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Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 60-66, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354980


Objective: This study compared the concentration of salivary lactoferrin in patients with and without chronic periodontitis and investigated correlations with clinical variables of the disease. Methods: The study included 102 participants (51 cases and 51 controls) who presented at the Periodontology Clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and met the selection criteria of '4mm and above' periodontal probing depths (PPD) and positive bleeding on probing (BOP) using community periodontal index (CPI) probe. Healthy participants (controls) were patients that had PPD less than or equal to 3mm, absence of BOP and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) not more than 1.2. Baseline OHI-S and CPI scores were recorded. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the mean (SD) lactoferrin concentration of control participants 5.27(0.59) mg/l and case participants 6.74(0.61) mg/l (p<0.001). Participants with probing pocket depths (PPD) of 6mm or more had a significantly higher mean concentration [6.85(0.06) mg/l] than that of those with PPD 4-5mm [6.71(0.67) mg/l] (p< 0.001)Lactoferrin levels were highest in participants with 'poor' oral hygiene [6.85(0.60) mg/l] and lowest in those with 'good' oral hygiene [6.65(0.83) mg/l]. Conclusion: Salivary lactoferrin levels were higher among participants with chronic periodontitis than those without chronic periodontitis and correlates positively with the main clinical characteristics of the disease

Saliva , Lactoferrin , Chronic Periodontitis , Health Facilities
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-6, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354704


Objective: Smoking is among the most destructive habits which have numerous effects on the body.The chemical components of cigarettes destroy the anti-oxidant content of the saliva.In this study, the concentration of albumin and uric acid of healthy non-smokers and smokers was measured based on the frequency of smoking. Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 26 heavy smokers, 27 normal smokers, and 29 non-smokers between the ages of 25 to 40 were selected.The subjects did not suffer from any systemic or periodontal conditions.Unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting. The level of salivary albumin was measured by Bromocresol Green, and the level of salivary uric acid was measured by the uricase method.The selected method of analysis, using SPSS software, was One-Way ANOVA. Results: Mean albumin content of saliva was 33.52 ± 1.52 mg/dl in non-smokers and 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl in heavy smokers.The mean uric acid concentration in non-smokers was 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L and in heavy smokers was 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL.The differences between levels of both salivary uric acid and salivary albumin were significant in heavy smokers and non-smokers(P=0.001). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, saliva concentrations of both Albumin and Uric Acid change based on the frequency of smoking.Decreased level of salivary albumin and decreased level of salivary uric acid can be considered as markers of the harmful effects of smoking on oral health. (AU)

Objetivo: Tabagismo está entre os hábitos mais deletérios, que causam inúmeros efeitos no organismo. Os componentes químicos do cigarro destroem os compostos anti-oxidantes da saliva. Neste estudo, a concentração de albumina e ácido úrico em pacientes saudáveis fumantes e não-fumantes foi mensurada e correlacionada coma frequência de fumo. Material e Métodos: Neste estudo transversal, 26 fumantes pesados, 27 fumantes moderados, e 29 não fumantes entre 25 e 40 anos foram incluídos. Os participantes não apresentavam nenhuma condição sistêmica ou periodontal. Saliva não estimulada foi coletada. Os níveis salivares de albumina foram avaliados por Verde de bromocresol, e o nível de ácido úrico foi mensurado pelo método de uricase. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se One-way ANOVA no software SPSS. Resultados: A albumina salivar foi de 33.52 ±1.52 mg/dl nos não-fumantes e 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl nos fumantes pesados. A concentração média de ácido úrico em não-fumantes foi de 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L e em pacientes fumantes pesados de 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL. As diferenças entre os níveis de ambos, ácido úrico e albumina, foi significante entre fumantes pesados e não-fumantes (p=0.001). Conclusão: Baseados nos achados deste estudo, concentrações salivares de albumina e ácido úrico baseados na frequência de fumo. A diminuição dos níveis salivares de albumina e ácido úrico podem ser considerados marcadores dos efeitos nocivos do cigarro na saúde oral(AU)

Humans , Adult , Saliva , Uric Acid , Oxidative Stress , Albumins , Smokers
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e601, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341249


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has infected over 95 million people worldwide and over 2 million in Colombia. The healthcare personnel (HCP) in our country account for more than 3,800 cases and 197 deaths until January 2021 1. Being a highly contagious virus, it has changed medical practice and exposed HCP who are at risk of becoming victims with every patient they see. The primary routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are through respiratory droplets and contact with infected patients or any nearby surfaces or objects which the patient has used. Airborne transmission of the virus is possible when conducting aerosol generating procedures 2. Among HCP, those who are more exposed to aerosols are more vulnerable to get the disease: anesthesiologists, emergency physicians, internists and intensivists, as well as ENT doctors, ophthalmologists, maxillofacial surgeons, head and neck surgeons, dentists, gastroenterologists, pulmonologists, respiratory therapists, scrub nurses, nursing staff, inter alia.

