inclination angle in relation to the S1 plateau corresponds to the degree of inclination made in the sagittal plane to find the image in which the entry point and the AIIS are seen in the same plane. Conclusion It was possible to adequately assess, through multiplanar CT reconstructions, the sacropelvic parameters necessary for the safe insertion of the S2AI screw.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever como aferir os parâmetros sacropélvicos para a inserção segura do parafuso S2-asa do ilíaco (S2AI). Métodos Estudo descritivo do método de aferição dos parâmetros sacropélvicos para a inserção do parafuso S2AI por meio de tomografia computadorizada (TC). Os dados avaliados em reconstruções multiplanares foram os parâmetros da trajetória do parafuso, incluindo comprimento, diâmetro e ângulos de trajetória nos planos axial e sagital. Resultados A partir da reconstrução sagital, angula-se tridimensionalmente o eixo da série de cortes axiais de modo que seja possível visualizar a vértebra S2, o ponto de entrada do parafuso e a espinha ilíaca anteroinferior (EIAI) no mesmo plano. O ponto de entrada é demarcado no ponto médio entre os forames dorsais de S1 e S2. Para medir o comprimento do parafuso, traçam-se linhas tangenciando as corticais interna e externa do ilíaco. O diâmetro é determinado pela menor distância entre as tábuas interna e externa do ilíaco subtraindo metade do diâmetro do parafuso escolhido medialmente e lateralmente. O ângulo de trajetória no plano axial é formado pela linha média anteroposterior do sacro e a linha do comprimento do parafuso. O ângulo de inclinação craniocaudal em relação ao platô de S1 corresponde ao grau de inclinação feito no plano sagital para encontrar a imagem em que o ponto de entrada e a EIAI são vistos no mesmo plano. Conclusão Foi possível aferir adequadamente, por meio de reconstruções multiplanares de TC, os parâmetros sacropélvicos necessários para a inserção segura do parafuso S2AI.


Subject(s)
Sacroiliac Joint , Sacrum , Spine , Wounds, Penetrating , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Face
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 304-309, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138021

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze a series of cases of complex fractures of the sacrum with spinopelvic dissociation surgically treated with iliolumbar fixation, and to review the existing medical literature. Methods For the analysis, the medical records of the cases operated using the Schildhauer et al technique for fixation were retrospectively evaluated, and followed up for at least 12 months. The functional results were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Oswestry disability index, version 2.0. The data were compared with those of the existing medical literature. Results Six cases were analyzed, four of which evolved with moderate disability, one, with minimal disability, and one, with severe disability. Three cases that presented neurological deficits obtained significant improvement. Only one case evolved with pulmonary thromboembolic complications. Conclusion The Schildhauer et al technique is an efficient technique for the fixation of complex sacral fractures with spinopelvic dissociation. The patients evolved with good functional results. Early weight-bearing has been shown to be safe with the use of this treatment.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar uma série de casos de fraturas complexas do sacro com dissociação espinopélvica tratados cirurgicamente com fixação iliolombar, e revisar a literatura médica existente. Métodos Para a análise, foram avaliados retrospectivamente os prontuários médicos de casos operados utilizando a técnica de Schildhauer et al para fixação. O período de acompanhamento foi de pelo menos 12 meses. Os resultados funcionais foram avaliados por meio da escala visual analógica (EVA) de dor e do índice de incapacidade de Oswestry, versão 2.0. Os dados foram comparados com os da literatura médica existente. Resultados Seis casos foram analisados, sendo que quatro evoluíram com incapacidade moderada, um, com incapacidade mínima, e um, com incapacidade grave. Três casos que apresentavam déficit neurológico obtiveram melhora significativa. Apenas um caso evoluiu com complicação tromboembólica pulmonar. Conclusão A técnica de Schildhauer et al é eficiente para a fixação de fraturas complexas de sacro com dissociação espinopélvica. Os pacientes evoluíram com bons resultados funcionais. A liberação precoce de sustentação de carga demonstrou-se segura com o uso deste tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain , Sacrum , Sacrum/surgery , Spinal Injuries , Medical Records , Weight-Bearing , Dissociative Disorders , Fractures, Bone
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 97-103, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137158

