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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939828


Superchilling is an emerging technology for meat preservation; however, the temperature changes during the process have been commonly ignored. Thus, the effects of temperature fluctuations on meat quality during superchilling are yet to be evaluated. In our study, pork loins and salmon fillets were stored for several days (0, 8, 15, 23, and 30 d) under different temperature fluctuations based on -3.5 ℃ as the target temperature. The results showed that after 15 d of superchilling storage, the values of total volatile basic nitrogen, total viable count, and lipid oxidation were significantly (P<0.05) altered in the ±2.0 ℃ fluctuation group compared with the constant temperature group. On the contrary, there was no significant difference in these parameters between the ±1.0 ℃ fluctuation group and the constant temperature group after 30 d of storage. In addition, irregular temperature changes significantly accelerated the modulation of various indicators. In brief, temperature fluctuations and irregular temperature changes accelerated the destruction of muscle structural integrity, increased the water loss, gradually widened the water loss channels, and thereby reduced the edibility by accelerating the spoilage of meat.

Animals , Lipid Metabolism , Pork Meat , Red Meat , Salmon , Swine , Temperature
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 13-20, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283173


BACKGROUND: In fish farming, the plant extracts containing antioxidant compounds have been added to the diet for enhancing pathogen resistance. In vitro studies evaluating the antioxidant effect of herbal extracts on fish cell models have focused on ROS production and the respiratory burst mechanism. However, the effects on enzymatic antioxidant defense on salmon leukocytes have not been evaluated. This study aims to evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant defense and ROS-induced cell damage in Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cell line exposed to polyphenol-enriched extract from Sambucus nigra flowers. RESULTS: Firstly, the Total Reactive Antioxidant Power (TRAP) assay of elderflower polyphenol (EP) was evaluated, showing 459 and 489 times more active than gallic acid and butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), respectively. The toxic effect of EP on salmon cells was not significant at concentrations below 120 mg/ mL and no hemolysis activity was observed between 20 and 400 mg/mL. The treatment of SHK-1 cell line with EP decreased both the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation induced by H2O2, which could be associated with decreasing oxidative stress in the SHK-1 cells since the GSH/GSSG ratio increased when only EP was added. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that plant extracts enriched with polyphenols could improve the enzymatic antioxidant defense of salmon leukocytes and protect the cells against ROS-induced cell damage

Salmon , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sambucus nigra/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Free Radical Scavengers , Reactive Oxygen Species , Aquaculture , Oxidative Stress , Salmo salar , Disease Resistance , Leukocytes , Antioxidants
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 29-36, jan./jun. 2021. Tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247833


The population interest for fish consumption has increased, mainly due to several beneficial nutritional properties presented by this food. In this context, oriental culinary also brings different eating habits as consume raw food, such as sashimi. A relevant food contaminant of fecal origin is Escherichia coli, able to become potentially harmful, when it acquires virulence factors, as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). This study aimed to evaluate 30 samples of salmon sashimi regarding the presence of E. coli, as well as perform the genotypic characterization of virulence factors associated with STEC. Three samples were collected from 10 different restaurants, specialized in Japanese culinary in the city of Londrina - PR. The E. coli identification was performed using the Colilert® chromogenic substrate technique and biochemical tests, and for the investigation of virulence genes, stx1 and stx2, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used. Among the 30 samples analyzed, 15 (50%) presented contamination by E. coli. However, in no sample were detected virulence factors associated with STEC. Although human diseases associated with STEC are poorly described in Brazil, it is possible to verify that fish, mainly those consumed raw, are potential transmitters of E. coli to humans. This can compromise the food safety of these products and, thus, characterize them as unsuitable for consumption. Therefore, it is necessary the adoption of preventive measures of contamination by E. coli in products intended to human consumption, beyond more research that can verify the potential of STEC as a fish contaminant. (AU)