La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha contagiado más de 95 millones de personas en el mundo y más de 2 millones en Colombia. El personal de salud (PS) en nuestro país presenta más de 34.800 casos y 197 muertes a enero de 2021 (1). Su alta contagiosidad llegó para cambiar la manera de ejercer la medicina, exponiendo con cada atención al PS a convertirse en una víctima más. La principal vía de transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 es por gotas respiratorias y por contacto con pacientes infectados o superficies cercanas u objetos que este haya utilizado. La transmisión aérea del virus es posible al efectuarse procedimientos que pueden generar aerosoles (2). Dentro del PS, aquellos que más se exponen a aerosoles son los más vulnerables a adquirir esta enfermedad: anestesiólogos, emergenciólogos, internistas e intensivistas, así como otorrinolaringólogos, oftalmólogos, cirujanos maxilofaciales, cirujanos de cabeza y cuello, odontólogos, gastroenterólogos, neumólogos, terapeutas respiratorios, instrumentadores quirúrgicos y personal de enfermería, entre otros.

Humans , Povidone-Iodine , COVID-19 , Saliva , Health Personnel , Disease Transmission, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213587, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254537


Aim: One of the main factors that play a pivotal role in the transmission of COVID-19 from human to human is saliva; according to the subject's importance, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential of transmission via the saliva of coronavirus disease. Methods: PubMed, ISI, Embase, Scopus, Medicine have been used until September 2020 to search for articles. Therefore, EndNote X9 used to manage electronic resources. A 95% confidence interval (CI) effect size, fixed effect model, Inverse-variance methods have been calculated. The positive rate of SARS-CoV2 assessed with meta analysis. To deal with potential heterogeneity, random effects were used, and I2 showed heterogeneity. I2 values above 50% signified moderate-to-high heterogeneity. The Meta-analysis has been evaluated with Stata/MP v.16 (the fastest version of Stata) statistical software. Results: According to the study's purpose, in the initial search with keywords, 19 articles were found, the full text of 3 studies was reviewed, and finally, three studies were selected. The positive rate of SARS-CoV2 was 86% (86%; 95% CI 67 %-100%). Conclusion: saliva can be a non-invasive specimen type for diagnosis of COVID-19. Dentists should be aware that saliva plays a major role in the transmission of COVID-19 from human to human, and failure to follow prevention protocols can contaminate them

Saliva , Dental Health Services , COVID-19
Rev. ADM ; 78(5): 264-269, sept.-oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348067


Introducción: La mucina salival (Ms) modula otras proteínas salivales que participan en múltiples funciones fisiológicas de la cavidad oral. Los niveles de Ms pueden proporcionar información sobre el estado de inflamación de los tejidos periodontales. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los niveles Ms en pacientes obesos y no obesos, antes y después del tratamiento periodontal. Material y métodos: Un total de 60 pacientes fueron distribuidos en seis grupos, de acuerdo al índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal (EP). Valores del IMC superiores a 27 correspondían a obesidad. La EP en el momento del diagnóstico se designó como leve, moderada o severa. Se recolectaron muestras de saliva completa, antes (MU-A) y después (MU-D) del tratamiento periodontal. Se evaluaron los niveles de Ms utilizando el método de Azul Alcian. Los resultados se analizaron con el Software InfoStat, mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: Los valores de MU-A fueron superiores a los contenidos de MU-D (p < 0.0001). Las variaciones entre los pacientes no obesos y obesos fueron mínimas. A medida que aumentó el nivel de la EP, las variables MU-A y MU-D mostraron una disminución progresiva (p = 0.0032). Conclusiones: El nivel de Ms fue mayor en la saliva de los pacientes con EP no tratada. Ms se puede utilizar como marcador inflamatorio para la detección de EP (AU)

