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1.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143394

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the ability of saliva in controlling the growth and the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) as well as the effect of histatin-5 anti-biofilm relate to pH and saliva viscosity. Material and Methods: The S. mutans biofilm assayed by crystal violet 1% and its growth measured by spectrophotometer. The saliva viscosity was analyzed by viscometer, and pH of saliva was measured by pH meter. Results: Based on the optical density values, growth of S. mutans in saliva ranged <300 CFU/mL (0.1 nm) at concentrations of 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% for 24 hours. Whereas at the 48 h and 72 h period of incubation shown an increase in growth of S. mutans ranged 300-600 CFU/mL (0.2-0.36 nm). The inhibitory biofilm formation of S. mutans in saliva was significantly higher at concentrations of 12.5% and 6.25% at 24 h incubation times on a moderate scale, whereas the histatin-5 was effective to inhibit S. mutans biofilm on the 50 and 25 ppm. The saliva possessed a higher inhibitory of biofilm S. mutans than histatin-5 and good level viscosity (0.91-0.92 cP). Conclusion: The saliva was able to control the growth of S. mutans, and histatin-5 can inhibit the biofilm formation S. mutans. Furthermore, the saliva was also able to respond to the pH change with good viscosity of saliva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Saliva/microbiology , Biofilms , Viridans Streptococci , Histatins , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Streptococcus mutans , Viscosity , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia/epidemiology
2.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2139, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126489

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: A saliva humana é constituída de um vasto arsenal de produtos secretórios com imenso potencial informativo e útil para detecção de determinadas patologias. A facilidade de obtenção e a especificidade dos biomarcadores, faz desta uma importante ferramenta clínica como método diagnóstico. Objetivo: Verificar, através de uma revisão de literatura, a utilização da saliva como método diagnóstico para doenças orais e sistêmicas. Métodos: Foram selecionados artigos publicados em inglês, no banco de dados online PubMed com descritores "saliva", "biomarkers" e "diagnosis", entre o período de 2013 a setembro 2018. Foram incluídos artigos no idioma inglês, dos últimos 5 anos. Foram obtidos 245 artigos. O estudo se conteve em 17 destes. Análise e integração da informação: Foi notória a aplicabilidade da saliva como método diagnóstico para uma variedade de doenças, entre as quais se podem citar: doenças bacterianas como a cárie dentária, pela detecção do Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp.; doenças autoimunes como a Síndrome de Sjögren, indicada não apenas pela redução do fluxo salivar, como também pelo aumento na concentração de sódio, cloro, Imunoglobulina A (IgA), Imunoglobulina G (IgG), e Prostaglandina E2 (PGE2); doenças virais como no diagnóstico auxiliar do HIV 1 e 2 pela expressão de IgG e também no diagnóstico precoce de enfermidades malignas como o carcinoma de células escamosas e o câncer de mama, pela detecção de anticorpos frente à proteína p53 e pela presença de marcadores tumorais como o c-erbB-2. Conclusão: O diagnóstico molecular na cavidade oral por meio da saliva mostra ser um método simples, não invasivo e muito promissor para o diagnóstico e monitoramento de inúmeras patologias(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: La saliva humana está constituida de un considerable arsenal de productos secretorios con inmenso potencial informativo y útil para la detección de determinadas enfermedades. La facilidad de obtención y la especificidad de los biomarcadores, hace de esta una importante herramienta clínica como método diagnóstico. Objetivo: Verificar, por medio de una revisión bibliográfica, la utilización de la saliva como método diagnóstico para enfermedades bucales y sistémicas. Métodos: Se seleccionaron artículos publicados en inglés, en la base de datos online PubMed con descriptores "saliva", "biomarkers" y "diagnosis", entre el período de 2013 a septiembre de 2018. Se incluyeron artículos en idioma inglés, de los últimos 5 años. Se obtuvieron 245 artículos. El estudio se circunscribió a 17. Análisis e integración de la información: Se observó la aplicabilidad de la saliva como método diagnóstico para una variedad de enfermedades, entre las que cabe citar: enfermedades bacterianas como la caries, por la detección del Streptococcus mutans y Lactobacillus spp.; las enfermedades autoinmunes como el síndrome de Sjögren, indicado no solo por la reducción del flujo salivar, sino también por el aumento en la concentración de sodio, cloro, Inmunoglobulina A (IgA), Inmunoglobulina G (IgG), y Prostaglandina E2 (PGE2); las enfermedades virales como el diagnóstico auxiliar del VIH 1 y 2 por la expresión de IgG y también el diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades malignas como el carcinoma de células escamosas y el cáncer de mama, por la detección de anticuerpos contra la proteína p53 y por la presencia de marcadores tumorales como el c-erbB-2. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico molecular en la cavidad bucal por medio de la saliva muestra ser un método simple, no invasivo y muy prometedor para el diagnóstico y monitoreo de innumerables enfermedades(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Human saliva consists of a vast arsenal of secretory products with huge information potential useful for the detection of certain diseases. The easy availability and the specificity of biomarkers make them an important clinical tool as a diagnostic method. Objective: By means of a bibliographic review, verify the use of saliva as a diagnostic method for oral and systemic diseases. Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted in the online database PubMed for papers published in English from 2013 to September 2018, using the search terms "saliva", "biomarkers" and "diagnosis". Papers written in English in the last five years were selected. Of the 245 papers obtained, the study considered 17. Data analysis and integration: It was found that saliva may be used as a diagnostic method for a variety of diseases. These include bacterial diseases such as dental caries, by detection of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp.; autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome, indicated not only by the decrease in salivary flow, but also by the increase in the concentration of sodium, chlorine, immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2); viral diseases as in the auxiliary diagnosis of HIV 1 and 2 by IgG expression and also in the early diagnosis of malignant diseases such as squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer by detection of antibodies against p53 protein and the presence of tumor markers such as c-erbB-2. Conclusions: Molecular diagnostic examination of the oral cavity using saliva has shown to be a simple, non-invasive and very promising method for the diagnosis and monitoring of numberless diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers/analysis , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Review Literature as Topic
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(1): 131-135, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056512