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Surgery generates a neuroendocrine stress response, resulting in undesirable hemodynamic instability, alterations in metabolic response and malfunctioning of the immune system. Objectives: The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of caudal blocks in intra- and postoperative pain management and in reducing the stress response in children during the same periods. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included 60 patients scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy. One group (n = 30) received general anesthesia and the other (n = 30) received general anesthesia with a caudal block. Hemodynamic parameters, drug consumption and pain intensity were measured. Blood samples for serum glucose and cortisol level were taken before anesthesia induction and after awakening the patient. Results: Children who received a caudal block had significantly lower serum glucose (p < 0.01), cortisol concentrations (p < 0.01) and pain scores 3 h (p = 0.002) and 6 h (p = 0.003) after the operation, greater hemodynamic stability and lower drug consumption. Also, there were no side effects or complications identified in that group. Conclusions: The combination of caudal block with general anesthesia is a safe method that leads to less stress, greater hemodynamic stability, lower pain scores and lower consumption of medication.


Resumo Justificativa: O estresse cirúrgico causa resposta neuroendócrina, resultando em instabilidade hemodinâmica indesejável, modificações na resposta metabólica e disfunção no sistema imune. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, em pacientes pediátricos, a eficácia do bloqueio peridural caudal no controle da dor intra e pós-operatória e na redução da resposta ao estresse nesses períodos. Métodos: Estudo clínico prospectivo randomizado que incluiu 60 pacientes submetidos à herniorrafia eletiva. Um grupo (n = 30) recebeu anestesia geral e o outro (n = 30), anestesia geral combinada a bloqueio caudal. Foram medidos os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, o consumo de medicamentos e a intensidade da dor. Amostras de sangue para medir glicemia e cortisol plasmático foram obtidas antes da indução e após o despertar dos pacientes. Resultados: As crianças que receberam bloqueio peridural caudal apresentaram valores significantemente mais baixos para glicemia (p < 0,01), concentração de cortisol (p < 0,01) e escores de dor de 3 horas (p = 0,002) e 6 horas (p = 0,003) após a cirurgia, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica e menor consumo de medicamentos. Além disso, não foram observados efeitos colaterais ou complicações nesse grupo. Conclusões: O bloqueio peridural caudal combinado à anestesia geral é uma técnica segura e que se associa a menor estresse, maior estabilidade hemodinâmica, redução nos escores de dor e baixo consumo de medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Stress, Physiological , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Herniorrhaphy , Hemodynamics , Nerve Block/methods , Sacrum , Prospective Studies , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General
10.
Clinics ; 75: e1824, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent advancements in spine fixation aid in the treatment of complex spinal pathologies. Both the iliac screw (IS) and the S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screw provide adequate stability in the fixation of complex lumbosacral spine pathologies, leading to a significant increased rate of using these techniques in the daily practice of the spine surgeons. This study aims to analyze, describe, and compare the insertion and positioning parameters of the S2AI screw and IS techniques in children without spinal deformities. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted at a university hospital in 2018, with 25 computed tomography (CT) images selected continuously. Mann-Whitney-Shapiro-Wilk tests were performed. The reliability of the data was assessed using the intraclass correlation. The data were stratified by age group only for Pearson's correlation analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 11.7 years (4.5 SD). The mean IS length was 106.63 mm (4.59 SD). The mean length of the S2AI screw was 104.13 mm (4.22 SD). The mean skin distance from the IS entry point was 28.13 mm (4.27 SD) and that for the S2AI screw was 39.96 mm (4.54 SD). CONCLUSIONS: Through CT, the S2AI screw trajectory was observed to have a greater bone thickness and skin distance than the IS. There was a linear correlation between age and screw length for both techniques. A similar relationship was observed between skin distance and age for the S2AI screw technique. In children, the S2AI screw technique presents advantages such as greater cutaneous coverage and implant thickness than the IS technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sacrum , Spinal Fusion/methods , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Bone Screws , Fracture Fixation, Internal/instrumentation , Spinal Fusion/instrumentation , Spine/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clinics ; 75: e1477, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (TTNS) and transcutaneous parasacral stimulation on the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) in elderly people and to compare the final results between groups. METHODS: Fifty female volunteers, mean age 68.62 (±5.9) years, were randomly allocated into two groups: those receiving TTNS (G1, N=25) and those receiving transcutaneous parasacral stimulation (G2, N=25). The primary outcome was the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ-OAB) score, and secondary outcomes were the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - short form (ICIQ-SF) score and 3-day bladder diary measurements. Volunteers were assessed before and after the treatment. Clinical Trials (ReBeC): RBR-9Q7J7Y. RESULTS: Both groups' symptoms improved as measured by the ICIQ-OAB (G1 = <0.001; G2 = <0.001) and ICIQ-SF (G1 = <0.001; G2 = <0.001). In the 3-day bladder diary assessments after treatment, G1 showed a reduced number of nocturia (p<0.001), urgency (p<0.001) and urge urinary incontinence episodes (p<0.001), whereas G2 showed only a reduced number of nocturia episodes (p<0.001). No difference between groups was found. CONCLUSION: Both of the proposed treatments were effective in the improvement of OAB symptoms, but TTNS showed a reduction in a greater number of symptoms as measured by the 3-day bladder diary. No differences were found between groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Sacrum/innervation , Tibial Nerve , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/therapy , Urinary Incontinence/therapy , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/diagnosis
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774217