Introduction: Salivary mucin (sM) modulates other salivary proteins that participate in multiple physiological functions of the oral cavity. sM levels can provide information on the state of inflammation of the periodontium. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate sM levels in obese and non-obese patients, before and after periodontal treatment. Material and methods: A total of 60 patients were distributed into six groups, according to the body mass index (BMI) and the severity of the periodontal disease (PD). BMI values higher than 27 corresponded to obesity. PD at the time of diagnosis was designated as mild, moderate, or severe. Complete saliva samples were collected before (MU-B) and after (MU-A) the periodontal treatment. sM levels were evaluated using the Alcian Blue method. The results were analyzed with the InfoStat Software, using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: MU-B values were higher than MU-A contents (p < 0.0001). Variations between non-obese and obese patients were minimal. As the level of PD increased, the variables MU-A and MU-D showed a progressive decrease (p = 0.0032). Conclusions: The level of sM was higher in the saliva of patients with untreated PD. sM can be used as an inflammatory marker for the detection of PD (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Periodontal Diseases , Saliva , Mucins/analysis , Obesity/complications , Argentina , Schools, Dental , Biomarkers , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Statistical Analysis , Alcian Blue , Controlled Before-After Studies
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3745, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280429


Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a positive-strand RNA virus. The virus can also be detected in many different specimens as throat swabs, nasal swabs, sputum, saliva, blood, etc. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare the reliability of different types of specimen collection, saliva and swabs samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Material and Methods: A sample of 22 COVID-19 positive patients was selected. Paired samples from saliva, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs were collected on the 7th day after diagnosis. The hyssops and medium employed was IMPROSWAB and IMPROVIRAL NAT Medium, Germany. The sample evaluation was conducted through RT-PCR. The results were compared using Fisher's exact test and ROC curve. The gold standard proposed in this paper was the nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs specimen. Results: The gold standard method detected 10 true positive cases, of which oropharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva only detected three positive cases. Significant differences (Fisher's exact test p = 0.003) were detected in the comparison between saliva and the gold standart proposed. The ROC curve analysis showed that saliva had an area under the curve of 0.650, with a 30 percent of sensibility. However, the nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples had an area under curve of 0.950 and 1.000, respectively, with a sensibility of 90 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Conclusion: Saliva samples are not a reliable specimen for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. In turn, the most reliable specimens are nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples collected by swabbing(AU)

Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus ARN positivo. Este virus puede ser detectado en diferentes tipos de secreción como hisopada bucal, nasal, esputo, saliva, sangre, etc. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es comparar la confiabilidad de diferentes tipos de muestras, saliva y exudado, en la detección de SARS-CoV-2. Material y Métodos: Una muestra de 22 pacientes con diagnóstico de Covid-19 fue estudiada. Se tomaron muestras pareadas de saliva y exudado nasofaríngeo y orofaríngeo en cada paciente. Se emplearon los hisopos y medios de la firma alemana IMPROVE®. Los resultados de las determinaciones por RT-PCR se compararon mediante test de Fisher (test de la probabilidad exacta de Fisher) y cada sets de muestras fue evaluada individualmente y luego comparadas por curvas ROC. El estándar de oro propuesto fue el doble hisopado nasofaríngeo/orofaríngeo. Resultados: El método de oro propuesto detectó 10 casos positivos. La coincidencia de detección entre todos los sets de muestras fue de 3 casos (30 por ciento). Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (Fisher p = 0.003) en la comparación de los casos detectados en saliva vs el estándar de oro. El análisis de curvas ROC mostró un área bajo la curva de 0.650 (30 por ciento de sensibilidad) para la saliva. En el caso del hisopado nasofaríngeo y el estándar de oro mostraron un área bajo la curva de 0.95 y 1.00, respectivamente, con una sensibilidad del 90 (AU) por ciento y 100 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La saliva no es una muestra confiable para la detección de SARS-CoV-2. La muestra más confiable para el diagnóstico fue el hisopado nasofaríngeo y el doble hisopado(AU)

Humans , Pharynx/pathology , Saliva , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/ethics , Nasopharynx/virology
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(2): 45-38, may. 26, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283238


En El Salvador a la fecha, la técnica utilizada por el sistema nacional de salud para la obtención de la muestra para realizar PCR para SARS-CoV-2 es hisopado nasofaríngeo, diferentes investigadores han descrito la muestra de saliva como una muestra biológica útil para la detección de SARS-Cov-2, por esta razón se observa la oportunidad de aplicarla como una alternativa disponible para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Evaluar la autotoma de muestra de saliva y secreción nasofaríngea por pacientes no hospitalizados como una alternativa de menor riesgo biológico y de menor costo que los hisopados nasofaríngeos convencionales. Se procesaron las muestras de una mezcla de saliva y secreción faríngea obtenida por carraspeo autotomada por el paciente; la amplificación se realizó por RT-qPCR de los genes E y RdRp. Las muestras positivas se reevaluaron desde su extracción para confirmar la estabilidad de material genético de SARS-CoV-2 en la saliva y secreción nasofaríngea. Resultados. El promedio de resultados positivos fue de 7,05 por cada 100 pruebas COVID-19 realizadas con hisopado, este resultado es similar al 8 % de positividad durante el mismo período de estudio utilizando como muestra saliva y secreción faríngea autotomada por el paciente. Las ocho muestras positivas mantuvieron su reactividad para los genes E y RdRp al primer, tercer y quinto mes posdiagnóstico inicial para los dos protocolos utilizados. De igual forma, los eluidos de ARN positivos iniciales se mantuvieron positivos al primer, tercer y quinto mes. Conclusión. La muestra de saliva y secreción faríngea y su utilización para el diagnóstico de infección por SARSCoV-2 podría ser una alternativa de bajo costo, no invasiva, al menos de igual utilidad que el hisopado nasofaríngeo para el estudio de población sintomática ambulatoria o con exposición a nivel comunitario

