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Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e237270, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1413378


Opiorphin is a pentapeptide, which could be isolated from human fluids and has a decreasing effect on pain. Aim: Since lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease, which causes pain or burning feeling in the oral mucosa, this study aimed to compare salivary opiorphin levels of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients with healthy subjects. Methods: This case-control study, was performed on 24 patients with OLP lesions and 21 healthy subjects. After collecting unstimulated saliva, opiorphin levels were compared between two groups through statistical analyses. Results: There was not any significant difference between OLP patients and healthy subjects according to salivary opiorphin concentration (p=0.378). Also, in the OLP group, opiorphin concentration was not significantly different between males and females (p=0.601). Analytical analysis could not show any remarkable difference between various severity of OLP lesions regarding to salivary opiorphin levels (p=0.653). Conclusion: In this study, salivary opiorphin levels was not significantly different between patients with OLP and healthy subjects; however, more studies are suggested for better assessment of salivary opiorphin levels in various types of OLP lesions and its correlation with pain severity

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Oligopeptides , Pain , Saliva , Lichen Planus, Oral
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226337, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1392920


Aim: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is a global health problem whose incidence varies by geographic region and race according to risk factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant risk factor for HNSCC. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are two forms of HPV that are carcinogenic. HNSCCs that are HPV positive have a better prognosis rather than HPV negative. The purpose of this research was to characterize HPV-16, -18 variations in the saliva of HNSCC patients by examining the genetic diversity of HPV-16, -18 utilizing the full E6, E7, and L1 genes. Methods:The case-control research included 15 patients with HNSCC and 15 healthy volunteers. Unstimulated entire saliva samples were obtained from the case and control groups by spitting method. Genomic DNA was isolated from all saliva samples. A PCR reaction was used to determine the presence of HPV in saliva. HPV-positive samples were genotyped and data were analyzed. We conducted a variant study on the HPV-16, -18 E6, and E7 genes. Results: Three patients with HNSCC were HPV-positive for two HPV genotypes out of 30 people diagnosed with HPV-DNA. HPV-16 and -18 were the most common genotypes. The HPV-16, -18 E6, and E7 genes were sequenced and compared to the HPV-16, -18 (E6, E7) prototype sequence. In all, HPV-16 lineages A1 and HPV-18 lineages A3 were discovered. Conclusion: Regarding the variation of HPV found in Iranian HNSCC patients, the need for further studies in HPV genotyping was seen. Sequencing HPV genes in HNSCC may help answer questions about HPV genotyping in the Iranian population. HPV genotype analysis aids in the development of vaccinations against HNSCC, halting disease progression and preventing HPV-associated HNSCC

Humans , Male , Female , Phylogeny , Saliva , Human papillomavirus 16 , Human papillomavirus 18 , Alphapapillomavirus , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
Rev. Flum. Odontol. (Online) ; 3(59): 22-36, set.-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1380523


O objetivo desse estudo foi relatar as evidências disponíveis sobre o papel da saliva no diagnóstico da Covid-19. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa da literatura de cunho qualitativo com buscas realizadas a partir das bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed, Google Acadêmico e Scielo, nos idiomas português e inglês utilizando os termos "Covid-19", "Diagnóstico" e "Saliva". Foi observado a utilização da saliva com a finalidade de se monitorar o estado de saúde e da doença de uma pessoa cujo objetivo tem se tornado extremamente desejável quanto à promoção da saúde e à pesquisa de cuidados em saúde. Nesse sentido, amostras de saliva podem ser usadas no diagnóstico da Covid-19. Um obstáculo crítico para o diagnóstico salivar pode ser a validação de amplo espectro em pacientes com Covid-19 durante o período de incubação, a fase de resposta viral e a fase inflamatória do hospedeiro de indivíduos assintomáticos e sintomáticos. Conclui-se que a saliva pode ter aplicações potenciais no contexto da Covid-19, mas, são necessários mais estudos para investigar o potencial diagnóstico da Covid-19 na saliva e seu impacto na transmissão desse vírus.

The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the role of saliva in the diagnosis of Covid-19. This is a narrative review of the literature of a qualitative nature whose search was carried out from the digital databases PubMed, Academic Google and Scielo, in Portuguese and English, using the terms "Covid-19", "Diagnosis" and "Saliva". It was observed that the use of saliva in order to monitor a person's state of health and illness it became an objective extremely desirable in terms of health promotion and health care research. In this sense, saliva samples can be used in the diagnosis of Covid-19. A critical obstacle for salivary diagnosis may be broad-spectrum validation in patients with Covid-19 during the incubation period, the viral response phase, and the host inflammatory phase in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. It is concluded that saliva may have potential applications in the context of Covid-19, but further studies are needed to investigate the diagnostic potential of Covid-19 in saliva and its impact on the transmission of this virus.

Saliva , Public Health , COVID-19/diagnosis
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(4): 1-11, jul. 21, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426955


Aim: This study aims to evaluate the surface roughness and susceptibility to staining of bleached composite resin with 22% carbamide peroxide, as well as the effect of subsequent prophylaxis with NaHCO3 powder. Material and Methods: Forty disk-shaped (2 × 6 mm) specimens of composite resin (Z250 XT) were prepared. Half of the specimens were subjected to bleaching with 22% carbamide peroxide, and the other half were stored in artificial saliva. In sequence, all specimens were immersed in acai juice (Euterpe oleracea) for 4 h for 14 days, and subdivided into two groups. Group 1 samples were subjected to prophylaxis treatment, while group 2 samples were subjected to treatment with artificial saliva. Surface roughness (Ra) and color (ΔE*) were measured after polishing (T0), bleaching (T1), immersion in acai juice (T2), and application of NaHCO3 powder (T3) using a profilometer and a spectrophotometer. Results: Statistical analyses (analysis of variance and Tukey's test, p≤0.05) revealed that regarding color there was statistically significance for the factors in isolation, except for the factor bleaching. For both color and surface roughness there was statistically significant difference for the interaction, except for the interaction between NaHCO3 power and bleaching. Conclusion: The NaHCO3 air-powder polishing decreases the staining of the composite resin; however, it increases the surface roughness. With respect to the color variable, the whitening factor had no significant effect on the tested material; however, it increases surface roughness.