ABSTRACT

Finite element method (FEM) was used to investigate the biomechanical properties of three types of surgical fixations of U-shaped sacral fractures. Based on a previously established and validated complete lumbar-pelvic model, three models of surgical fixations of U-shaped sacral fractures were established: ① S1S2 passed through screw (S1S2), ② L4-L5 pedicle screw + screw for wing of ilium (L4L5 + IS), and ③ L4-L5 pedicle screw + S1 passed through screw + screw for wing of ilium (L4L5 + S1 + IS). A 400 N force acting vertically downward, along with torque of 7.5 N·m in different directions (anterior flexion, posterior extension, axial rotation, and axial lateral bending), was exerted on the upper surface of L4. Comparisons were made on differences in separation of the fracture gap and maximum stress in sitting and standing positions among three fixation methods. This study showed that: for values of separation of the fracture gap produced by different operation groups in different positions, L4L5 + S1 + IS was far less than L4L5 + IS and S1S2. For internal fixators, the maximum stress value produced was: L4L5 + IS > L4L5 + S1 + IS > S1S2. For the intervertebral disc, the maximum stress value produced by S1S2 is much larger than that of L4L5 + S1 + IS and L4L5 + IS. In a comprehensive consideration, L4L5 + S1 + IS could be prioritized for fixation of U-shaped sacral fractures. The objective of this research is to compare the biomechanical differences of three different internal fixation methods for U-shaped sacral fractures, for the reference of clinical operation.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Finite Element Analysis , Fracture Fixation , Methods , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae , Pedicle Screws , Sacrum , Wounds and Injuries , Spinal Fractures , General Surgery , Spinal Fusion
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the displacement, stress and mechanism of lumbosacral joint disorder patients after bending and standing manipulation in the finite element model.@*METHODS@#A three-dimensional finite element model of a patient with lumbosacral joint disorder was established. The finite element analysis method was used to observe and analyze the three loading conditions of the model:axial, 34 degree inclined upward and vertical upward.@*RESULTS@#In the lumbosacral joint disorder model, the L₅ vertebral body was concentrated in the middle of the lower endplate, the intervertebral disc was concentrated in the center of the intervertebral disc, and the stress of S₁ and related structures were concentrated in the anterior and posterior edges of the vertebral body. After simulated manipulation, stress mainly concentrated in the anterior, posterior and central circular areas of L₅ vertebral upper endplate. The posterior structures of vertebral body concentrated in the ventral part of pedicle, isthmus and dorsal part of lamina. The stress of intervertebral disc dispersed in the posterior edge of vertebral body. Displacement results:In the lumbosacral joint disorder model, the left transverse process, the upper and lower articular process and the left part of spinous process were significantly displaced to the left, and the intervertebral disc was protruded forward. After simulated manipulation, the lower notch of L₅ vertebral body moved forward and upward; the area of intervertebral foramen increased; the inferior articular process of L₅ vertebral body moved forward; the superior articular process of sacrum moved forward and downward; the distance of articular process joints increased; and the displacement of sacrum concentrated on the posterior edge of vertebral body and the median sacral crest.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Successful lumbosacral joint modeling can be carried out by finite element analysis, and the mechanism of bending and erecting manipulation is clear, which is effective and safe for the treatment of lumbosacral joint disorders.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Intervertebral Disc , Lumbar Vertebrae , Lumbosacral Region , Sacrum
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786064