In El Salvador to date, the technique used by the national health system to obtain the sample to perform PCR for SARS-CoV-2 is nasopharyngeal swab, different researchers have described the saliva sample as a useful biological sample for the detection of SARS-Cov-2, for this reason the opportunity to apply it as an available alternative for the diagnosis of this disease is observed. To evaluate self-sampling of saliva and nasopharyngeal secretion by non-hospitalized patients as an alternative with lower biological risk and lower cost than conventional nasopharyngeal swabs. Samples of a mixture of saliva and pharyngeal secretion obtained by clearing the patient's throat were processed; amplification was carried out by RT-qPCR of the E and RdRp genes. Positive samples were re-evaluated from extraction to confirm the stability of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in saliva and nasopharyngeal secretion. Results. The average of positive results was 7.05 per 100 COVID-19 tests performed with swabs, this result is similar to the 8% positivity during the same study period using saliva and pharyngeal secretion self-collected by the patient as a sample. The eight positive samples maintained their reactivity for the E and RdRp genes at the first, third and fifth month after initial diagnosis for the two protocols used. Similarly, the initial positive RNA eluates remained positive at the first, third, and fifth months. Conclution. The sample of saliva and pharyngeal secretion and its use for the diagnosis of infection by SARSCoV-2 could be a low-cost, non-invasive alternative, at least as useful as the nasopharyngeal swab for the study of the outpatient symptomatic population or those with exposure to community level

Saliva , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Outpatients , Diagnosis
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(2): 80-91, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361359


La enfermedad del corona virus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (virus SARS-CoV-2) apareció por primera vez en diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, China, y desde entonces se ha extendido rápidamente por todo el mundo. Desde entonces, el brote de esta grave enfermedad viral se ha convertido en una amenaza global para la humanidad. El diagnóstico precoz y el aislamiento son las medidas más importantes necesarias para prevenir su propagación. La evidencia anecdótica reciente ha sugerido manifestaciones orales con o sin deterioro olfativo y gustativo en asociación con la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19). La enzima convertidora de angiotensina-2 (ECA-2) se expresa en la mucosa oral en grandes cantidades y, por tanto, puede contribuir a las primeras manifestaciones de esta enfermedad viral mortal. Las manifestaciones bucales de la enfermedad por coronavirus pueden presentarse en forma de lesiones ulcerativas irregulares en relación con diferentes partes de la cavidad oral y, en particular, en relación con la mucosa adherida en la región del paladar duro, así como inflamación y posterior atrofia de las diversas papilas de la lengua. La disfunción olfativa y gustativa asociada también puede conducir a una pérdida parcial y / o incluso completa de la capacidad para oler y saborear en las primeras etapas del inicio de la enfermedad. La evidencia también ha sugerido la presencia de ácido nucleico del SARS-CoV-2 en la saliva humana, lo que la convierte en portadora de la enfermedad viral infecciosa y ayuda en su diagnóstico. Hemos buscado sistemáticamente la base de datos médica para el mismo y hemos revisado toda la literatura disponible hasta el 29 de junio de 2020

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus) disease had first appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and has been spreading quickly throughout the world since then. Since then, the outbreak of this severe viral disease has become a global threat to humanity. An early diagnosis and isolation are the most significant measures required to prevent its spread. Recent anecdotal evidence has suggested oral manifestations with or, without olfactory and gustatory impairment in association with corona virus disease (COVID-19). Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) is expressed in oral mucosa in large amounts and can, thus, contribute in the early manifestations of this deadly viral disease. The oral manifestations of corona virus disease can occur in the form of irregular ulcerative lesions in relation to different parts of the oral cavity and particularly, in relation to the attached mucosa in the hard palate region as well as inflammation and subsequent, atrophy of the various tongue papilla. The associated olfactory and gustatory dysfunction can, also, lead to partial and/or, even a complete loss of the ability to smell and taste in the early stages of the disease onset. Evidence has, also, suggested the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in human saliva making it the carrier of the infectious viral disease as well as aiding in its diagnosis. We have systemically searched medical database for the same and have reviewed all the literature available up to 29th of June 2020.