O interesse da população pelo consumo de peixe tem aumentado, principalmente devido às diversas propriedades nutricionais benéficas apresentadas por este alimento. Neste contexto, a culinária oriental também traz diferentes hábitos alimentares, como consumir alimentos crus, tais como o sashimi. Um relevante contaminante alimentar de origem fecal é Escherichia coli, capaz de tornarse potencialmente danosa ao adquirir fatores de virulência, como E. coli produtora de toxina Shiga (STEC). Este estudo objetivou avaliar 30 amostras de sashimi de salmão quanto à presença de E. coli, bem como realizar a caracterização genotípica de fatores de virulência associados com STEC. Três amostras foram coletadas de 10 diferentes restaurantes especializados em culinária japonesa da cidade de Londrina - PR. A identificação de E. coli foi realizada utilizando a técnica de substrato cromogênico Colilert® e testes bioquímicos, e para a investigação dos genes de virulência, stx1 e stx2, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada. Dentre as 30 amostras analisadas, 15 (50%) apresentaram contaminação por E. coli. Contudo, em nenhuma das amostras foram detectados fatores de virulência associados com STEC. Embora as doenças humanas associadas com STEC sejam pouco descritas no Brasil, é possível verificar que os peixes, principalmente aqueles consumidos crus, são potenciais transmissores de E. coli aos humanos. Isto pode comprometer a segurança alimentar destes produtos e, assim, caracterizá-los como impróprios para o consumo. Portanto, é necessária a adoção de medidas preventivas de contaminação por E. coli nos produtos destinados ao consumo humano, além de mais pesquisas que possam verificar o potencial de STEC como um contaminante de peixes. (AU)

Humans , Restaurants , Salmon , Escherichia coli , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Raw Foods , Food
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 101-108, nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254920


BACKGROUND: Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals and can be obtained from residues of the food industry. Its hydrolysate has many desirable properties that make it suitable as an additive in foods and cosmetics, or as a component of scaffold materials to be used in biomedicine. RESULTS: We report here the characterization of type I collagen from five different sources, namely bovine, porcine, chicken, trout and salmon, as well as their hydrolysates by means of bioinformatics tools. As expected, the results showed that bovine and porcine collagen, as well as trout and salmon collagen, can be used interchangeably due to their high identity. This result is consistent with the evolution of proteins with highly identical sequences between related species. Also, 156 sequences were found as potential bioactive peptides, 126 from propeptide region and 30 from the central domain, according to the comparison with reported active sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Collagen analysis from a bioinformatic approach allowed us to classify collagen from 5 different animal sources, to establish its interchangeability as potential additive in diverse fields and also to determine the content of bioactive peptides from its in silico hydrolysis.

Animals , Cattle , Peptides , Collagen/chemistry , Computational Biology , Protein Hydrolysates , Salmon , Swine , Cluster Analysis , Collagen Type I , Additives in Cosmetics , Food Additives , Hydrolysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786640


The study of coprolites has been a theme of archaeology in the American Southwest. A feature of archaeoparasitology on the Colorado Plateau is the ubiquity of pinworm infection. As a crowd parasite, this ubiquity signals varying concentrations of populations. Our recent analysis of coprolite deposits from 2 sites revealed the highest prevalence of infection ever recorded for the region. For Salmon Ruins, the deposits date from AD 1140 to 1280. For Aztec Ruins, the samples can be dated by artifact association between AD 1182–1253. Both sites can be placed in the Ancestral Pueblo III occupation (AD 1100–1300), which included a period of cultural stress associated with warfare. Although neither of these sites show evidence of warfare, they are typical of large, defensible towns that survived this time of threat by virtue of large populations in stonewalled villages with easily accessible water. We hypothesize that the concentration of large numbers of people promoted pinworm infection and, therefore, explains the phenomenal levels of infection at these sites.

Archaeology , Artifacts , Colorado , Enterobius , Occupations , Parasites , Prevalence , Salmon , Violence , Virtues , Warfare , Water
Hig. aliment ; 32(278/279): 97-101, 30/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909985


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de contaminação microbiológica de temakis de salmão cru, comercializados por restaurantes com entrega delivery e retirados no local. Foram analiasadas 18 amostras de temakis de 8 restaurantes e de formas distintas (4 com retirada no local e 4 com entrega delivery), em dois dias da semana. A temperatura foi aferida no momento da coleta. No laboratório, as amostras foram colocadas no caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion) e depois inoculadas no Ágar MacConkey; para verificação da presença de bactérias Gram-negativas, e no Ágar Padrão de Contagem (PCA), para determinação das Unidades Formadoras de Colônias (UFC/mL), a identificação das bactérias foi feita a partir dos testes propostos no Enterokit B. Todas as amostras apresentaram crescimento de bactérias Gram-negativas, com prevalência de Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens e Proteus spp, e em uma amostra ocorreu o crescimento de Salmonella spp. Na maioria dos estabelecimentos, a temperatura dos produtos aferida no momento da coleta apresentou-se acima do preconizado pela legislação, sendo estas superiores na entrega de temakis por delivery. A contaminação dos temakis ocorreu tanto na entrega delivery quanto ao serem retirados no local, sendo que a temperatura de segurança, descrita na legislação vigente, não foi atendida, principalmente nos alimentos com entrega delivery.(AU)