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case report.OBJECTIVES: To report a case of osteoid osteoma arising in the sacrum in a 29-year-old male patient.SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Osteoid osteoma is a benign osteoblastic tumor that usually arises in the long bones. Osteoid osteoma involving the sacrum is extremely rare.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 29-year-old male patient presented with pain localized in his sacral area for 10 months. His pain was worse at night, relieved by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and independent of physical activity. Bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the second sacral vertebra (S2). Computed tomography revealed a nidus located in the S2 spinous process. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bone and soft tissue edema around the nidus.RESULTS: En bloc excision including the nidus revealed a diagnosis of osteoid osteoma and provided immediate relief of the patient's long-lasting sacral pain.CONCLUSIONS: When a young patient presents with localized sacral pain that is worse at night, relieved by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, independent of physical activity, and lasts longer than expected, proper imaging studies should be performed to rule out osteoid osteoma. Although less invasive treatment modalities have been introduced, classical en bloc excision is currently the gold standard for managing osteoid osteoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diagnosis , Edema , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Motor Activity , Osteoblasts , Osteoma, Osteoid , Radionuclide Imaging , Sacrum , Spine
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766424

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prevalence of osteoporotic sacral fractures is increasing. Traditionally, conservative treatment is the 1st option, but it can increase the risk of comorbidity in the elderly. To reduce the complications and allow early mobility, iliosacral screw fixation with cement augmentation will be one of the treatment options for patients with osteoporotic sacral fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study reviewed 25 patients (30 cases) who had undergone percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation with cement augmentation for osteoporotic sacral fractures from July 2012 to December 2018 with a minimum follow up of six months. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the measures of pain (visual analogue scale [VAS] score), hospital stay and the date when weight-bearing started. All patients were evaluated radiologically for pull-out of screw, bone-union, and cement-leakage. RESULTS: Bone union was achieved in 30 cases (100%). The mean duration of the hospital stay was 24 days (4–66 days); weight-bearing was performed on an average nine days after surgery. The VAS scores immediately (3.16) and three months after surgery (2.63) were lower than that of the preoperative VAS score (8.3) (p<0.05). No cases of cement-leakage or neurologic symptoms were encountered. Two patients (6.7%) experienced a pulling-out of the screw, but bone-union was accomplished without any additional procedures. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous iliosacral fixation with cement augmentation will be an appropriate and safe surgical option for osteoporotic sacral fractures in the elderly in terms of early weight-bearing, pain reduction, and bone-union.


Subject(s)
Aged , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Neurologic Manifestations , Osteoporotic Fractures , Prevalence , Sacrum , Weight-Bearing
17.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 52-56, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760462

ABSTRACT

In this case report, we describe the use of ultrasound in the administration regional anesthesia for a super-super obese patient. A 23-year-old female patient (height 167.2 cm, weight 191.5 kg, body mass index 68.6 kg/m²) was admitted to the hospital for surgical repair of an anterior talofibular ligament rupture. We used ultrasound to help facilitate the administration of regional anesthesia. In the sagittal view of the lumbar spine, (with the patient in a sitting position) we were able to identify the border between the sacrum and the lumbar vertebral; in the transverse view, we were able to identify the transverse process, posterior dura, vertebral body, and the distance from the skin to the posterior dura. After skin marking, regional anesthesia was successfully performed. Based on this case study, we suggest that ultrasound can be very useful in regional anesthesia for severely obese patients.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Conduction , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Ligaments , Obesity , Rupture , Sacrum , Skin , Spine , Ultrasonography , Young Adult
18.
Acta ortop. mex ; 32(6): 354-357, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248618

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Los tumores primarios de sacro son poco frecuentes, el tratamiento en la mayoría de los casos es quirúrgico con o sin radioterapia adyuvante; los resultados oncológicos y funcionales suelen ser adversos con una tasa alta de complicaciones. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, analítico y observacional que incluye 22 casos tratados entre el 2000 y 2017, se analizaron sus características demográficas, el tipo de tratamiento en la recidiva y el resultado oncológico y funcional; asimismo, se analizó la tasa de complicaciones. Resultados: 22 pacientes fueron sometidos a sacrectomía, con abordaje posterior por cordoma (13 pacientes), tumor de células gigantes (tres pacientes) y otros (seis pacientes). Se realizaron tres sacrectomías totales, 13 sacrectomías parciales, dos hemisacrectomías y cuatro sacrectomías ampliadas. La media de duración quirúrgica fue de 229 minutos, con un sangrado promedio de 2,100 cm3, el tamaño tumoral promedio fue de 13.8 cm (6-30 cm); presentaron complicaciones 10 pacientes, ocho por infección de sitio quirúrgico, uno por hernia sacra y uno por osteomielitis. La supervivencia global fue de 44.4 meses. Discusión: El tratamiento de los tumores sacros es complejo y requiere un equipo multidisciplinario; el resultado oncológico es adecuado cuando se consiguen márgenes libres de neoplasia, los resultados funcionales estarán determinados por el tipo de resección y la tasa de complicaciones es alta; sin embargo, es la mejor alternativa de curación.