Humans , Oral Manifestations , Patient Isolation , Saliva/immunology , Early Diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 32-40, 20210330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290947


A saliva tem ganhado espaço no meio laboratorial, devido a sua potencialidade como amostra biológica. Por se tratar de um fluido em tempo real, de fácil acesso e obtenção, a saliva vem sendo estudada com o intuito de se obter o diagnóstico e prognóstico de determinadas doenças. Esta é uma amostra de natureza menos invasiva, mais confortável e de baixo custo. Este trabalho visa descrever sobre a utilização da saliva como amostra biológica para exames imunológicos, relacionando os analitos já existentes na saliva e com a associação da sensibilidade desse método em relação a outras amostras biológicas. O presente artigo trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, feita através da análise de 238 artigos, dos quais, foram selecionados 25. Os principais critérios para a inclusão foram de artigos científicos na língua inglesa e portuguesa, publicados entre o período de 2010 a 2019 que tratam do uso da saliva para exames imunológicos. Já existem exames que utilizam a análise salivar, contudo ainda há necessidade de padronização dos valores de referência nas dosagens dos analitos, comprovando assim a sua capacidade de detecção de biomarcadores. Podendo assim afirmar que a utilização da saliva tem muitos benefícios para análise diagnóstica.

Saliva has gained space in the laboratory because of its potential as a biological sample. For treating a real-time fluid, easy access and obtainment, saliva has been studied in order to achieve the diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. This is a less invasive sample, more comfortable and has lower cost. This work aims to describe the use of saliva as a kind of biological analysis for immunological tests, relating the existing analytes in saliva and the association of the disease control mechanism. The present article is an integrative review, through an analysis of 238 articles which 25 were selected. The main criteria of inclusion were scientific English and Portuguese articles, published between 2010 to 2019 of saliva's use for immunological exams. There are already tests that use a salivary analysis, although there is still the need for patterning of a reference values in analyte dosages, thus proving its biomarker detection capability. Being able to state that the use of saliva has many benefits for diagnostic analysis.

Saliva , Biomarkers , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 3-8, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180729


Abstract Saliva is widely used for clinical and laboratory analysis. This study proposed to use DNA extracted from saliva for genotyping and pharmacokinetics of piroxicam. A fast and efficient genotyping method was used to determine relevant allelic variants of CYP2C9 (*2 and *3), since genetic factors can influence in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) metabolization. DNA Extract All Reagents Kit® was used for DNA extraction and genotyping was performed using TaqMan® GTXpress™ Master Mix, SNP genotyping assays and a Viia7 Real-Time PCR system. Volunteers performed sequential collections of saliva samples before and after taking a single dose of piroxicam (0.25 to 72 h) which were used for pharmacokinetics assays. Piroxicam concentrations were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Sixty-six percent of volunteers were ancestral homozygous (CYP2C9*1/*1), and 34% showed one or both polymorphisms. Of these 34%, 22 individuals showed CYP2C9*2 polymorphism, 8 CYP2C9*3, and 4 CYP2C9*2/*3. Piroxicam pharmacokinetics were performed in 5 subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC0-t(h*ng/mL)) for CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*2 and *1/*3 were, respectively, 194.33±70.93, 166 and 303. Maximum concentrations (Cmax(ng/mL)) for these genotypes were respectively 6.46±2.56, 4.3 and 10.2. Saliva sampling was a very effective matrix for both pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic tests, ensuring the speed of the procedure and the well-being and agreement of the participants. Once having the knowledge about the slow and fast metabolizers, it is possible to make an adequate prescription in order to avoid the adverse effects of the medication and to guarantee greater analgesic comfort to the patients respectively.