Objetivo: Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la rugosidad de la superficie y la susceptibilidad a la tinción de la resina compuesta blanqueada con peróxido de carbamida al 22%, así como el efecto de la profilaxis posterior con polvo de NaHCO3. Material y Métodos: Se prepararon cuarenta especímenes en forma de disco (2 × 6 mm) de resina compuesta (Z250 XT). La mitad de los especímenes se sometieron a blanqueo con peróxido de carbamida al 22% y la otra mitad se almacenó en saliva artificial. En secuencia, todos los especímenes se sumergieron en jugo de acai (Euterpe oleracea) durante 4h durante 14 días, y se subdividieron en dos grupos. Las muestras del grupo 1 se sometieron a tratamiento profiláctico, mientras que las muestras del grupo 2 se sometieron a tratamiento con saliva artificial. La rugosidad de la superficie (Ra) y el color (ΔE*) se midieron después del pulido (T0), el blanqueo (T1), la inmersión en jugo de acai (T2) y la aplicación de polvo de NaHCO3 (T3) utilizando un perfilómetro y un espectrofotómetro. Resultados: Los análisis estadísticos (análisis de varianza y prueba de Tukey, p≤0.05) revelaron que en relación al color hubo significancia estadística para los factores en forma aislada, excepto para el factor blanqueamiento. Tanto para el color como para la rugosidad de la superficie hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa para la interacción, excepto para la interacción entre el poder de NaHCO3 y el blanqueo. Conclusión: El pulido al aire con polvo de NaHCO3 disminuye el manchado de la resina compuesta; sin embargo, aumenta la rugosidad de la superficie. Con respecto a la variable color, el factor de blanqueamiento no tuvo efecto significativo sobre el material ensayado; sin embargo, aumenta la rugosidad de la superficie.

Humans , Sodium Bicarbonate , Composite Resins/chemistry , Saliva , Brazil , Color , Dental Prophylaxis/methods , Euterpe , Immersion
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(3): 1-12, jun. 30, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427927


Objetive: To evaluate the correlation between salivary biomarkers (the salivary antioxidant ability, salivary level of polyphenols, and other antioxidants) with plaque-induced gingivitis exacerbated by pregnancy in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Material and Methods: For this observational study, medical records, dental examinations, and analyses of saliva samples were carried out in pregnant and nonpregnant women. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The pregnant women (n =17) exhibited a lower antioxidant capacity (p-value=0.0041), higher levels of polyphenols, gingival index, bleeding on probing, and subjects consuming mineral-enriched products (p-value from <0.0001 to 0.0466), and unchanged levels of phosphotungstic acid reactive substances, proteins, oral hygienic habits, plaque index and probing depth (p-value from 0.0683 to 0.8358), in comparison with the nonpregnant women (n=9). Also, a positive correlation between the gingival index and salivary polyphenol content was observed (r-value = 0.4087, p-value = 0.0202). Conclusion: The salivary polyphenols correlate with plaque-induced gingivitis exacerbated by pregnancy, suggesting a deficiency of salivary antioxidant protection.

Objetivo: Evaluar la correlación entre los biomarcadores salivales (la capacidad antioxidante salival, el nivel salival de polifenoles y otros antioxidantes) con la gingivitis inducida por placa exacerbada por el embarazo en mujeres embarazadas y no embarazadas. Material y Métodos: Para este estudio observacional, se realizaron registros médicos, exámenes dentales y análisis de muestras de saliva en mujeres embarazadas y no embarazadas. Se consideró significativo un valor de p<0,05. Resultados: Las gestantes (n=17) presentaron menor capacidad antioxidante (p=0,0041), mayores niveles de polifenoles, índice gingival, sangrado al sondaje y los sujetos que consumían productos enriquecidos con minerales (p<0,0001 a p<0,0466), y no hubo diferencias en los niveles de sustancias reactivas al ácido fosfotúngstico, proteínas, hábitos de higiene bucal, índice de placa y profundidad de sondaje (p=0,0683 a 0,8358), en comparación con las mujeres no embarazadas (n=19). Además, se observó una correlación positiva entre el índice gingival y elcontenido de polifenoles salivales (r = 0,4087, p= 0,0202). Conclusión: Los polifenoles salivales se correlacionan con la gingivitis inducida por placa y exacerbada por el embarazo, lo que sugiere una deficiencia de protección antioxidante salival.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Saliva/immunology , Biomarkers/analysis , Gingivitis/immunology , Polyphenols , Antioxidants
Rev. Flum. Odontol. (Online) ; 1(57): 83-95, jan.-abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391376