Abstract: Introduction: Primary sacral tumors are rare, treatment in most cases is surgical with or without adjuvant radiotherapy; oncology and functional results are usually adverse with a high rate of complications. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective, analytical and observational studies that includes 22 cases treated between 2000 and 2017, analyzed their characteristics demographic, the type of treatment received, and the oncological, functional results and the rate of complications were analized. Results: 22 patients were subjected to sacrectomy with posterior approah because of cordoma (13 patients), giant cell tumour (three patients) and other (six patients). Three total sacrectomies, 13 partial sacrectomies, two hemisacrectomies and four sacrectomies enlarged were performed. The mean surgical time was 229 minutes, with an average bleeding of 2,100 cm3, the average tumour size was 13.8 cm (6-30cm); 10 patients were presented with complications, eight by surgical site infection, one sacral hernia and one osteomyelitis. Overall survival was 44.4 months. Conclusions: Treatment of sacral tumors is complex, requires a multidisciplinary team; the oncological result is adequate when you get free margins of neoplasia, the functional results will be determined by the type of resection, and the rate of complications is high however is the best alternative healing in our hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sacrum/surgery , Spinal Neoplasms/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Coluna/Columna ; 17(1): 69-73, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890938

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Spinopelvic instability is an uncommon injury that is caused by high-energy traumas. Surgical treatment is used, in the majority of cases, to restore stability and enable early mobilization. Various stabilization techniques have been used in the treatment of spinopelvic instability, and lumbopelvic fixation (LPF) is currently the technique of choice due to its biomechanical superiority. One of its limitations is the fact that the technique does not directly address the lower sacral segment, permitting a residual kyphotic deformity. This deformity has been attributed to unsatisfactory outcomes, including late development of pelvic floor muscle defects and complications during childbirth. We report a case of a patient with spinopelvic instability due to sacral fracture, which was treated using a variation of the LPF technique, in which rods and screws originally developed for cervicothoracic fixation were adapted to correct sacral deformity in the sagittal plane. The upper sacral segment was reduced indirectly using hip extension and femoral traction manoeuvres, associated with distraction manoeuvres via rods. Bone reduction forceps were used to reduce the kyphotic deviation in the lower sacral fragment, enabling its fixation to the lumbopelvic rod and screws system. There were no complications of infection, suture dehiscence, or breakage of the implants, and at the end of the first year of follow-up, the sacral kyphosis was normal and radiographic consolidation was confirmed. Our technique provides a viable and promising alternative to traditional LPF, making it especially useful in fractures with accentuated deviations of the lower sacral fragment. Level of Evidence: 4.Type of study: Case series


RESUMO A instabilidade espino-pélvica (IEP) é uma lesão rara, decorrente de traumas de alta energia. O tratamento cirúrgico é empregado, na maioria dos casos, para restaurar a estabilidade e permitir mobilização precoce. Diferentes técnicas já foram empregadas no tratamento da IEP e, atualmente, a fixação lombo-pélvica (LPF) é a preferida devido à sua superioridade biomecânica. Uma de suas limitações é o fato de a técnica não abordar diretamente o fragmento sacral inferior, permitindo uma deformidade residual em cifose. Esta deformidade tem sido atribuída a resultados insatisfatórios, tais como defeitos do assoalho pélvico e complicações durante o parto. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com IEP por fratura sacral que foi tratada com uma variação da técnica de LPF, na qual hastes e parafusos originalmente desenvolvidos para a fixação cervicotorácica foram adaptados para corrigir a deformidade sacral no plano sagital. O fragmento sacral superior foi reduzido indiretamente por manobras de extensão dos quadris e tração femoral, associadas a manobras de distração através de hastes. Pinças de redução foram usadas para reduzir o desvio cifótico do fragmento sacral inferior, permitindo sua fixação à montagem lombo-pélvica. Não houve complicações infecciosas, deiscência de suturas ou quebras dos implantes e, ao término do primeiro ano de acompanhamento, a cifose sacral estava normal e a consolidação radiográfica confirmada. Nossa técnica acrescenta um recurso à LPF tradicional, tornando-a especialmente útil em fraturas com desvios acentuados do fragmento sacral inferior. Nível de Evidência: 4. Tipo de estudo: Série de casos