Resumo Saliva é amplamente utilizada para análises clínicas e laboratoriais. Este estudo propôs o uso de DNA extraído da saliva para genotipagem e farmacocinética do piroxicam. Um método de genotipagem rápido e eficiente foi usado para determinar as variantes alélicas clinicamente relevantes de CYP2C9 (* 2 e * 3), uma vez que fatores genéticos podem influenciar nas respostas metabólicas individuais a medicamentos como anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINEs). DNA Extract All Reagents Kit® foi usado para extração de DNA e a genotipagem foi realizada usando TaqMan® GTXpress ™ Master Mix, ensaios de genotipagem SNP e um sistema Viia7 Real-Time PCR. Os voluntários realizaram coletas sequenciais de amostras de saliva antes e após a ingestão de uma única dose de piroxicam (0,25 a 72 h) que foram utilizadas para ensaios farmacocinéticos. As concentrações de piroxicam foram analisadas usando LC - MS / MS. Sessenta e seis por cento dos voluntários eram homozigotos ancestrais (CYP2C9 * 1 / * 1) e 34% apresentaram um ou ambos os polimorfismos. Destes 34%, 22 indivíduos apresentaram polimorfismo CYP2C9 * 2, 8 CYP2C9 * 3 e 4 CYP2C9 * 2 / * 3. A farmacocinética do piroxicam foi realizada em 5 indivíduos. As áreas sob a curva (AUC0-t (h * ng / mL)) para CYP2C9 * 1 / * 1, * 1 / * 2 e * 1 / * 3 foram, respectivamente, 194,33±70,93, 166 e 303. Concentrações máximas (Cmax (ng / mL)) para esses genótipos foram, respectivamente, 6,46±2,56, 4,3 e 10,2. A amostra de saliva foi uma matriz muito eficaz tanto para os testes farmacogenéticos quanto para os farmacocinéticos, garantindo a agilidade do procedimento e o bem-estar e concordância dos participantes. Com o conhecimento dos metabolizadores lentos e rápidos, é possível fazer uma prescrição adequada para evitar os efeitos adversos da medicação e garantir maior conforto analgésico aos pacientes respectivamente.

Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Saliva , Drug Prescriptions , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9/genetics
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 48-50, ene.-feb- 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178199


La homeostasis oral está regida por varias condiciones en la cavidad bucal, como la saliva, que está compuesta por diversas sustancias benéficas, y por la microbiota, que es un reservorio de microorganismos, y cuando estos se modifican se altera la homeostasis oral y se genera una disbiosis que puede conducir a enfermedades bucales como gingivitis, periodontitis y/o caries; también puede favorecer el desarrollo de enfermedades sistémicas ocasionadas por hongos, bacterias y virus como el SARS-CoV-2 (AU)

Oral homeostasis is governed by various conditions in the oral cavity such as saliva, which is composed of various beneficial substances, and by the microbiota, which is a reservoir of microorganisms, and when these are modified, homeostasis of the oral cavity is altered and dysbiosis is generated that They can lead to oral diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis and/or caries and can also favor the development of systematic diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, like SARS-CoV-2 (AU)

Humans , Homeostasis , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Saliva , Oral Health , Chronic Disease , Dysbiosis , Betacoronavirus
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878447


OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to compare the salivary biochemical indices between caries-free individuals and those with early childhood caries (ECC), and construct a saliva-based caries diagnostic model by analyzing the correlation between salivary biochemical indices and caries severity.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 children aged 4-6 years were selected and divided into two groups: individuals with ECC (C group, @*RESULTS@#The NO@*CONCLUSIONS@#Salivary biochemical indices can contribute to the diagnosis and risk assessment of ECC.

Child , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Humans , Saliva
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 211-215, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876875


@#Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of self-collected snorted and spit saliva in detecting COVID-19 using RT-PCR (ssRT-PCR) and lateral flow antigen test (ssLFA) versus nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR (npRT-PCR). Methods. One hundred ninety-seven symptomatic subjects for COVID-19 testing in a tertiary hospital underwent snort-spit saliva self-collection for RT-PCR and antigen testing and nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR as reference. Positivity rates, agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were estimated. Results. Estimated prevalence of COVID-19 using npRT-PCR was 9% (exact 95% CI of 5.5% - 14.1%). A higher positivity rate of 13% in the ssRT-PCR assay suggested possible higher viral RNA in the snort-spit samples. There was 92.9% agreement between ssRT-PCR and npRT-PCR (exact 95% CI of 88.4% to 96.1%; Cohen’s Kappa of 0.6435). If npRT-PCR will be assumed as reference standard, the estimated Sensitivity was 83.3% (exact 95% CI of 60.8% to 94.2%), Specificity 93.9% (exact 95% CI of 89.3% to 96.5%), Positive predictive value of 57.7% (exact 95% CI of 38.9% to 74.5%), Negative predictive value of 98.2% (exact 95% CI of 95% to 99.4%), positive likelihood ratio of 3.65 (95% CI of 7.37 to 24.9), negative likelihood ratio of 0.178 (95% CI of 0.063 to 0.499). There was 84.84% agreement (95% exact CI of 79.1% to 89.5%; Cohen’s Kappa of 0.2356) between ssLFAvs npRT-PCR, sensitivity of 38.9% (exact 95% CI of 20.3% to 61.4%), specificity of 89.4% (exact 95% CI of 84.1% to 93.1%), PPV of 26.9% (95% CI of 13.7% to 46.1%), NPV of 93.6% (exact 95% CI of 88.8% to 96.4%), LR+ of 3.67 (95% CI of 1.79 - 7.51), LR – of 0.68 (95% CI of 0.47 - 0.99). Conclusion. Our data showed that snort-spit saliva RT-PCR testing had acceptable diagnostic performance characteristics and can potentially be used as an alternative to the standard nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab RT-PCR test for COVID-19 in certain situations. However, our data also showed that snort-spit saliva antigen testing using lateral flow assay did not offer acceptable performance.