O carcinoma de células escamosas (OSCC) é uma neoplasia maligna que atinge a cavidade oral, lábios e orofaringe com uma das maiores taxa de mortalidade em todo o mundo, quando em comparação com outros carcinomas, o que o torna um problema de saúde pública (MORO, 2018). Devido à sua grande prevalência, os pesquisadores buscam por mecanismos para aprimorar o diagnóstico da doença em sua fase inicial, no intuito de possibilitar melhor qualidade de vida e sobrevida a esses pacientes (CHENG et al., 2014). Tem-se desenvolvido estudos através da expressão de proteínas, envolvendo o mecanismo biomolecular da carcinogênese oral na busca de identificação de biomarcadores que tenham potencial preditivo e um bom prognóstico para OSCC (CARVALHO; OLIVEIRA, 2015; LOUSADA-FERNANDEZ et at., 2018). Em uma revisão sobre o genoma salivar do câncer oral, este destacou-se justamente pelo fato de suas proteínas estarem localmente expressas (SHAH et at., 2011), tornando seus biomarcadores salivares de fácil e rápida coleta, já que a proliferação desordenada de células malignas deixa derivados de DNA, RNA, vesiculas (exossomos) e marcadores proteicos nos fluidos creviculares, podendo demostrar de forma preventiva o câncer. Com isso, esses biomarcadores podem ser identificados na fase inicial da doença, ao contrário do exame clínico, já que as manifestações clínicas são tardias, o que gera um prognóstico ruim (LOUSADA-FERNANDEZ et al., 2018). Diante desse quadro, o objetivo deste trabalho foi fazer uma revisão de literatura acerca do papel dos biomarcadores tumorais e discutir sobre a atual situação do câncer bucal, justificando o uso de biomarcadores salivares e entendendo seu papel no diagnóstico precoce. Para isso foi feita uma busca detalhada nas bases de dados Pubmed-Medline, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Lilacs e Scielo, para identificar os mais recentes biomarcadores citados nas literaturas ultilizando as palavras-chaves: carcinoma, biomarcadores, saliva. Também foram incluídos dados coletados da Organização Mundial da Saúde e do Instituto Nacional do Câncer.

Saliva , Mouth Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Biomarkers, Tumor
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936117


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of acid stimulation on salivary flow rate and compositions of human parotid and submandibular glands, so as to provide basis for comprehensive evaluation of salivary gland function in both health and disease status.@*METHODS@#In the study, 210 healthy participants' whole saliva samples were collected under passive drooling, and their parotid gland and submandibular gland secretions were collected by negative pressure suction. 2% citric acid was dropped on the tip of tongue every 1 min for acid stimulation for a total of 5 times to collect stimulated whole saliva, parotid and submandibular gland saliva. The collected saliva was weighed and saliva flow rate was calculated. The K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein, total phosphorus and α-amylase in saliva samples were detected by biochemical analyzer, and the changing features of flow rate and compositions of different kinds of saliva were compared and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#After acid stimulation, saliva flow rate significantly increased. The increase proportion of parotid gland saliva (10.7 folds) was much higher than that of submandibular gland saliva (2.9 folds). The concentrations of Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein and α-amylase in parotid gland saliva increased significantly (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in total phosphorus and K+ (P=0.89, P=0.34). The concentration of Na+ and Ca2+ in saliva of submandibular gland increased significantly(P < 0.05), the concentration of total phosphorus decreased significantly(P < 0.05), and the concentration of Cl- increased, but the difference was not significant(P=0.068). There was no significant difference in total protein, K+ and α-amylase (P=0.85, P=0.07, P=0.95). The compound secretion rate of total phosphorus in saliva of submandibular gland remained unchanged(P=0.066), while the secretion rate of K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein and α-amylase significantly increased(P < 0.01). The compound secretion rate of K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, total protein and total phosphorus and α-amylase in parotid gland saliva increased(P < 0.01). The concentrations of Na+, Cl-, K+, total phosphorus, total protein and α-amylase in parotid were higher than those in submandibular gland (P < 0.01), and the concentration of Ca2+ in submandibular gland saliva was significantly higher than that in parotid (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The response of parotid to acid stimulation is stronger, and the secretion of submandibular gland is more stable. Acid stimulation significantly influences the concentrations of electrolytes in saliva, and the composited secretion rate is an evaluation index to reflect both flow rate and composition concentration of saliva. The parotid gland plays an important role in the secretion of total protein, total phosphorus and α-amylase in saliva, and the submandibular gland is the main source of Ca2+ in saliva.

Humans , Parotid Gland , Saliva , Secretory Rate , Submandibular Gland , Tongue
Odontoestomatol ; 24(39): 1-14, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY-Odon, BNUY | ID: biblio-1370336


Numerosos reportes demuestran la presencia de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en la saliva de fumadores y hay un creciente interés en correlacionar estos procesos moleculares con la etiología de algunas enfermedades orales, como la periodontitis, una enfermedad inmunoinflamatoria crónica relacionada con un desequilibrio de la homeostasis redox celular. Objetivo: realizar una revisión narrativa sobre la relación entre la disminución de la capacidad antioxidante salival inducida por humo de tabaco, la periodontitis y el potencial uso de farmacología redox para el tratamiento de esta patología. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en bases de datos como PUBMED (NLM, NIH, NCBI) y SciELO. Resultados: existe evidencia que relaciona la baja capacidad antioxidante salival con un retraso en el restablecimiento de las condiciones normales en la cavidad oral ante el desarrollo de periodontitis. A su vez, el estado inflamatorio asociado colabora sinérgicamente, provocando un mayor daño tisular con pérdida de tejidos de soporte dentario, fenómeno que podría ser modulado por la acción de farmacología redox. Conclusiones: la intervención con farmacología redox, podría atenuar los biomarcadores de progresión de la enfermedad periodontal, constituyendo una herramienta prometedora para utilizar en conjunto con las estrategias de tratamiento tradicionales.

Numerous reports demonstrate the presence of oxidative stress biomarkers in the saliva of smokers and there is a growing interest in correlating these molecular processes with the etiology of some oral diseases, such as periodontitis, a chronic immunoinlammatory disease related to an imbalance of cellular redox homeostasis. Aims: achieve a narrative review on the relationship between the decrease in salivary antioxidant capacity induced by tobacco smoke, periodontitis, and the potential use of redox pharmacology for the treatment of this pathology. Methods: a bibliographic search was carried out in databases such as PUBMED (NLM, NIH, NCBI) and SciELO. Results: there is evidence that relates the low salivary antioxidant capacity with a delay in the reestablishment of normal conditions in the oral cavity before the development of periodontitis. In turn, the associated inflammatory state collaborates synergistically, causing greater tissue damage with loss of dental support tissues, a phenomenon that could be modulated by the action of redox pharmacology. Conclusions: intervention with redox pharmacology could attenuate the biomarkers of periodontal disease progression, constituting a promising tool to be used in conjunction with traditional treatment strategies.