The objective of this work was to verify the existence of microbiological contamination of raw salmon temakis, marketed by restaurants with delivery services and withdrawn on the spot. Eighteen samples were analyzed of 8 restaurants in different ways (4 with withdrawal on the spot, and 4 with delivery services), on two days of the week. The temperature was measured at the time of collection. In the laboratory, the samples were placed in BHI broth (Brain Heart Infusion), and then inoculated into MacConkey Agar; for the determination of the Colony Forming Units (CFU / mL), the identification of the bacteria was done from the tests proposed in Enterokit B. All samples showed growth of Gramnegative bacteria, with prevalence of Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens and Proteus spp, and in one sample the growth of Salmonella spp. In most establishments, the temperature of the products measured at the time of collection was higher than that recommended by the legislation, being higher in the delivery of temakis delivery. The contamination of the temakis occurred both in the delivery delivery and when being removed in the place, and the temperature described in current legislation, was not met, especially in foods with delivery services.

Animals , Salmon/microbiology , Food Contamination/analysis , Raw Foods/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Restaurants , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Temperature , Fishes , Food Handling , Foodborne Diseases , Food Supply/methods
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 299-308, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959444


El aumento de la resistencia bacteriana múltiple a antimicrobianos es considerado una gran amenaza para la salud pública mundial y como generador de una importante crisis en el funcionamiento de los sistemas de salud. Esta crisis es discutida diariamente por los gobiernos y los parlamentos, las instituciones globales de salud, fundaciones benéficas y de científicos y de profesionales de la salud y también de consumidores de productos animales. En todos los países del orbe se ha identificado al uso de antimicrobianos en la crianza industrial de animales como un importante determinante en la selección de esta resistencia. Aprovechando la oportunidad que se ha planteado en Chile con el diseño del Plan Nacional Contra la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos, hemos creído importante revisitar y actualizar sumariamente nuestros estudios sobre el uso de antimicrobianos en la acuicultura del salmón y de su potencial impacto en el ambiente y la salud humana y animal. Estos estudios indican que 95% de tres grupos de antimicrobianos importados al país, que incluyen tetraciclinas, fenicoles y quinolonas, son usados en medicina veterinaria y mayormente en la acuicultura del salmón. Nuestros estudios indican que el excesivo uso de estos antimicrobianos genera la presencia de residuos de antimicrobianos en el ambiente marino hasta 8 km de los sitios de acuicultura, los que seleccionan a bacterias con resistencia múltiple en dicho ambiente, ya que ellas contienen variados genes de resistencia a estos antimicrobianos. Estos genes de resistencia están contenidos en elementos genéticos móviles incluyendo plásmidos e integrones, los que son trasmitidos a otras bacterias permitiendo su potencial diseminación epidémica entre poblaciones bacterianas. Bacterias del ambiente marino contienen genes idénticos a los genes de resistencia a quinolonas e integrones similares a los de patógenos humanos, sugiriendo comunicación genética entre estas bacterias de diversos ambientes. Alrededor de los recintos de acuicultura, este uso exagerado de antimicrobianos contamina con ellos también a peces silvestres para consumo humano y potencialmente selecciona BRA en su carne y en los productos de acuicultura. El consumo de estos productos selecciona bacterias resistentes en el microbioma humano y facilita también el intercambio genético entre bacterias del ambiente acuático y la microbiota comensal y patógena humana. El pasaje de antimicrobianos al ambiente marino disminuye la diversidad en él, y potencialmente podría facilitar la aparición de florecimientos de algas nocivas, la infección de peces por patógenos piscícolas resistentes los antimicrobianos y la aparición de patógenos zoonóticos resistentes, incluyendo a Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la prevención de infecciones en peces y la disminución del uso de antimicrobianos en su crianza, será en Chile un factor determinante en la prevención de infecciones humanas y animales con resistencia múltiple a los antimicrobianos, de acuerdo con el paradigma moderno e integral de Una Salud.