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is one of the main inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa that is considered as a potentially malignant disorder. The exact pathogenesis of OLP remains to be completely understood. However, presence of bacteria has been associated to the inflammatory response observed in OLP. Particularly, Helicobacter pylori a major etiological agent of gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases and risk factor for gastric cancer, has been associated to Lichen planus. Here we studied a group of Chilean patients if there is any association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori and the clinical manifestation of OLP. We found a significant difference between the patients positive for H. pylori and the age of OLP diagnosis, suggesting that oral H. pylori might induce the disease at an earlier age. However, we could not confirm a statistically significance between the presence of the bacteria and OLP.


RESUMEN: Liquen Plano Oral (LPO) es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la mucosa oral considerada como desorden potencialmente maligno. La patogénesis exacta de LPO es desconocida. Sin embargo, se ha asociado la presencia de bacterias como responsables de la inflamación observada en LPO. Particularmente, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), agente etiológico principal de enfermedades inflamatorias gastrointestinales y factor de riesgo de cáncer gástrico, ha sido asociado con LPO. Se estudió la posible asociación entre H. pylori y manifestaciones clínicas de LPO en un grupo de pacientes Chilenos. Se encontró diferencia significativa entre los pacientes positivos para H. pylori y la edad de diagnóstico de LPO, sugiriendo que H. pylori podría inducir la enfermedad a temprana edad. Sin embargo, no se pudo confirmar significancia estadística entre la presencia de esta bacteria y la presencia de displasia en LPO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Lichen Planus, Oral/physiopathology , Lichen Planus, Oral/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Chile , Gene Amplification , Statistics, Nonparametric , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190501, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090766

ABSTRACT

Abstract The acquired pellicle formation is the first step in dental biofilm formation. It distinguishes dental biofilms from other biofilm types. Objective To explore the influence of salivary pellicle formation before biofilm formation on enamel demineralization. Methodology Saliva collection was approved by Indiana University IRB. Three donors provided wax-stimulated saliva as the microcosm bacterial inoculum source. Acquired pellicle was formed on bovine enamel samples. Two groups (0.5% and 1% sucrose-supplemented growth media) with three subgroups (surface conditioning using filtered/pasteurized saliva; filtered saliva; and deionized water (DIW)) were included (n=9/subgroup). Biofilm was then allowed to grow for 48 h using Brain Heart Infusion media supplemented with 5 g/l yeast extract, 1 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 5% vitamin K and hemin (v/v), and sucrose. Enamel samples were analyzed for Vickers surface microhardness change (VHNchange), and transverse microradiography measuring lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results The two-way interaction of sucrose concentration × surface conditioning was not significant for VHNchange (p=0.872), ∆Z (p=0.662) or L (p=0.436). Surface conditioning affected VHNchange (p=0.0079), while sucrose concentration impacted ∆Z (p<0.0001) and L (p<0.0001). Surface conditioning with filtered/pasteurized saliva resulted in the lowest VHNchange values for both sucrose concentrations. The differences between filtered/pasteurized subgroups and the two other surface conditionings were significant (filtered saliva p=0.006; DIW p=0.0075). Growing the biofilm in 1% sucrose resulted in lesions with higher ∆Z and L values when compared with 0.5% sucrose. The differences in ∆Z and L between sucrose concentration subgroups was significant, regardless of surface conditioning (both p<0.0001). Conclusion Within the study limitations, surface conditioning using human saliva does not influence biofilm-mediated enamel caries lesion formation as measured by transverse microradiography, while differences were observed using surface microhardness, indicating a complex interaction between pellicle proteins and biofilm-mediated demineralization of the enamel surface.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Saliva/chemistry , Sucrose/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Sucrose/analysis , Surface Properties , Microradiography/methods , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Pellicle/microbiology , Pasteurization , Hardness
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135581