Muitos artigos demonstram a presença de biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo na saliva de fumantes e há um interesse crescente em correlacionar esses processos moleculares com a etiologia de algumas doenças bucais, como a periodontite, uma doença imunoinlamatória crônica relacionada a um desequilíbrio da redox celular homeostase. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão narrativa sobre a relaçã o entre a diminuiçã o da capacidade antioxidante salivar induzida pela fumaça do tabaco, periodontite e o uso potencial da farmacologia redox para o tratamento desta patologia. Métodos: uma pesquisa bibliográica foi realizada usando bases de dados como PUBMED (NLM, NIH, NCBI) e SciELO. Resultados: há evidências que relacionam a baixa capacidade antioxidante salivar com o retardo no restabelecimento das condições normais da cavidade oral antes do desenvolvimento da periodontite. Por sua vez, o estado inflamatório associado colabora sinergicamente, causando maior dano tecidual com perda de tecidos de suporte dentário, fenômeno que poderia ser modulado pela açã o da farmacologia redox. Conclusões: a intervençã o com a farmacologia redox poderia atenuar os biomarcadores de progressã o da doença periodontal, constituindo-se em uma ferramenta promissora para ser utilizada em conjunto com estratégias tradicionais de tratamento.

Humans , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Saliva/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Oxidation-Reduction , Biomarkers , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Homeostasis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e201026, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420474


Abstract Serum uric acid (UA) is a traditional biomarker in the clinical diagnosis of gout and hyperuricemia. However, serum treatment and storage are cumbersome, and wounds are susceptible to infection. Therefore, in this study, a simple and noninvasive method was developed to detect the UA in human saliva to monitor the gout. An Inertsil ODS-3 column was used for the analysis under the condition of isocratic elution with the mixed solution phosphate buffer (74 mM, pH=2.2): Methanol=98:2 (v:v) and the UV detection at 284 nm. Using salivary UA data from healthy volunteers (HVs) (n=68) and gout patients (GPs) (n=14), we examined the salivary UA difference in their content. The intra-and inter-day accuracy and precision (RSD %) were less than 2.56%, the limit of detection (LOD) of UA was 5.0 ng/mL, the mean recoveries of the corresponding compounds were 102.48%. Saliva levels of UA in HVs and GPs were 35.26±14.06 µg/mL and 91.96±23.90 µg/mL, respectively. The concentrations of salivary UA in GPs were significantly higher than those in HVs ( p < 0.001). This method was also expected to monitor the hyperuricemia and other metabolic disorders in the future

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Saliva , Uric Acid/analysis , Validation Study , Healthy Volunteers/classification , Gout/pathology , Patients/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-6, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354704


Objective: Smoking is among the most destructive habits which have numerous effects on the body.The chemical components of cigarettes destroy the anti-oxidant content of the saliva.In this study, the concentration of albumin and uric acid of healthy non-smokers and smokers was measured based on the frequency of smoking. Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 26 heavy smokers, 27 normal smokers, and 29 non-smokers between the ages of 25 to 40 were selected.The subjects did not suffer from any systemic or periodontal conditions.Unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting. The level of salivary albumin was measured by Bromocresol Green, and the level of salivary uric acid was measured by the uricase method.The selected method of analysis, using SPSS software, was One-Way ANOVA. Results: Mean albumin content of saliva was 33.52 ± 1.52 mg/dl in non-smokers and 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl in heavy smokers.The mean uric acid concentration in non-smokers was 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L and in heavy smokers was 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL.The differences between levels of both salivary uric acid and salivary albumin were significant in heavy smokers and non-smokers(P=0.001). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, saliva concentrations of both Albumin and Uric Acid change based on the frequency of smoking.Decreased level of salivary albumin and decreased level of salivary uric acid can be considered as markers of the harmful effects of smoking on oral health. (AU)

Objetivo: Tabagismo está entre os hábitos mais deletérios, que causam inúmeros efeitos no organismo. Os componentes químicos do cigarro destroem os compostos anti-oxidantes da saliva. Neste estudo, a concentração de albumina e ácido úrico em pacientes saudáveis fumantes e não-fumantes foi mensurada e correlacionada coma frequência de fumo. Material e Métodos: Neste estudo transversal, 26 fumantes pesados, 27 fumantes moderados, e 29 não fumantes entre 25 e 40 anos foram incluídos. Os participantes não apresentavam nenhuma condição sistêmica ou periodontal. Saliva não estimulada foi coletada. Os níveis salivares de albumina foram avaliados por Verde de bromocresol, e o nível de ácido úrico foi mensurado pelo método de uricase. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se One-way ANOVA no software SPSS. Resultados: A albumina salivar foi de 33.52 ±1.52 mg/dl nos não-fumantes e 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl nos fumantes pesados. A concentração média de ácido úrico em não-fumantes foi de 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L e em pacientes fumantes pesados de 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL. As diferenças entre os níveis de ambos, ácido úrico e albumina, foi significante entre fumantes pesados e não-fumantes (p=0.001). Conclusão: Baseados nos achados deste estudo, concentrações salivares de albumina e ácido úrico baseados na frequência de fumo. A diminuição dos níveis salivares de albumina e ácido úrico podem ser considerados marcadores dos efeitos nocivos do cigarro na saúde oral(AU)