The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is currently seen as one of the major threats to human and animal public health. Veterinary use of antimicrobials in both developing and developed countries is many-fold greater than their use in human medicine and is an important determinant in selection of ARB. In light of the recently outlined National Plan Against Antimicrobial Resistance in Chile, our findings on antimicrobial use in salmon aquaculture and their impact on the environment and human health are highly relevant. Ninety-five percent of tetracyclines, phenicols and quinolones imported into Chile between 1998 and 2015 were for veterinary use, mostly in salmon aquaculture. Excessive use of antimicrobials at aquaculture sites was associated with antimicrobial residues in marine sediments 8 km distant and the presence of resistant marine bacteria harboring easily transmissible resistance genes, in mobile genetic elements, to these same antimicrobials. Moreover, quinolone and integron resistance genes in human pathogens isolated from patients in coastal regions adjacent to aquaculture sites were identical to genes isolated from regional marine bacteria, consistent with genetic communication between bacteria in these different environments. Passage of antimicrobials into the marine environment can potentially diminish environmental diversity, contaminate wild fish for human consumption, and facilitate the appearance of harmful algal blooms and resistant zoonotic and human pathogens. Our findings suggest that changes in aquaculture in Chile that prevent fish infections and decrease antimicrobial usage will prove a determining factor in preventing human and animal infections with multiply-resistant ARB in accord with the modern paradigm of One Health.

Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Aquaculture/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Salmon , Tetracyclines/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Chile , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Quinolones/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728625


PRF001 is a fragmented DNA polymer extracted from the testes of salmon. The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of PRF001 in vitro as well as the protective effect of PRF001 intake against arthritis in a rat model. In vitro, cell survival and inflammatory markers after H₂O₂ treatment to induce cell damage were investigated in CHON-001 cells treated with different concentrations of PRF001. In vivo, osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the knee joints of rats. After consumption of PRF001 (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, inflammatory mediators and cytokines in articular cartilage were investigated. In vitro, the levels of inflammatory markers, IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS, and PGE2, were significantly suppressed by PRF001 treatment. In vivo, the inflammatory mediators and cytokines, IL-1β, p-Erk1/2, NF-κB, TNF-α, COX-2, and PGE2, as well as MMP3 and MMP7, which have catabolic activity in chondrocytes, were decreased in the MIA-induced osteoarthritic rats following intake of PRF001. Histological analysis revealed that PRF001 had a protective effect on the articular cartilage. Altogether, these results demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory property of PRF001 contributes to its protective effects in osteoarthritis through deregulating IL-1β, TNF-α, and subsequent signals, such as p-Erk1/2, NF-κB, COX-2, PGE2, and MMPs.

Animals , Arthritis , Cartilage, Articular , Cell Survival , Chondrocytes , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , DNA , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Injections, Intra-Articular , Knee Joint , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Models, Animal , Osteoarthritis , Polymers , Rats , Salmon , Testis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713286


BACKGROUND: Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) influencing cellular growth and differentiation is recognized to promote wound healing by stimulating tissue repair. Although PDRN can be extracted from human placentas, PDRN medications have recently been extracted from the semen of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The present study was designed to evaluate the wound healing effects of O. keta-derived PDRN for injection (Rejuvenex) and PDRN cream (Rejuvenex Cream) in comparison with those of O. mykiss-derived PDRN injection (Placentex). METHODS: Full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of mice (n=60). The mice were divided into the following four groups according to the dressing used for the wounds: O. mykiss-derived PDRN injection group, O. keta-derived PDRN injection group, O. keta-derived PDRN cream group, and normal saline soaked dressing group (control group). We analyzed the gross findings, wound sizes, histological findings, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the groups immediately after the treatment, and again after 4, 7, and 10 days of treatment. RESULTS: The wound healing effects were the greatest in the O. keta-derived PDRN injection and O. mykiss-derived PDRN injection groups, which showed similar scores, followed by the O. keta-derived cream and normal saline soaked dressing groups. CONCLUSION: The injection of PDRN extracted from O. keta was found to be as effective at healing full-thickness skin defects as the O. mykiss-derived PDRN injection, which is currently used in the clinic. Moreover, the O. keta-derived PDRN injection was also found to reduce the time required for wound healing.