ABSTRACT

Abstract Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The high rate of contagion and the spread of the virus in the population make the early detection of the pathogen the means for the adequate targeting of infection control measures. WHO directs sample collection on upper respiratory specimens, including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab or wash in ambulatory patients, as well as lower respiratory specimens: sputum and/or endotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage, in addition to citing blood and feces. Among the various sample collection methods, saliva has been investigated and reported as a potential source for diagnosis. Thus, we propose to evaluate the current scenario, based on recent publications on the perspective of detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva as a diagnostic method for Covid-19. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 through saliva seems to be very promising, although obstacles such as the technique and the location of the collection and the sample size of the research carried out so far may present a limitation for its use. The current scenario presents saliva as a reliable method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, due to the ease of obtaining the samples, the possibility of self-collection, low cost because there is no need to use specific equipment, in addition to reducing the risk of transmission for health professionals.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Saliva/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , SARS Virus , Diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Infection Control , Low Cost Technology , Betacoronavirus
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135503

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine if there are differences in protein profiles in saliva depending if children of caries-free versus caries affected. Material and Methods: A cohort of 91 children with ages between 6 and 19 years, along clinical status of caries experience. Protein profiles in saliva were determined using electrophoresis and the calculation of the percentage of a specific band at a specific molecular weight in relationship to the total protein in that sample (% of total) using molecular weight standards. This quantification was repeated for each protein band across a range of molecular weights for each sample. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Student t-tests were used to compare the distributions between caries-free and caries affected children (α=0.05). Results: Histatin was more likely to be non-detectable or reduced in caries-free children (OR=7.56; 95% CI 1.62-35.13) and these children had on average one less gel band detected by the assay we used. Conclusion: We have found differences in proteins between caries affected and caries-free children, suggesting that this line of investigation holds the promise of providing new tools for caries management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Proteomics , Electrophoresis , United States/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Data Interpretation, Statistical
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine if protein profiles identified in saliva could be used to determine risk and severity of erosive tooth wear. Material and Methods: Three types of saliva sampling were performed to obtain saliva from 34 18-year old individuals that received regular dental check-ups, along with clinical status of the dentition and risk factor related to erosive tooth wear using the VEDE scale. Protein profiles in saliva were determined using electrophoresis and the calculation of the percentage of a specific band at a specific molecular weight in relationship to the total protein in that sample (% of total) using molecular weight standards. This quantification was repeated for each protein band across a range of molecular weights for each sample to test for association with erosive tooth wear status. Results: There were no differences in the number of detectable proteins sourced from the parotid gland, nor the unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. Five out of the 34 individuals had no signs of erosive tooth wear despite an acidic diet and were more likely to have proteins with molecular weight smaller than 1 KDa (p=0.03). Conclusion: There is potential for the use of protein profiling to determine risks for erosive tooth wear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Tooth Erosion/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel , Tooth Wear , Saliva/microbiology , Proteins , Chi-Square Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Photography, Dental/instrumentation , Norway/epidemiology
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(3): 316-320, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012429

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de una pasta dental comercial conteniendo xilitol sobre el recuento de Streptococcus mutans en saliva de gestantes. El presente fue un ensayo clínico, a doble ciego, que se realizó en el Centro de Salud "José Olaya" (Chiclayo Perú), en enero de 2017. Se trabajó con una población muestral de 50 gestantes en el segundo trimestre que cumplieron con los criterios establecidos, distribuyéndolas en dos grupos: 25 gestantes usaron pasta dental con 10 % de xilitol y 25 gestantes usaron pasta dental sin xilitol. Se les tomó y procesó microbiológicamente una muestra de saliva antes del inicio del estudio y 14 días después del uso de las respectivas pastas. Se realizó el recuento de unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) de Streptococcus mutans en saliva con una confiabilidad altamente significativa mediante el Coeficiente de Correlación Intraclase, calibración intra e interexaminador (1,000 y 0,999, respectivamente). El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante la prueba U de Mann-Whitney, considerando un nivel de significancia del 5 %. No se encontró diferencia entre las gestantes que emplearon pasta dental con xilitol en comparación con las que utilizaron pasta sin xilitol (p=0,062). Se concluyó que el efecto de la pasta dental comercial conteniendo xilitol es similar a una pasta sin xilitol sobre el recuento de Streptococcus mutans en saliva de gestantes.


ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of a commercial toothpaste containing xylitol on the counts of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of pregnant women. The present was a double-blind clinical trial performed at the "José Olaya" health Centre (Chiclayo Peru) in January 2017. We worked with a sample population of 50 pregnant in the second trimester that met the established criteria, distributing in two groups: 25 pregnant women used toothpaste with 10 % xylitol and 25 pregnant used toothpaste without xylitol. They were taken and microbiologically processed a sample of saliva before the start of the study and 14 days after the use of the respective toothpastes. The Colony-forming units (CFU) of Streptococcus mutans in saliva were counted with a highly significant reliability through the intraclass correlation coefficient, Intra-and Interexaminer calibration (1.000 and 0.999, respectively). Data analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, considering a 5 % significance level. No difference was found among the pregnant women who used xylitol toothpaste compared to those who used toothpaste without xylitol (p = 0,062). It was concluded that the effect of xylitol containing commercial toothpaste is similar to a toothpaste without xylitol on the count of Streptococcus mutans in the saliva of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Streptococcus mutans/pathogenicity , Toothpastes/adverse effects , Xylitol/administration & dosage , Pregnant Women , Peru , Saliva/microbiology , Xylitol/therapeutic use , Oral Health , Epidemiology, Experimental , Sample Size
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 118-123, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019444