Humans , Adult , Saliva , Uric Acid , Oxidative Stress , Albumins , Smokers
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE003202, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364208


Resumo Objetivo Identificar os principais biomarcadores salivares descritos, assim como as técnicas empregadas para coleta das amostras de saliva, em estudos relacionados à avaliação da dor em pacientes submetidos a procedimentos dolorosos ou portadores de patologias dolorosas. Métodos Revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada pelas buscas bibliográficas nas bases Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL e EMBASE, com recorte temporal de 2009 a 2019 e período de coleta de dados entre outubro e novembro de 2019. Foram utilizados Descritores em Saúde (DeCs)e Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH), para responder à pergunta norteadora: Quais são e como são utilizados os biomarcadores salivares na avaliação da dor? Foi realizada uma análise descritiva dos artigos, sendo os dados extraídos e registrados em uma planilha desenvolvida para o presente estudo. Resultados Das 126 publicações identificadas, 22 artigos foram incluídos para a análise. Constatou-se que os artigos são, majoritariamente, desenvolvidos com adultos durante realização de procedimentos dolorosos ou portadores de patologias dolorosa. Os principais biomarcadores salivares avaliados foram a alfa-amilase e o cortisol, e as principais técnicas para coleta de saliva foram o Salivette® e a coleta passiva. Conclusão Os estudos indicam que a mensuração objetiva da dor é um desafio. Os principais biomarcadores salivares descritos são o cortisol e a alfa-amilase, sendo o Salivette®a principal técnica utilizada para coleta das amostras de saliva. A dosagem das moléculas salivares é incipiente e empregada de forma complementar na avaliação da dor em pacientes de diferentes faixas estárias, submetidos à procedimentos dolorosos ou portadores patologias dolorosas.

Resumen Objetivo Identificar los principales biomarcadores salivales descriptos, así como las técnicas utilizadas para la recolección de las muestras de saliva en estudios relacionados con la evaluación del dolor en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos dolorosos o con patologías dolorosas. Métodos Revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada por medio de búsquedas bibliográficas en las bases Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL y EMBASE, con un recorte temporal del 2009 al 2019 con un período de recolección de datos de octubre a noviembre de 2019. Se utilizaron Descriptores en Salud (DeCs) y Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH), para responder a la pregunta orientadora: ¿Cuáles son los biomarcadores salivales en la evaluación del dolor y cómo se utilizan? Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los artículos y los datos extraídos y registrados en una planilla desarrollada para el presente estudio. Resultados De las 126 publicaciones identificadas, se incluyeron 22 artículos para análisis. Se constató que los artículos están, mayoritariamente, desarrollados con adultos durante la realización de procedimientos dolorosos o con patologías dolorosas. Los principales biomarcadores salivales evaluados fueron alfa-amilasa y cortisol, y las principales técnicas para la recolección de saliva fueron Salivette® y la recolección pasiva. Conclusión Los estudios indican que la medición objetiva del dolor es un desafío. Los principales biomarcadores salivales que se describen son el cortisol y la alfa-amilasa y Salivette® la principal técnica utilizada para la recolección de muestras de saliva. La dosificación de las moléculas salivales es incipiente y utilizada de forma complementaria en la evaluación del dolor en pacientes de distintos grupos de edad, sometidos a procedimientos dolorosos o con patologías dolorosas.

Abstract Objective To identify the main salivary biomarkers described and the techniques used for saliva sample collection in studies related to pain assessment in patients undergoing painful procedures or experiencing painful diseases Methods An integrative literature review was conducted via bibliographic searches in the Virtual Health Library (VHL), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for the period from 2009 to 2019; data were collected in October and November 2019. The DeCs health descriptors and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were used to answer the guiding question: "Which salivary biomarkers are used in pain assessment and how are they employed?" A descriptive analysis of the articles was performed; data were collected and recorded in a spreadsheet developed for the present study. Results Of the 126 published articles identified, 22 articles were included for analysis. The articles were mainly regarding adults undergoing painful procedures or patients experiencing painful diseases. The main salivary biomarkers evaluated were alpha-amylase and cortisol, and the main saliva collection techniques were Salivette® and passive collection. Conclusion The studies indicated that objective pain measurement is a challenge. The main salivary biomarkers evaluated were cortisol and alpha-amylase, and the main technique employed for saliva sample collection was Salivette®. The dosage of salivary molecules is emerging for use as a complement in pain assessment in patients of different ages undergoing painful procedures or experiencing painful diseases.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva , Pain Measurement , Hydrocortisone , Biomarkers , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , alpha-Amylases , Evidence-Based Practice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 56: e20220078, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1422741


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze psychological stress factors and salivary cortisol concentration in nursing undergraduates throughout their training. Method: a cross-sectional, analytical, and comparative study carried out in an evening course using a sociodemographic questionnaire, an Instrument to Assess Stress in Nursing Students, and salivary cortisol analysis. The study included descriptive and comparative analyses and a multiple linear regression model. Results: 187 participants answered the questionnaires, and 129 had their cortisol quantified. The domains Practical Activities Execution, Professional Communication, and Professional Training represented the stress factors with the highest mean values for 3rd, 4th, and 5th-year students compared to 1st and 2nd year. For the 5th year, it was the domains Professional Communication and Professional Training compared to the 3rd year and Environment compared to the 1st and 3rd year. A significant result was obtained between the times of cortisol collections for males (p < 0.0001), females (p < 0.0001), and for 1st (p = 0.0319) 2nd (p = 0.0245), and 5th (p < 0.0001) years. Conclusion: Students in years 3 through 5 had higher exposure to stressors, and there were adjustments in cortisol production rhythmicity for students in years 1, 2, and 5.

RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar los factores de estrés psicológico y la concentración de cortisol salivar de estudiantes de enfermería a lo largo de su formación. Método: es un estudio transversal, analítico y comparativo realizado en un curso nocturno mediante cuestionario sociodemográfico, Instrumento para Evaluación del Estrés en Estudiantes de Enfermería y análisis del cortisol salivar. Se llevaron a cabo diversos análisis descriptivos, comparativos y modelo de regresión linear múltiple. Resultados: 187 respondieron a los cuestionarios y a 129 se les cuantificó el cortisol. Los dominios Realización de Actividades Prácticas, Comunicación Profesional y Formación Profesional representaron los factores de estrés con los valores medios más altos en los estudiantes de 3er, 4º y 5º año en comparación con los de 1er y 2º año. Para el 5º año fueron los dominios Comunicación Profesional y Formación Profesional en comparación con el 3er año y Medio Ambiente en comparación con el 1er y 3er año. Se obtuvo un resultado significativo entre los momentos de las recogidas de cortisol de los hombres (p < 0,0001), de las mujeres (p < 0,0001), y del 1er (p = 0,0319), 2º (p = 0,0245) y 5º (p < 0,0001) año. Conclusión: los alumnos de 3er a 5º año tuvieron una mayor exposición a los estresores y hubo ajustes en la ritmicidad de la producción de cortisol en los alumnos de 1er, 2º y 5º año.

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar os fatores de estresse psicológico e a concentração de cortisol salivar de graduandos de Enfermagem ao longo da formação. Método: estudo transversal, analítico e comparativo realizado em curso noturno por meio de questionário sociodemográfico, Instrumento para Avaliação de Estresse em Estudantes de Enfermagem e análise do cortisol salivar. Foram feitas análises descritivas, comparativas e modelo de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: um total de 187 responderam aos questionários, e 129 tiveram o cortisol quantificado. Os domínios Realização das Atividades Práticas, Comunicação Profissional e Formação Profissional representaram os fatores de estresse com os maiores valores médios para alunos do 3º, 4º e 5º anos em comparação ao 1º e 2º anos. Para o 5º ano, foram os domínios Comunicação Profissional e Formação Profissional em relação ao 3º ano e Ambiente em comparação ao 1º e 3º anos. Obteve-se resultado significativo entre os horários das coletas de cortisol para homens (p < 0,0001), mulheres (p < 0,0001) e para o 1º (p = 0,0319) 2º (p = 0,0245) e 5º (p < 0,0001) anos. Conclusão alunos do 3º ao 5º ano tiveram maior exposição aos fatores de estresse, e houve ajustes na ritmicidade de produção do cortisol para alunos do 1º, 2º e 5º anos.

Humans , Stress, Psychological , Students, Nursing , Saliva , Hydrocortisone
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 51: e20220041, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1424228


Introduction: autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects the establishment of bonds and communication. Dental care is more difficult for people with this disorder, because in addition to communication difficulties, non-cooperation with respect to oral hygiene and continuous use of medication are common. Greater predisposition to caries, as well as alterations in the flow and concentration of salivary proteins were reported in these individuals. Objective: considering that sex can affect salivary flow and protein concentration, our objective was to analyze these parameters in the saliva of children with autism. Material and method: total unstimulated saliva was obtained from 12 boys and 12 girls aged between 5 and 15 years, with the aid of a catheter, after 2 hours of fasting and oral hygiene. Salivary flow was determined by estimating the mass of saliva. Total protein was determined in the supernatant obtained after centrifugation at 10,000 x g, for 10 minutes, by the Lowry method, with bovine albumin as standard. The results are expressed as mean and standard deviation. The data were submitted to the Shapiro-Wilk and Mann Whitney tests, with a significance level of 5%. Result: salivary flow values for boys (0.3555 ± 0.24 ml/min) and girls (0.2522 ± 0.1727 ml/min), and protein values for boys (1.430 ± 0.7480 mg/mL) and girls (1.075 ± 0.3702 mg/mL) were not significantly different between sexes. Conclusion: in children with autism spectrum disorder, sex does not influence unstimulated flow and salivary protein values.

Introdução: o transtorno do espectro autista é uma condição do neurodesenvolvimento que afeta o estabelecimento de vínculos e a comunicação. Cuidados odontológicos são mais difíceis em portadores desse transtorno, pois além da dificuldade de comunicação são comuns a não cooperação na higiene bucal e uso contínuo de medicamentos. Maior predisposição à cárie, alterações no fluxo e na concentração de proteínas salivares foram relatadas nesses indivíduos. Objetivo: considerando que o gênero pode afetar fluxo salivar e concentração proteica, nosso objetivo foi analisar esses parâmetros na saliva de crianças com autismo. Material e método: saliva total não estimulada foi obtida de 12 meninos e 12 meninas com idades entre 5 e 15 anos, com auxílio de um cateter, após 2 horas de jejum e higienização da cavidade bucal. O fluxo salivar foi determinado estimando-se a massa de saliva e o total de proteínas foi determinado no sobrenadante obtido após centrifugação a 10.000 x g, por 10 minutos, pelo método de Lowry, com albumina bovina como padrão. Os resultados foram expressos como média e desvio padrão, sendo submetidos aos testes de Shapiro-Wilk e Mann Whitney, com nível de significância em 5%. Resultado: os valores de fluxo salivar não foram significativamente diferentes quando comparados meninos (0.3555 ± 0.24 ml/min) e meninas (0.2522 ± 0.1727 mL/min), bem como os valores de proteínas (meninos: 1.430 ± 0.7480 mg/mL; meninas 1,075 ± 0,3702 mg/mL). Conclusão: em crianças com transtorno do espectro autista o gênero não influencia os valores de fluxo não estimulado e proteínas salivares.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Oral Hygiene , Saliva , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Statistics, Nonparametric , Autism Spectrum Disorder
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 60-66, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1354980