Animals , Bandages , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Oncorhynchus , Placenta , Salmon , Semen , Skin , Trout , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15451


PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the association of temperature-fluctuation with freshness quality in various foods. METHODS: We investigated the effects of storage conditions on antioxidant activities of cherries and romaine lettuce during storage at 0.7 ± 0.6℃, 1.2 ± 1.4℃, and 1.6 ± 2.8℃. Cherries and romaine lettuce were stored for a period of 9 days and 7 days, respectively. We also analyzed the effects of storage conditions on fresh quality of beef and salmon during storage at −0.3 ± 0.8℃, −0.6 ± 2.3℃, and −1.5 ± 4.4℃. Both of them were stored for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: The amount of water loss was highest in beef, and the microbial count was also the highest at −1.5 ± 4.4℃. In the case of salmon, there was no difference in water loss according to storage, and TBA value was significantly increased at −1.5 ± 4.4℃. Moisture retention was the highest at 0.7 ± 0.6℃ in both romaine lettuce and cherry samples. The contents of polyphenol and flavonoid were significantly higher in cherries, and content of polyphenols in romaine lettuce was significantly higher at 0.7 ± 0.6℃ (p 1.2 ± 1.4℃> 1.6 ± 2.8 ℃ over 7 days. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that temperature-fluctuation may affect qualities of foods stored in a refrigerator.

Food Handling , Food Storage , Lettuce , Nutritive Value , Polyphenols , Red Meat , Salmon , Water
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44076


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Re-epithelialization has an important role in skin wound healing. Astaxanthin (ASX), a carotenoid found in crustaceans including shrimp, crab, and salmon, has been widely used for skin protection. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ASX on proliferation and migration of human skin keratinocyte cells and explored the mechanism associated with that migration. MATERIAL/METHOD: HaCaT keratinocyte cells were exposed to 0.25-1 µg/mL of ASX. Proliferation of keratinocytes was analyzed by using MTT assays and flow cytometry. Keratinocyte migration was determined by using a scratch wound-healing assay. A mechanism for regulation of migration was explored via immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Our results suggest that ASX produces no significant toxicity in human keratinocyte cells. Cell-cycle analysis on ASX-treated keratinocytes demonstrated a significant increase in keratinocyte cell proliferation at the S phase. In addition, ASX increased keratinocyte motility across the wound space in a time-dependent manner. The mechanism by which ASX increased keratinocyte migration was associated with induction of filopodia and formation of lamellipodia, as well as with increased Cdc42 and Rac1 activation and decreased RhoA activation. CONCLUSIONS: ASX stimulates the migration of keratinocytes through Cdc42, Rac1 activation and RhoA inhibition. ASX has a positive role in the re-epithelialization of wounds. Our results may encourage further in vivo and clinical study into the development of ASX as a potential agent for wound repair.

Blotting, Western , Carotenoids , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Clinical Study , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratinocytes , Pseudopodia , Re-Epithelialization , S Phase , Salmon , Skin , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 1097-1104, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828992


Mandibular deformity is a condition that affects the jaw bone of adult salmon and has been observed in Norway and Chile, causing weight loss, poor quality of farmed fish and increased mortality. The causes range from high temperatures of the state of eggs, to poor nutrition phosphorus or vitamin C. This work aims to analyze this deformity by histochemical and mineral analysis technique during an episode presented in centers of the Scotia Sea. Jaw and spinal segments of 21 Atlantic salmon in Scotland were used. These samples were classified into three groups: Group 1: Severely deformed. Group 2: Mildly affected. Group 3: Normal controls. Four jaws per group were fixed in 10 % formalin and embedded in Paraplast, sections of 5 microns were performed using a Microm® microtome histochemical technique Von Kossa was used for the detection of calcium deposits, which highlights the calcium osteoid black and red color. For proximate analysis, and in order to obtain and compare levels of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and magnesium in total 9 bone jaws (6 affected with DM and 3 controls) and 9 body sections the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare these values between misshapen salmon and controls. To correlate values, jaw and body segment a Spearman corrrelation was applied. Fish group 1 presented a ventral deviation of the alveolar bone body. In fish group 2 prominence of the visible joint on both sides or unilaterally was observed. Comparing the values of % Ca, % P, % Mg and Zn jaws with DM and healthy ones with Mann Witney method it was found that the values of these minerals vary between salmon and controls affected. There was a significant difference in the percentage of P, which indicates that there is less P in affected fish vertebrae. Spearman correlation noted that the percentages of the minerals studied in dental bone and vertebral segments are uncorrelated. Rather, Von Kossa distribution indicates that Ca/P is not homogeneous in the dental bone, as a result of mineral resorption from the skeleton including the operculum, articular bone and dental towards kype. This paper states that Von Kossa histochemical technique showed significant differences between deformed fish and controls and also showed differences between the various segments of the dental bone. The alveolar bone is a dynamic structure adapted to continuous histological changes may be involved in MD, phosphorus deficient diets, coupled with the initial formation of Kippe.