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: High prevalence of dental caries in ulcerative colitis (UC) has been attributed to diet and changes in salivary environment. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the prevalence of dental caries, salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity and cariogenic bacteria counts of Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp and to evaluate their relationship with drug therapy, disease activity and duration. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with UC patients followed in a tertiary center. Participants were submitted to a questionnaire (including demographic data, oral hygiene, eating habits) and a clinical observation with assessment of plaque index and Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index. Unstimulated/stimulated saliva was collected. Medical records, disease activity (Partial Mayo Score) and disease duration were collected. Laboratory data included salivary flow rates, salivary buffering capacity (CRT® buffer) and cariogenic bacteria count (Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp) in saliva using the CRT® bacteria test (results: high or low counts). RESULTS: Thirty UC patients were recruited. Oral hygiene routines were daily teeth brushing once or more (96.7%) and fluoride toothpaste (73.3%). Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth index (mean 16.17±6.428) was not affected by the frequency of soft drinks, cakes, sweets and sugars between meals (P>0.2). Long-term disease showed a trend towards higher prevalence of caries (P=0.06). Most presented normal salivary flow rates, unstimulated (73.3%) and stimulated (60.0%), and high salivary buffering capacity (66.7%). Any association was found with age, gender, disease activity, disease duration and drug therapy. High Mutans streptococci and low Lactobacillus spp count were observed in 73.3% and 60% of patients, respectively. Patients with active disease (100%) and longer duration (88.9%) displayed higher Mutans streptococci count. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental caries observed in UC patients was significant and did not seem to be influenced by their eating habits. The high prevalence of Mutans streptococci count may be a major risk factor for dental caries and may be looked as part of the UC dysbiosis. Dental care of UC patients should be planned according with this microbiota variation.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Uma elevada prevalência de cáries dentárias em doentes com retocolite ulcerativa (RCU) tem sido atribuída à dieta e alterações no ambiente salivar. OBJETIVO: Este estudo pretende caracterizar a prevalência de cáries dentárias, taxas de fluxo salivar, capacidade de tamponamento da saliva e contagem de bactérias cariogénicas, Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp e avaliar a sua relação com a terapêutica farmacológica e a atividade e duração da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com doentes com RCU seguidos num centro terciário. Os participantes foram submetidos a um questionário (incluindo questões sobre dados sociodemográficos, higiene oral e hábitos alimentares), e a uma observação clínica com avaliação do índice de placa e índice Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth. Amostras de saliva não estimulada e estimulada foram colhidas. Os registos clínicos, a atividade da doença (score parcial de Mayo) e a sua duração foram avaliados. Os dados laboratoriais incluíram taxas de fluxo salivar, capacidade de tamponamento da saliva (CRT® buffer) e a contagem de bactérias cariogénicas (Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus spp) utilizando o teste CRT® (resultado: contagem elevada ou reduzida). RESULTADOS: Foram recrutados 30 doentes com RCU. As rotinas de higiene oral incluíram a escovagem dos dentes uma ou mais vezes por dia (96,7%) e o uso de pasta com flúor (73,3%). O índice Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (média 16,17±6,428) não foi afetado pela frequência de ingestão de refrigerantes, bolos, doces e açucares entre as refeições (P>0,2). Doentes com doença de longa duração apresentaram uma tendência para maior prevalência de cáries dentárias (P=0,06). A maioria possuía taxas de fluxo salivar normais, quer de saliva estimulada (60%) quer de saliva não estimulada (73,3%), assim como taxas de tamponamento salivar elevadas (66,7%). Não foi encontrada associação entre estas características com a idade, género, atividade/duração da doença e tipo de terapêutica farmacológica. Contagens elevadas de Streptococcus mutans e reduzidas de Lactobacillus spp foram observadas em 73,3% e 60% dos doentes, respectivamente. Doentes com doença ativa e maior tempo de evolução apresentaram contagens superiores de Streptococcus mutans. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de cárie dentária observada em doentes com RCU foi significativa e não parece ser influenciada pelos hábitos alimentares. A prevalência aumentada de Streptococcus mutans foi o fator de risco maior para a cárie dentária e provavelmente constitui parte da conhecida disbiose oral associada à RCU. Os cuidados dentários a estes doentes deverão ter em consideração esta variação da microbiota.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Caries/chemically induced , Oral Hygiene , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Dental Caries/microbiology , Bacterial Load , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. ADM ; 76(2): 77-80, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005030