Objective: This study compared the concentration of salivary lactoferrin in patients with and without chronic periodontitis and investigated correlations with clinical variables of the disease. Methods: The study included 102 participants (51 cases and 51 controls) who presented at the Periodontology Clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and met the selection criteria of '4mm and above' periodontal probing depths (PPD) and positive bleeding on probing (BOP) using community periodontal index (CPI) probe. Healthy participants (controls) were patients that had PPD less than or equal to 3mm, absence of BOP and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) not more than 1.2. Baseline OHI-S and CPI scores were recorded. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the mean (SD) lactoferrin concentration of control participants 5.27(0.59) mg/l and case participants 6.74(0.61) mg/l (p<0.001). Participants with probing pocket depths (PPD) of 6mm or more had a significantly higher mean concentration [6.85(0.06) mg/l] than that of those with PPD 4-5mm [6.71(0.67) mg/l] (p< 0.001)Lactoferrin levels were highest in participants with 'poor' oral hygiene [6.85(0.60) mg/l] and lowest in those with 'good' oral hygiene [6.65(0.83) mg/l]. Conclusion: Salivary lactoferrin levels were higher among participants with chronic periodontitis than those without chronic periodontitis and correlates positively with the main clinical characteristics of the disease

Saliva , Lactoferrin , Chronic Periodontitis , Health Facilities
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e601, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341249


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has infected over 95 million people worldwide and over 2 million in Colombia. The healthcare personnel (HCP) in our country account for more than 3,800 cases and 197 deaths until January 2021 1. Being a highly contagious virus, it has changed medical practice and exposed HCP who are at risk of becoming victims with every patient they see. The primary routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are through respiratory droplets and contact with infected patients or any nearby surfaces or objects which the patient has used. Airborne transmission of the virus is possible when conducting aerosol generating procedures 2. Among HCP, those who are more exposed to aerosols are more vulnerable to get the disease: anesthesiologists, emergency physicians, internists and intensivists, as well as ENT doctors, ophthalmologists, maxillofacial surgeons, head and neck surgeons, dentists, gastroenterologists, pulmonologists, respiratory therapists, scrub nurses, nursing staff, inter alia.

La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha contagiado más de 95 millones de personas en el mundo y más de 2 millones en Colombia. El personal de salud (PS) en nuestro país presenta más de 34.800 casos y 197 muertes a enero de 2021 (1). Su alta contagiosidad llegó para cambiar la manera de ejercer la medicina, exponiendo con cada atención al PS a convertirse en una víctima más. La principal vía de transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 es por gotas respiratorias y por contacto con pacientes infectados o superficies cercanas u objetos que este haya utilizado. La transmisión aérea del virus es posible al efectuarse procedimientos que pueden generar aerosoles (2). Dentro del PS, aquellos que más se exponen a aerosoles son los más vulnerables a adquirir esta enfermedad: anestesiólogos, emergenciólogos, internistas e intensivistas, así como otorrinolaringólogos, oftalmólogos, cirujanos maxilofaciales, cirujanos de cabeza y cuello, odontólogos, gastroenterólogos, neumólogos, terapeutas respiratorios, instrumentadores quirúrgicos y personal de enfermería, entre otros.

Humans , Povidone-Iodine , COVID-19 , Saliva , Health Personnel , Disease Transmission, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 747-751, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349984


ABSTRACT Objective: Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is the current recommended approach for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Visfatin is a type of novel adipokine of interest that mostly participates in glucose metabolism and inflammatory processes. We aim to identify a screening technique for GDM using salivary visfatin levels and to establish this technique's value as a screening method compared to OGTT. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional case-control study. The cohort was formed from the saliva samples of pregnant patients in their 24th through 28th weeks of gestation. Patients were divided into two groups depending on their GDM status. OGTT and visfatin test results were compared and subjected to further analysis to establish a cutoff value for visfatin testing. Results: ELISA results indicated a significant difference between patients with GDM compared to patients without GDM; the values were 18.89 ± 9.59 and 12.44 ± 8.75, respectively (p: 0.007). A cutoff value of 10.5 ng/mL can be used to detect GDM with 78% sensitivity and 51% specificity. Conclusion: Salivary visfatin levels were significantly higher in patients with GDM. The existence of a differential in the concentration of visfatin in saliva can be utilized to develop a new screening method for GDM.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Saliva/chemistry , Cytokines/analysis , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/analysis , Blood Glucose , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213587, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1254537


Aim: One of the main factors that play a pivotal role in the transmission of COVID-19 from human to human is saliva; according to the subject's importance, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential of transmission via the saliva of coronavirus disease. Methods: PubMed, ISI, Embase, Scopus, Medicine have been used until September 2020 to search for articles. Therefore, EndNote X9 used to manage electronic resources. A 95% confidence interval (CI) effect size, fixed effect model, Inverse-variance methods have been calculated. The positive rate of SARS-CoV2 assessed with meta analysis. To deal with potential heterogeneity, random effects were used, and I2 showed heterogeneity. I2 values above 50% signified moderate-to-high heterogeneity. The Meta-analysis has been evaluated with Stata/MP v.16 (the fastest version of Stata) statistical software. Results: According to the study's purpose, in the initial search with keywords, 19 articles were found, the full text of 3 studies was reviewed, and finally, three studies were selected. The positive rate of SARS-CoV2 was 86% (86%; 95% CI 67 %-100%). Conclusion: saliva can be a non-invasive specimen type for diagnosis of COVID-19. Dentists should be aware that saliva plays a major role in the transmission of COVID-19 from human to human, and failure to follow prevention protocols can contaminate them

Saliva , Dental Health Services , COVID-19
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(5): 1-11, oct. 31, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396334