La deformación mandibular es una patología que afecta al hueso dentario de salmones adultos, se observó en Noruega y en Chile, ocasionando disminución de peso, baja calidad de peces cultivados y aumento de la mortalidad. Las causas varían desde temperaturas elevadas al estado de ovas, hasta alimentación deficitaria en fósforo o vitamina C. Este trabajo tiene como propósito analizar esta deformación mediante una técnica histoquímica y de análisis de minerales durante un episodio presentado en centros de mar de Escocia. Se utilizó la mandíbula y segmento vertebral de 21 salmones del Atlántico de Escocia. Estas muestras se clasificaron en tres grupos Grupo 1: Severamente deformes. Grupo 2: Levemente afectados. Grupo 3: Controles normales. Cuatro mandíbulas por grupo fueron fijadas en formalina al 10 % y se incluyeron en paraplast, se realizaron cortes de 5 µm utilizando un micrótomo Microm®. Se utilizó la técnica histoquímica de Von Kossa para la detección de depósitos de calcio la cual destaca al calcio de color negro y el osteoide de color rojo. Para el análisis químico proximal, y con el propósito de obtener y comparar niveles de calcio, fósforo, zinc y magnesio en los huesos se utilizó un total de 9 mandíbulas (6 afectadas con DM y 3 controles) y sus 9 secciones corporales. Para comparar estos valores entre salmones deformes y controles se utilizó la prueba de Mann-Whitney. Para correlacionar los valores de mandíbula y segmento corporal se hizo una correlación por jerarquías de Spearman. Los peces del grupo 1, presentaron una desviación ventral del cuerpo del hueso dentario. En los peces del grupo 2 se observó la prominencia de la articulación visible en ambos lados o unilateralmente. Al comparar los valores de % Ca, % P, % Mg y Zn de las mandíbulas con DM y sanas con el método de Mann Witney se encontró que los valores de estos minerales no varían entre salmones afectados y controles. Hubo una diferencia significativa en el porcentaje de P, lo cual indica que existe menos P en vértebras de peces afectados. La correlación de Spearman señaló que los porcentajes de los minerales estudiados en huesos dentarios y segmentos vertebrales no están correlacionados. Por el contrario, la técnica Von Kossa mostró que la distribución de Ca/ P no es homogénea en el hueso dental producto de la reabsorción mineral desde el esqueleto incluyendo el opérculo, hueso articular y dental hacia la kype. El presente trabajo establece que la técnica histoquímica de Von Kossa fue la que permitió observar diferencias importantes entre peces deformados y controles, además mostró diferencias entre los distintos segmentos del hueso dentario. El hueso dentario es una estructura dinámica adaptada a continuos cambios histológicos pudiendo estar involucrados en la DM, dietas deficientes de fósforo, sumado a la formación inicial del Kippe.

Animals , Mandible/abnormalities , Mandible/chemistry , Metals/analysis , Salmon/anatomy & histology , Calcium/analysis , Chile , Magnesium/analysis , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Phosphorus/analysis , Zinc/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(2): 131-140, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907478


The intracellular bacteria Piscirickettsia salmonis is the most prevalent pathogen in the Chilean salmon industry, responsible for 50 percent of losses in recent years. So far, there are no effective treatments to control infections by this pathogen due to the emergence of antibiotics resistance. Therefore, it is extremely important to conduct research to find successful antibacterial therapies. In this paper, we evaluated the in vitro bactericidal activity of flavonoids and aromatic geranyl derivatives isolated from the resinous exudate of species Heliotropium filifolium, H. sinuatum y H. huascoense. The results showed that the compounds Filifolinone, Naringenine and 3-O- methylgalangine cause different percentage of mortality of bacteria and therefore they are good candidates to continue its evaluation in vitro and in vivo.