ABSTRACT

La OMS y la FDI han publicado que entre el 60 y 90% de los escolares padecen caries. En nuestro país, el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Patologías Orales (SIVEPAB) 2012, reporta un 85% de caries a nivel nacional en población pediátrica. Los agentes anticariogénicos como el diamino y el fluoruro de plata son un tratamiento alentador, este agente puede actuar como bactericida o bacteriostático en función de su concentración y su capacidad para inhibir el crecimiento de estreptococos del grupo viridans, y por ende, de la caries. Problema: ¿Cuál es la efectividad bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata (Saforide®) a diferente concentración sobre la microbiota cariogénica de escolares? Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata (DFP) a diferentes concentraciones en el crecimiento bacteriano de Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans y S. salivarius en muestras de saliva y dentina en escolares. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental con una variable independiente, el efecto bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata y se tomó el halo de inhibición como la dependiente. Se utilizaron medidas descriptivas como prueba de comparación y análisis de varianza usando post-hoc Tukey≠ con una confianza del 95%, y análisis de datos exploratorios. Resultados: Se analizaron 100 muestras, de las cuales 48.3% correspondió a S. mutans, 41.4% a S. salivarius y 10.3% a S. mitis, se obtuvo una mayor zona de inhibición para las tres bacterias al 38% mostrando una diferencia estadísticamente significativa 12% (p < 0.05). También se observó un efecto bacteriostático al 12%, no así para el 38%, donde se encontró un efecto bactericida Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que al 38% de la concentración hay un claro efecto bactericida en el grupo de estreptococos viridans y el 12% no se recomienda para la detención de caries debido al efecto bacteriostático (AU)


WHO and FDI have ruled that 60-90% of schoolchildren are affected by caries. In our country, the System of Epidemiological Surveillance of Oral Pathologies (SIVEPAB) (SIVEPAB) 2012. Report a rate of 85% of caries nationally in pediatric population. Anticariogenic diamino agents such as silver fluoride are an encouraging decrease in treatment for these high rates of tooth decay in our country, this agent can act as bactericidal or bacteriostatic based on their concentration and their ability to inhibit endogenous metalloproteinase (MMP-2, 8, 9). Problem: What will be the bactericidal effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride different concentration on cariogenic Streptococci saliva samples taken from school and dentin? Objective: Determine the bactericidal effectiveness Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) to different concentration on bacterial growth of Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius in saliva samples and dentin in school. Material and methods: An experimental study was conducted as an independent variable the bactericidal effect of silver diamine fluoride was taken as dependent inhibition halo. Descriptive measures were used as a comparison test and analysis of variance using Post-hoc Tukey with 95% confidence, and exploratory data analysis. Results: One hundred samples, of which 48.3% corresponded to S. mutans, 41.4% to S. salivarius and 10.3% to S. mitis, were analyzed, we obtained a larger zone of inhibition for all three organisms at 38% showing a statistically significant difference from 12% (p < 0.05). It was also observed that the 12% sample bacteriostatic effect, not to the concentration of 38% was found a bactericidal effect. Conclusion: Our results suggest that 38% concentration has a bactericidal effect on Streptococcus viridans group and 12% showed not recommended for the arrest or detention of dentine caries bacteriostatic effect (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , School Dentistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Saliva/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Silver Compounds/therapeutic use , Culture Media , Dentin/microbiology , Mexico
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4873, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998253

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess potential for early detection of oral infection by B. anthracis spores for preparedness of a bioterrorism attack. Material and Methods: The laboratory study used saliva with a range of initial anthrax concentrations, to compare detection by direct observation from conventional blood agar culture and by anthrax-specific PCR after a shorter culture in BHI broth. Three types of saliva were collected: stimulated saliva, unstimulated/whole saliva, and unstimulated/whole saliva with antibiotic treatment (for negative control). Using bivariate Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for statistical analysis for factors that could affecting anthrax detection, significant differences between the test groups was assumed at p<0.05. Results: From unstimulated whole saliva heat shock treated at 62.50C, B. anthracis growth was detected with both methods. PCR detection from a BHI broth culture could shorten the time to diagnosis in comparison to conventional culture in blood agar. Conclusion: Saliva can provide useful samples for diagnosis of oropharyngeal anthrax. In comparison to conventional culture on blood agar, shorter-term culture in BHI broth provides potential for earlier detection and diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Saliva/microbiology , Bioterrorism , Early Diagnosis , Anthrax/microbiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia
12.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4897, 01 Fevereiro 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998261

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers based on type of cigarette, duration and frequency of smoking. Material and Methods: 51 male smokers, aged 20-55 years were enrolled. Information regarding cigarette type and smoking duration and frequency was collected using a questionnaire. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected in the morning following fasting for 2 h, and TAoC was measured using a commercial kit. The data were evaluated through the independent t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Mean TAoC for the consumption of Kretek cigarettes was 0.29 (±0.15) and for that of non-Kretek cigarettes was 0.36 (±0.10). Mean TAoC based on smoking duration was 0.31 (±0.14) for 5-10 years and 0.27 (±0.15) for >10 years. Median TAoC based on smoking frequency was 0.23 (0.11-0.44), 0.31 (0.06-0.64), and 0.27 (0.06-0.68) for 1-5, 6-10, and 11-20 cigarettes/day. Mean TAoC of the saliva from participants who consumed Kretek cigarettes was lower than that of the saliva from those who consumed non-Kretek cigarettes (p=0.3). Mean TAoC for a duration >10 years was lower than that for a duration of 5-10 years, although the difference between these two groups was not significant (p=0.4). Conclusion: There were tendencies of lower total antioxidant capacity on smokers with kretek type cigarettes, smoking duration >10 years and frequency of 1-5 cigarettes/day. This study indicates that the type, duration, and frequency of smoking may affect the salivary total antioxidant capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/microbiology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smokers/psychology , Free Radicals , Antioxidants/chemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180473, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990445