Background: The association between obesity and the oral microbiome has received great attention. Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of oral Staphylococcus aureus with different body mass index people. Material and Methods: A total of 155 saliva samples were collected. The individuals were grouped into three categories according to their BMI, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. A loopful of saliva sample was cultured and incubated at 37°C for 24. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were diagnosed by colony characteristics, morphology, and biochemical tests. Results: The oral carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 61.3% (65.1% females and 56.5% males). The Staphylococcus aureus rate was 68% in married and 60% in single people. The differences of oral carriage rates of Staphylococcus aureus in obese (73.6%) and overweight (85.4%) populations was statistically significant (p<0.0001) compared to the rate in normal weight group (34%). Among males, the highest oral carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus was in overweight individuals (82.6%). Likewise, in females, the highest rate of salivary Staphylococcus aureus was among the overweight group (88.9%). Regarding marital status, in single people, the differences of Staphylococcus aureus in obese (p=0.0003) and overweight (p<0.0001) people was significantly compared to normal weight people. But, in married people, the differences in Staphylococcus aureus rates among all groups were statistically not significant (p=0.0935). Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was significantly related to overweight and obese individuals. The human oral Staphylococcus aureus may play a key role in the manifestation of obesity. The oral microbiota could provide a new target for improving the physical well being of humans.

Antecedentes: la asociación entre la obesidad y el microbioma oral ha recibido gran atención. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la asociación de Staphylococcus aureus oral en personas con diferentes índices de masa corporal. Material y Métodos: Se recolectaron un total de 155 muestras de saliva. Los individuos fueron agrupados en tres categorías según su indice de masa corporal: normopeso, sobrepeso y obesos. Se cultivó un asa de muestra de saliva y se incubó a 37°C durante 24 horas. Los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus se identificaron mediante las características de la colonia, la morfología y las pruebas bioquímicas. Resultados:La tasa de colonización oral por Staphylococcus aureus fue del 61,3% (65,1% mujeres y 56,5% hombres). La tasa de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus fue del 68% en casados y del 60% en solteros. Las diferencias de las tasas de portación oral de Staphylococcus aureus en las poblaciones obesas (73,6%) y con sobrepeso (85,4%) fueron estadísticamente significativas (p<0,0001) en comparación con la tasa en el grupo de peso normal (34.0%). Entre los hombres, la tasa más alta de portadores orales de Staphylococcus aureus fue en individuos con sobrepeso (82,6%). En las mujeres, la tasa más alta de Staphylococcus aureus salival se también se presentó en el grupo con sobrepeso (88,9 %). En cuantal estado civil, en solteros, las diferencias de Staphylococcus aureus en obesos (p=0,0003) y con sobrepeso (p<0,0001) fueron significativas compararadas con normopeso. Pero, en personas casadas, las diferencias en las tasas de Staphylococcus aureus entre todos los grupos no fueron estadísticamente significativas (p=0,0935). Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus salival se relacionó significativamente en individuos con sobrepeso y obesidad. El Staphylococcus aureus oral humano puede jugar un papel clave en la manifestación de la obesidad. La microbiota oral podría proporcionar una nueva diana para mejorar el estado físico de los humanos

Humans , Male , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Mouth/microbiology , Saliva , Body Mass Index , Overweight , Microbiota , Iraq , Obesity/microbiology
Rev. ADM ; 78(5): 264-269, sept.-oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348067


Introducción: La mucina salival (Ms) modula otras proteínas salivales que participan en múltiples funciones fisiológicas de la cavidad oral. Los niveles de Ms pueden proporcionar información sobre el estado de inflamación de los tejidos periodontales. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los niveles Ms en pacientes obesos y no obesos, antes y después del tratamiento periodontal. Material y métodos: Un total de 60 pacientes fueron distribuidos en seis grupos, de acuerdo al índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal (EP). Valores del IMC superiores a 27 correspondían a obesidad. La EP en el momento del diagnóstico se designó como leve, moderada o severa. Se recolectaron muestras de saliva completa, antes (MU-A) y después (MU-D) del tratamiento periodontal. Se evaluaron los niveles de Ms utilizando el método de Azul Alcian. Los resultados se analizaron con el Software InfoStat, mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: Los valores de MU-A fueron superiores a los contenidos de MU-D (p < 0.0001). Las variaciones entre los pacientes no obesos y obesos fueron mínimas. A medida que aumentó el nivel de la EP, las variables MU-A y MU-D mostraron una disminución progresiva (p = 0.0032). Conclusiones: El nivel de Ms fue mayor en la saliva de los pacientes con EP no tratada. Ms se puede utilizar como marcador inflamatorio para la detección de EP (AU)

Introduction: Salivary mucin (sM) modulates other salivary proteins that participate in multiple physiological functions of the oral cavity. sM levels can provide information on the state of inflammation of the periodontium. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate sM levels in obese and non-obese patients, before and after periodontal treatment. Material and methods: A total of 60 patients were distributed into six groups, according to the body mass index (BMI) and the severity of the periodontal disease (PD). BMI values higher than 27 corresponded to obesity. PD at the time of diagnosis was designated as mild, moderate, or severe. Complete saliva samples were collected before (MU-B) and after (MU-A) the periodontal treatment. sM levels were evaluated using the Alcian Blue method. The results were analyzed with the InfoStat Software, using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: MU-B values were higher than MU-A contents (p < 0.0001). Variations between non-obese and obese patients were minimal. As the level of PD increased, the variables MU-A and MU-D showed a progressive decrease (p = 0.0032). Conclusions: The level of sM was higher in the saliva of patients with untreated PD. sM can be used as an inflammatory marker for the detection of PD (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontal Diseases , Saliva , Mucins/analysis , Obesity/complications , Argentina , Schools, Dental , Biomarkers , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Alcian Blue , Controlled Before-After Studies