RESUMEN La inestabilidad espinopélvica es una lesión poco frecuente causada por traumas de alta energía. El tratamiento quirúrgico se utiliza en la mayoría de los casos para restablecer la estabilidad y permitir la movilización temprana. Diferentes técnicas se han empleado en el tratamiento de la inestabilidad espinopélvica, y la fijación lumbopélvica (FLP) es actualmente la técnica de elección debido a su superioridad biomecánica. Una de sus limitaciones es el hecho de que la técnica no aborda directamente el segmento sacro inferior, lo que permite una deformidad cifótica residual. Esta deformidad se ha atribuido a resultados insatisfactorios, incluido el desarrollo tardío de defectos musculares del piso pélvico y complicaciones durante el parto. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con inestabilidad espinopélvica por fractura del sacro, que fue tratada mediante una variación de la técnica de FLP, en la que se usaron vástagos y tornillos adaptados, desarrollados originalmente para la fijación cervicotorácica para corregir la deformidad sacra en el plano sagital. El segmento sacro superior se redujo indirectamente utilizando la extensión de la cadera y las maniobras de tracción femoral, asociadas con maniobras de distracción a través de vástagos. Pinzas de reducción fueron utilizadas para reducir la desviación cifótica del fragmento sacro inferior, lo que permite su fijación al sistema lumbopélvico de vástago y tornillos. No hubo complicaciones de infección, dehiscencia de la sutura o ruptura de implantes y al final del primer año de seguimiento, la cifosis sacral estaba normal y se confirmó la consolidación radiográfica. Nuestra técnica proporciona una alternativa viable y prometedora al FLP tradicional, por lo que es especialmente útil en las fracturas con desviaciones acentuadas del fragmento sacro inferior. Nivel de Evidencia: IV. Tipo de estudio: Serie de caso


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Spinal Fractures , Sacrum , Spinal Cord Injuries , Kyphosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of insufficiency fractures of the sacrum in an elder population increases annually. Fractures show very different morphology. We aimed to classify sacral insufficiency fractures according to the position of cortical break and possible need for intervention.METHODS: Between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014, all patients with a proven fracture of the sacrum following a low-energy or an even unnoticed trauma were prospectively registered : 117 females and 13 males. All patients had a computer tomography of the pelvic ring, two patients had a magnetic resonance imaging additionally : localization and involvement of the fracture lines into the sacroiliac joint, neural foramina or the spinal canal were identified.RESULTS: Patients were aged between 46 and 98 years (mean, 79.8 years). Seventy-seven patients had an unilateral fracture of the sacral ala, 41 bilateral ala fractures and 12 patients showed a fracture of the sacral corpus : a total of 171 fractures were analyzed. The first group A included fractures of the sacral ala which were assessed to have no or less mechanical importance (n=53) : fractures with no cortical disruption (“bone bruise”) (A1; n=2), cortical deformation of the anterior cortical bone (A2; n=4), and fracture of the anterolateral rim of ala (A3; n=47). Complete fractures of the sacral ala (B; n=106) : parallel to the sacroiliac joint (B1; n=63), into the sacroiliac joint (B2; n=19), and involvement of the sacral foramina respectively the spinal canal (B3; n=24). Central fractures involving the sacral corpus (C; n=12) : fracture limited to the corpus or finishing into one ala (C1; n=3), unidirectional including the neural foramina or the spinal canal or both (C2; n=2), and horizontal fractures of the corpus with bilateral sagittal completion (C3; n=8). Sixty-eight fractures proceeded into the sacroiliac joint, 34 fractures showed an injury of foramina or canal.CONCLUSION: The new classification allowes the differentiation of fractures of less mechanical importance and a risk assessment for possible polymethyl methacrylate leaks during sacroplasty in the direction of the neurological structures. In addition, identification of instable fractures in need for laminectomy and surgical stabilization is possible.


Subject(s)
Cementoplasty , Classification , Diagnosis , Female , Fractures, Stress , Humans , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sacroiliac Joint , Sacrum , Spinal Canal
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