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is the most frequent opportunistic mycosis in humans and can cause mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. One major concern is the increasing number of infections caused by drug-resistant Candidas trains, as these cannot be efficiently treated with standard therapeutics. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida is mutation of ERG11, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a compound essential for cell integrity and membrane function. METHODS: Based on this knowledge, we investigated polymorphisms in the ERG11 gene of 3 Candida species isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In addition, we correlated the genetic data with the fluconazole susceptibility profile of the Candida isolates. RESULTS: A total of 80 Candida albicans, 8 Candida tropicalis and 6 Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the saliva of diabetic, kidney transplant and immunocompetent patients. Isolates were considered susceptible to fluconazole if the minimum inhibitory concentration was lower than 8 μg/mL. The amino acid mutations F105L, D116E, K119N, S137L, and K128T were observed in C. albicans isolates, and T224C and G263A were found in C. tropicalis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of polymorphisms observed, the mutations occurred in regions that are not predicted to interfere with ergosterol synthesis, and therefore are not related to fluconazole resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Immunocompetence , Middle Aged , Mutation/drug effects
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(1): eAO4515, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984368

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To detect Streptococcus mutans in colostrum and saliva of neonates and compare with its detection in saliva of mothers. Methods Forty-three healthy women, full-term gestations with no complications, submitted to elective Cesarean section, and their newborns were included in the study. Samples were investigated by polymerase chain reaction to detect S. mutans in genetic material from the samples. Results Approximately 16% of colostrum samples showed S. mutans , but not correlated with the presence of the bacteria in both samples of saliva. S. mutans was detected in 49 and 30% of saliva samples of mothers and neonates, respectively. There was a positive correlation in S. mutans detection between types of saliva. The number of maternal samples of saliva with detectable S. mutans was smaller in women receiving dental treatment during pregnancy. Tooth brushing, three times a day, influenced the detection of S. mutans in both the saliva and the colostrum. Conclusion Although maternal saliva may present S. mutans , few samples of colostrum present the bacteria. The presence of bacteria in neonate saliva may be related to contact before birth. Dental treatment and hygiene habits seem to influence the detection of S. mutans in samples of maternal saliva and colostrum.


RESUMO Objetivo Detectar Streptococcus mutans no colostro e na saliva de recém-nascido, e comparar com a detecção na saliva da mãe. Métodos Foram incluídos no estudo 43 mulheres saudáveis, com gestações a termo e sem complicações, que tiveram cesariana eletiva, e seus recém-nascidos. As amostras foram investigadas por reação de polimerase em cadeia para a detecção de S. mutans em material genético extraído das amostras. Resultados Cerca de 16% das amostras de colostro apresentaram S. mutans , não sem correlação com a presença das bactérias em ambas amostras de saliva. S. mutans foi detectado em 49 e 30% das amostras de saliva das mães e recém-nascidos, respectivamente. Houve correlação positiva na detecção de S. mutans entre os tipos de saliva. O número de amostras de saliva materna com S. mutans detectável foi menor nas mulheres que receberam tratamento odontológico durante a gravidez. A escovação três vezes ao dia influenciou na detecção do S. mutans tanto no saliva quanto no colostro. Conclusão Embora a saliva materna possa apresentar S. mutans , poucas amostras de colostro apresentam a bactéria. A presença de bactéria na saliva de neonatos pode estar relacionada ao contato antes do nascimento. O tratamento odontológico e os hábitos de higiene parecem influenciar na detecção de S. mutans em amostras de saliva e colostro maternos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Colostrum/microbiology , Brazil , Cesarean Section , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056844

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To verify differences between salivary flow in pediatric cancer patients before starting antineoplastic treatment and in healthy pediatric patients. Material and Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, paired study with sample of 120 children and adolescents (3-18 years). Thirty pediatric cancer patients were selected for convenience at "Napoleão Laureano" Hospital (G1). Another group was composed of 90 individuals attended at the School of Dentistry Clinics of the Federal University of Paraíba, matched by age (G2). Data collection was performed in two steps for both groups. Information regarding pediatric cancer patients was obtained by interview with parents / guardians and searching medical records, while in the other group by interview with parents / guardians. Saliva collection was performed using standard method in both groups: unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR) being the mean volume expelled in 1 minute. Data were analyzed by the Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney tests (α = 5%) Results: Mean USFR for G1 and G2 was 0.52 mL / min and 0.66 mL / min, respectively (p>0.05) and, in both groups, significant difference was observed (p <0.05) between the mean USFR values of its subgroups, and values of adolescents being higher than those of children Conclusion: There is no difference in unstimulated salivary flow of pediatric cancer patients before starting antineoplastic treatment compared with healthy pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/microbiology , Dental Care for Children , Neoplasms/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Observational Studies as Topic/methods
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180426, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002406