Saliva , SARS-CoV-2 , Reverse Transcription , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351217


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy on whole salivary flow in patients with xerostomia and healthy adults. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects with a history of xerostomia and subjects withunstimulated salivary flow equal to or less than 0.5 ml in 5 min were included in the study group, and 30 healthy subjects were included in the control group. Low forced spitting unstimulated saliva was collected for five minutes in a test tube fitted with a funnel. Then electrode pads of the TENS unit were applied bilaterally on skin overlying the parotid glands and at optimal intensity, stimulated saliva was collected for 5 minutes with the same method in a separate graduated test tube. The salivary flow rate (per minute) was calculated by dividing the amount of collected saliva (volume in mL) by the duration of collection period (5 minutes) and the salivary flow rates prior and after electrostimulation were compared for both groups. The Student's t-test (unpaired and paired) was performed for group-wise comparisons. Results: In study group, the mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.07 ± 0.01 mL/min. There was an 85.71% increase in salivary flow (0.13 ± 0.03 mL/min) during the TENS application and the difference was highly significant (p<0.001). In control group, the mean unstimulated salivary flow rate was 0.37 ± 0.07 mL/min. There was a 21.62% increase in salivary flow (0.45 ± 0.07 mL/min) during the TENS application and the difference was highly significant (p<0.001). An increase in mean salivary flow rate both in males and females after TENS application in both groups (p<0.001) was noted. The difference between unstimulated, stimulated and mean difference in salivary flow rate between males and females was notstatistically significant in both groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: TENS can be an effective therapy in increasing whole salivary flow rates in patients with xerostomia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Saliva/immunology , Xerostomia/pathology , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/instrumentation , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210018, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287340


BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly infectious causing millions of deaths worldwide. Nasopharyngeal swabs are the primary sample of choice for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), thus, to decrease the exposure to potentially infected samples through the collection is a key point to reduce the risk of infection in healthcare workers. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and viral load of saliva specimens by days of symptoms onset comparing to nasopharyngeal swabs in subjects with mild symptoms. METHODS Saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs samples were collected from São Paulo Hospital workers presenting mild symptoms, such as fever, cough, sore throat, rhinorrhea, myalgia, headaches, anosmia, ageusia, and fatigue. To understand the positivity and viral load, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed. FINDINGS Saliva specimens presented a sensitivity of 98.6% compared to nasopharyngeal swabs. Overall, saliva showed lower viral load compared to nasopharyngeal swabs, regarding days of symptoms onset on diagnosis, the first four days had significant changes in viral load and no significant difference was reported in the days five to nine. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Although RT-PCR of saliva has presented a lower viral load compared to nasopharyngeal swabs, saliva specimens are a potential and reliable candidate for COVID-19 diagnosis through RT-PCR.

Humans , RNA, Viral , COVID-19 , Saliva , Nasopharynx , Viral Load , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210085, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287339


BACKGROUND The high demand for adequate material for the gold standard reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-based diagnosis imposed by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, combined with the inherent contamination risks for healthcare workers during nasopharyngeal swab (NP) sample collection and the discomfort it causes patients, brought the need to identify alternative specimens suitable for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to compare saliva and gingival fluid swabs to NP swabs as specimens for RT-qPCR-based SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. METHODS We compared gingival fluid swabs (n = 158) and saliva (n = 207) to the rayon-tipped NP swabs obtained from mild-symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects as specimens for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection. FINDINGS When compared to NP swabs, gingival fluid swabs had a concordance rate of 15.4% among positive samples, zero among inconclusive, and 100% among negative ones. For saliva samples, the concordance rate was 67.6% among positive samples, 42.9% among inconclusive, and 96.8% among negative ones. However, the concordance rate between saliva and NP swabs was higher (96.9%) within samples with lower cycle threshold (Ct) values (Ct > 10 ≤ 25). MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data suggests that whereas gingival fluid swabs are not substitutes for NP swabs, saliva might be considered whenever NP swabs are not available or recommended.

Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Saliva , Specimen Handling , Nasopharynx , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e032, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153607


Abstract This study tested the null hypothesis that antihistamine-containing syrup does not change salivary metabolites in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, saliva from 10 volunteers was mixed with a syrup or pill suspension of loratadine (1 mg/ml Claritin®, Schering-Plough, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the in vivo experiment, 10 volunteers performed a mouth rinse with 10 mL of antihistamine syrup (Claritin®; Schering-Plough, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) for 20 seconds and then discarded the rinse water. After 20 seconds, 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva was spit into a plastic tube kept on ice. The protein profile of in vitro and in vivo experiments was analyzed using 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The samples were also analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by Principal Component Analysis and Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). There were differences in salivary metabolites after syrup interaction. The salivary concentrations of acetate, n-caproate, arginine, glutamate, and lysine among other metabolites were reduced with the syrup in both in vivo and in vitro experiments (p < 0.05), but no differences were observed when the pill suspension was used (p > 0.05). Similar changes in metabolite profiles were observed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Electrophoresis revealed no difference in the salivary protein pattern. The null hypothesis was rejected because the intake of syrup medicine changes the salivary composition and influences oral homeostasis and susceptibility to oral diseases.

Humans , Saliva , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Brazil , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Histamine Antagonists
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e016, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142612


Abstract This study aimed to assess whether the reductions in serum urea and creatinine levels are different from the reductions in salivary urea and creatinine levels that occur after hemodialysis in chronic renal patients. The systematic review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database. Eight databases were searched to identify pretest-posttest studies of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis, with no language or year restrictions. The JBI Critical Appraisal Tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Meta-analyses using random-effect models were conducted to compare salivary and serum correlations and to pooled mean and proportion differences from pre- to posthemodialysis urea and creatinine levels by subgroup analysis. The I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity, and a meta-regression was performed to statistically assess correlations and differences in the pooled effects pre- and postdialysis. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. The search resulted in 1404 records, and only six studies (n = 252 participants) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included. The studies were published between 2013 and 2018. All studies showed a significant reduction in both salivary and serum urea/creatinine levels. All eligible studies presented a low risk of bias. The meta-analysis shows a moderate to high correlation between salivary and blood levels of urea (r: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.56-1.00) and creatinine (r: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.16-1.00), with a very low level of certainty. The reductions in salivary urea and creatinine levels are similar to and correlated with the reductions in blood urea and creatine levels after hemodialysis among chronic kidney disease patients.

Humans , Saliva , Renal Dialysis , Creatinine
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e079, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1278593


Abstract Head and neck radiotherapy causes quantitative and qualitative changes in saliva. The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary biomarkers associated with bone remodeling and tissue repair in patients submitted to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer treatment, compared with non-irradiated individuals. Total unstimulated saliva was collected for ELISA assay analysis of receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B (RANK) and its ligand (RANK-L), osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinase-9/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Statistics were performed, and revealed that salivary RANK (p = 0.0304), RANK-L (p = 0.0005), matrix metalloproteinase-9/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (p = 0.0067), vascular endothelial growth factor (p = 0.0060), and epidermal growth factor (p < 0.0001) were reduced in patients, compared with the control group. Osteoprotegerin did not differ between the groups (p = 0.3765). Salivary biomarkers did not differ according to radiotherapy completion time (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the lower output of the salivary molecules - essential for bone remodeling and tissue repair - may disrupt tissue homeostasis and play a role in the pathogenesis of the radiotherapy-induced deleterious effects in the oral cavity.

Humans , Bone Remodeling , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Saliva , Case-Control Studies , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Epidermal Growth Factor , RANK Ligand
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200778, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340096


Abstract Objective this study evaluated the mineral and microbiological response of biofilms originating from different types of saliva inoculum with distinct levels of caries activity. Methodology the biofilms grown over enamel specimens originated from saliva collected from a single donor or five donors with two distinct levels of caries activity (caries-active and caries-free) or from pooling saliva from ten donors (five caries-active and five caries-free). The percentage surface hardness change (%SHC) and microbiological counts served as outcome variables. Results the caries activity of donors did not affect the %SHC values. Inoculum from five donors compared to a single donor showed higher %SHC values (p=0.019). Higher lactobacilli counts were observed when saliva from caries-active donors was used as the inoculum (p=0.017). Pooled saliva from both caries activity levels showed higher mutans streptococci counts (p<0.017). Conclusion Overall, pooled saliva increased the mineral response of the derived biofilms, but all the inoculum conditions formed cariogenic biofilms and caries lesions independently of caries activity.

Humans , Saliva , Dental Caries , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilms , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Minerals