La bacteria intracelular Piscirickettsia salmonis es el patógeno de mayor incidencia en la industria salmonera chilena siendo responsable de un 50 por ciento de las pérdidas en los últimos años. Hasta ahora no hay tratamientos efectivos para este patógeno que permitan controlar las infecciones provocadas por él debido a la aparición de resistencia a antibióticos. Por lo tanto, resulta de gran importancia investigar para encontrar terapias antibacterianas efectivas. En este trabajo nosotros evaluamos la actividad bactericida in vitro de flavonoides y derivados aromáticos geranilados aislados desde el exudado resinoso de las especies vegetales Heliotropium filifolium, H. sinuatum y H. huascoense. Los resultados mostraron que los compuestos Filifolinona, Naringenina y 3-O-metilgalangina provocan diferentes porcentajes de mortalidad de la bacteria y, por lo tanto, son candidatos para seguir siendo evaluados tanto in vitro como in vivo.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Heliotropium/chemistry , Piscirickettsia , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Salmon , Flavonoids/pharmacology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206796


BACKGROUND: The multiple allergosorbent test chemiluminescent assay (MAST-CLA) is a simple system with high sensitivity and specificity for measuring total and allergen-specific IgE antibodies in patients with allergic skin diseases such as urticaria. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate total IgE class, allergen frequencies, and their correlations in MAST-CLA in acute and chronic urticaria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using medical documents of 2,028 urticaria patients (average age= 34.85 years) who visited Yonsei Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Yeongseo Province, Korea, between 2003 and 2012. Positive rates of specific IgE and total serum IgE levels in acute and chronic urticaria patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the total 2,028 patients, 1,263 (62.3%) had acute urticaria, and 765 (37.7%) had chronic urticaria. The number of patients with higher than class 2 level of serum total IgE was 1,496 (73.8%): 964 (76.3%) of the acute urticaria group and 532 (69.5%) of the chronic urticaria group. More than half of the patients (1,048; 51.7%) showed a positive reaction to at least one allergen-specific IgE. The positive rate of acute urticaria was 53.0% and chronic urticaria 49.5%. In both acute and chronic urticaria, the most commonly detected allergen was Dermatophagoides farinae, followed by D. pterony and house dust. Most patients showed lower positive reactions to food allergens. Peach was the most common food allergen in both groups. Of the patients who showed positive total IgE, 40.4% did not react to any allergen-specific IgE. Also, 26.3% of the patients who were negative for total IgE showed a positive reaction to more than one allergen-specific IgE. The level of total IgE and the number of positive allergen-specific IgE responses were positively correlated in both acute and chronic urticaria patients. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the positive rate of total IgE was higher in acute urticaria patients than in chronic urticaria patients. Both acute and chronic urticaria patient groups showed the highest positive rates for D. farinae. Positive rates for response to food allergens, such as soybean, chicken, yeast, tuna, and salmon, were lower in the chronic urticaria group. For inhalant allergens, the positive rates of response to white oak and Aspergillus were higher in the acute urticaria group. The level of total IgE and the number of positive allergen-specific IgE responses showed a positive correlation in both groups. Thus, MAST-CLA appears to be a simple and convenient method for determining causative allergens in the occurrence and exacerbation of urticaria, but other studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

Allergens , Antibodies , Aspergillus , Chickens , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dust , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Luminescent Measurements , Prunus persica , Retrospective Studies , Salmon , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin Diseases , Soybeans , Tuna , Urticaria , Yeasts
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 29(2): 46-55, dic. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868790


Se evaluó un lodo salmonícola, proveniente de centros de cultivo marinos, con el objetivo de evaluar el aumento en la mineralización y/o solubilización del fósforo del lodo salmonícola tratado con la inoculación de cepas chilenas de hongos. El lodo fue pretratado mediante esterilización, pasteurización y sin pretratar. Posteriormente, fue inoculado con cepas nativas de Aspergillus niger y Trichoderma pseudokoningii, usando dos controles: sin adición de inóculo y otro, con la cepa control A. niger ANC. Estas muestras fueron incubadas por 60 días, determinándose el pH y la disponibilidad de fósforo (P) en los lodos pretratados. Luego de esta primera fase, las muestras fueron incubadas en tubos de lixiviación a temperatura controlada durante 6 semanas evaluando la cinética de mineralización de P de los lodos. Los pretratamientos aplicados al lodo aumentaron la disponibilidad de P con la disminución del pH. La esterilización del lodo influyó en la colonización microbial, presentando la mayor colonización de las cepas inoculadas y la mayor liberación de P a la solución. El pretratamiento de esterilización inoculado con la cepa control A. niger presentó el mayor potencial de mineralización de P, siendo significativamente mayor a las cepas nativas y al control evaluado.