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Enamel demineralization is among the main topics of interest in the orthodontic field. Self-ligating brackets have been regarded as advantageous in this aspect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the break homeostasis in the oral environment and the levels of microorganisms associated with dental caries among the different types of brackets. Material and Methods Twenty patients received two self-ligating brackets: In-Ovation®R, SmartClipTM, and one conventional GeminiTM. Saliva was collected before bonding (S0), 30 (S1) and 60 (S2) days after bonding. One sample of each bracket was removed at 30 and 60 days for the in situ analysis. Checkerboard DNA-DNA Hybridization was employed to evaluate the levels of microbial species as-sociated with dental caries. Data were evaluated by nonparametric Friedman and Wilcoxon tests at 5% significance level. Results The salivary levels of L. casei (p=0.033), S. sobrinus (p=0.011), and S. sanguinis (p=0.004) increased in S1. The in situ analyses showed alteration in S. mutans (p=0.047), whose highest levels were observed to the In-Ovation®R. Conclusions The orthodontic appliances break the salivary homeostasis of microorganisms involved in dental caries. The contamination pattern was different between self-ligating and conventional brackets. The In-Ovation®R presented worse performance considering the levels of cariogenic bacterial species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/microbiology , Orthodontic Brackets/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Time Factors , DNA Probes , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Brackets/standards , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Statistics, Nonparametric , Homeostasis
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180163, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Microcosm biofilm has been applied to induce carious lesions in dentin. However, no study has been done to compare the impact of the type of model for providing nutrients to microcosm biofilm formation on dentin. Objective This study compared the performance of two kinds of models (static and semi-dynamic) on the biofilm formation and the development of dentin carious lesions. Material and Methods In both models, biofilm was produced using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva for the first 8 h (5% CO2 and 37°C). Afterwards, for the static model, the samples were placed in 24-wells microplate containing McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose, which was replaced at 24 h. In the semi-dynamic model, the samples were submitted to artificial mouth system with continuous flow of McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose (0.15 ml/min, 37°C) for 10 h a day (for the other 14 h, no flow was applied, similarly to the static model). After 5 days, biofilm viability was measured by fluorescence and dentin demineralization by transverse microradiography. Results Biofilm viability was significantly lower for the static compared with semi-dynamic model, while dentin demineralization was significantly higher for the first one (p<0.05). The static model was able to produce a higher number of typical subsurface lesions compared with the semi-dynamic model (p<0.05). Conclusions The type of model (static and semi-dynamic) applied in the microcosm biofilm may have influence on it's viability and the severity/profile of dentin carious lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Models, Biological , Saliva/microbiology , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Microradiography , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Microbial Viability
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e033, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011662

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on the salivary cytokine levels and clinical parameters of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) with gingivitis. A non-randomized, clinical trial was conducted in individuals diagnosed with spastic CP. Thirty-eight individuals were enrolled in the study and were categorized according to gingival index scores between 0-1 or 2-3, assigned to groups G2 or G1, respectively. Periodontal treatment comprised oral hygiene instructions, conventional mechanical treatment and 0.12% chlorhexidine applied as an adjunct. Clinical parameters and saliva samples were collected at baseline and at the 15-day follow-up visit. Bleeding on probing and periodontal screening and recording were determined. Non-stimulated saliva samples were obtained, and the salivary flow rate, the osmolality and the levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-12p70 were evaluated by a cytometric bead array. The Wilcoxon test, the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman correlation analysis, Poisson regression analysis and an adjusted analysis were performed (α = 0.05). The groups differed significantly in periodontal clinical parameters at baseline and at follow-up. Salivary flow rate and osmolality were similar in both groups at both timepoints. However, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were higher in G1 than in G2 at baseline. Mechanical treatment resulted in improved clinical parameters for both groups. Furthermore, mechanical treatment resulted in a significant reduction in salivary IL-1β and IL-8 levels for both groups after treatment. Periodontal treatment performed in individuals with CP and gingivitis reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Periodontitis/therapy , Saliva/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Cerebral Palsy/complications , Gingivitis/complications , Gingivitis/rehabilitation , Osmolar Concentration , Saliva/immunology , Saliva/microbiology , Poisson Distribution , Periodontal Index , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-10 , Dental Prophylaxis/methods , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Gingivitis/microbiology
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(6): 599-605, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974199

ABSTRACT

Abstract The occurrence of caries lesions adjacent to restorations is a serious problem in Dentistry. Therefore, new antimicrobial restorative materials could help to prevent recurrent carious lesions. This study evaluated the effect of a new glass ionomer cement (Ion Z) on the viability of a microcosm biofilm and on the development of enamel demineralization. Enamel samples were filled with the following materials (n=9): A) Ion-Z (FGM Ltda); B) Maxxion R (FGM Ltda); C) Ketac Fil Plus (3M ESPE) and D) no restoration (control). The samples were then exposed to human saliva mixed with McBain saliva (1:50) containing 0.2% sucrose for 14 days. The live and dead bacteria were quantified by fluorescence using a confocal laser-scanning microscope. The enamel demineralization was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn test (p<0.05). Ion Z induced a higher percentage of dead bacteria (60.96±12.0%) compared to the other groups (Maxxion R: 39.8±6.7%, Ketac Fil Plus: 43.7±9.71% and control 46.3±9.5%). All materials significantly reduced the average mineral loss compared to control (Ion-Z 25.0±4.2%vol, Maxxion R 23.4±8.0%vol, Ketac Fil Plus 30.7±7.7 and control 41.2±6.6%vol). Ion-Z was the only material able to significantly improve the mineral content at the surface layer (Zmax: 63.5±18.2%vol) compared to control (38.9±11.3%vol). Ion-Z shows antimicrobial potential, but its anti-caries effect was similar to the other materials, under this model.


Resumo A ocorrência de lesões de cárie adjacentes a restaurações é um sério problema na Odontologia. Portanto, novos materiais restauradores antimicrobianos poderiam ajudar a prevenir as lesões cariosas recorrentes. Este estudo avaliou o efeito de um novo cimento de ionômero de vidro (Ion Z) sobre a viabilidade de um biofilme microcosmo e o desenvolvimento da desmineralização do esmalte. Amostras de esmalte foram restauradas com os seguintes materiais (n=9): A) Ion-Z (FGM Ltda); B) Maxxion R (FGM Ltda); C) Ketac Fil Plus (3M ESPE) e D) sem restauração (controle). As amostras foram submetidas a uma mistura de saliva humana com saliva de McBain (1:50) contendo sacarose a 0,2% por 14 dias. As bactérias vivas e mortas foram quantificadas por fluorescência usando um microscópio confocal de varredura à laser. A desmineralização do esmalte foi analisada usando microradiografia transversal (TMR). Os dados foram submetidos aos testes ANOVA/Tukey ou Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn (p<0,05). O Ion Z induziu uma porcentagem mais elevada de bactérias mortas (60,96 ± 12,0%) comparado aos outros grupos (Maxxion R: 39,8 ± 6,7%, Ketac Fil Plus: 43,7 ± 9,71% e controle 46,3 ± 9,5%). Todos os materiais reduziram significativamente a perda mineral média em relação ao controle (Ion-Z 25,0 ± 4,2% vol, Maxxion R 23,4 ± 8,0% vol, Ketac Fil Plus 30,7 ± 7,7% vol e controle 41,2 ± 6,6% vol). O Ion-Z foi o único material capaz de melhorar significativamente o conteúdo mineral na camada superficial (Zmax: 63,5 ± 18,2% vol) em comparação com o controle (38,9 ± 11,3% vol). Ion-Z mostrou potencial antimicrobiano, mas seu efeito anti-cárie foi semelhante aos outros materiais, sob este modelo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans , Surface Properties , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Brazil , Cattle , Streptococcus sobrinus , Maleates
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 644-652, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951608

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours. The morphology identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic characterization, the CHROMagar Candida medium and the VITEK® system Yeast Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, France). The results showed a colonization of Candida spp. in 85.7% the hospitalized individuals, where the species found were C. albicans (60%), C. tropicalis (23.4%), C. krusei (3.3%) and Candida spp. (13.3%). In the non-hospitalized individuals the colonization by Candida spp was 47.1%, and the species found were: C. albicans (45.5%), C.krusei (9.1%), C. guilliermondii (9.1% %), C. tropicalis (3.0%), C. famata (3.0%) and Candida spp. (30.3%). In spite of their presence in oral cavity in both groups, Candida spp. was more frequently isolated in hospitalized individuals, who were 6.73 times more likely to have this fungus in the oral cavity and were 3.88 times more likely to have Candida albicans.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de espécies de Candida entre uma população de indivíduos não-hospitalizados e hospitalizados. Para isto, amostras de saliva foram coletadas através de swabs estéreis, umedecidas em água de peptona e friccionadas na cavidade bucal de 140 indivíduos, dos quais 70 eram pacientes internados em uma Clínica Médica de um Hospital Escola e os outros 70 eram indivíduos não hospitalizados sem contato com ambiente hospitalar. Todas as amostras de saliva foram plaqueadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose adicionadas de cloranfenicol e incubadas a 36 °C durante 48 horas. A identificação morfológica foi realizada através da caracterização macroscópica e microscópica, com o meio CHROMagar Candida e do sistema VITEK® Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, França). Os resultados mostraram uma colonização de Candida spp. em 85,7% dos indivíduos hospitalizados, onde as espécies encontradas foram: C.albicans (60%), C. tropicalis (23,4%), C. krusei (3,3%) e Candida spp. (13,3%). Nos indivíduos não-hospitalizados a colonização por Candida spp foi de 47,1%, e as espécies encontradas foram: C. albicans (45,5%), C. krusei (9,1%), C. guilliermondii (9,1%), C. tropicalis (3,0%), C. famata (3,0%) e Candida spp. (30,3%). Apesar de sua presença na cavidade oral em ambos os grupos, Candida spp. foi mais freqüentemente isolada em indivíduos hospitalizados, que foram 6,73 vezes mais propensos a ter este fungo na cavidade oral e foram 3,88 vezes mais propensos a ter Candida albicans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/microbiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candida/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Culture Media , Mouth/microbiology
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