A salmon sludge from marine farming centers was evaluated with the aim to increase the mineralization and/or solubilization of their phosphorus (P) content through the inoculation of Chilean fungi strains. The sludge was pretreated through sterilization, pasteurization and without any pretreatment. After were inoculated with native strains of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma pseudokoningii, using two controls: without inoculum and with inoculation with A. niger ANC. The samples were incubated for 60 days at room temperature and pH and P availability was determined. After this first phase, the samples were additionally incubated for other 6 weeks, in leaching tubes, at controlled temperature (25 ºC) evaluating the sludge kinetics of P mineralization. The pretreatment applied to the sludge increased P availability with a pH value decline. The sludge sterilization had an influence on the microbial colonization, presenting high colonization of the inoculated strains and more P was available. The pretreatment of sterilization inoculated with the control strain A. niger presented the biggest potential for mineralization of P, being significantly higher than the native strains and control evaluated in this study.

Aspergillus niger , Phosphorus/isolation & purification , Phosphorus/analysis , Sludges from Wastewater Treatment/analysis , Marine Environment , Culture Media/chemistry , Trichoderma , Chile , Sterilization/methods , Fungi , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Pasteurization/methods , Salmon
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(4): 333-337, dic. 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008611


El uso de bacteriófagos en el biocontrol de patógenos está adquiriendo cada vez más aceptación. En este estudio se evaluó la efectividad de bacteriófagos en la reducción de los recuentos de Salmonella Enteritidis en salmón fresco y ahumado. Para ello, 25 muestras por grupo fueron contaminadas con S. Enteritidis, tratadas con una mezcla de bacteriófagos e incubadas durante 10 días a 18 °C o a 4 °C. A los días 3, 6 y 10 se obtuvo una reducción signifi cativa de los recuentos de S. Enteritidis en las muestras de salmón fresco incubadas a ambas temperaturas: la reducción fue de entre 0,75 y 3,19 log10 UFC/g a 18 °C y de entre 2,82 y 3,12 log10 UFC/g a 4 °C. En salmón ahumado las reducciones fueron menores (entre 1,02 y 1,96 log10 UFC/g a 18 °C y entre 0,50 y 1,16 log10 UFC/g a 4 °C). Los resultados indican que estos bacteriófagos constituyen una potencial herramienta de biocontrol de S. Enteritidis en tejidos de salmón fresco y ahumado. © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados

The use of bacteriophages for the biocontrol of food-borne pathogens is increasingly gaining acceptance. In this study, the effectiveness of bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis counts was evaluated in raw and smoked salmon tissues. Groups of 25 samples each were contaminated with S. Enteritidis, treated with a phage mix and then incubated for ten days at 18 °C and 4 °C. A signifi cant bacterial reduction was obtained on days 3, 6 and 10 in raw salmon samples incubated at 18 °C (from 0.75 to 3.19 log10 CFU/g) and at 4 °C (from 2.82 to 3.12 log10 CFU/g), whereas in smoked salmon lower reductions were achieved (from 1.02 to 1.96 log10 CFU/g at 18°C and from 0.50 to 1.16 log10 CFU/g at 4 °C). These results show the potential effectiveness of this bacteriophage cocktail as a biocontrol agent against S. Enteritidis in raw and smoked salmon tissues

Animals , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control , Phage Therapy/veterinary , Salmon/microbiology , Bacteriophages
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 73(1): 1-8, jan.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab


A cor e a aparência dos alimentos são os primeiros atributos fundamentais, se não os mais importantes a serem avaliados pelos consumidores no momento da sua aquisição. Os alimentos podem ser mais nutritivos, seguros e econômicos, no entanto, se não forem atraentes, sua aquisição não ocorrerá. O salmão é basicamente um peixe branco que se torna rosado pela ingestão do camarão. O pigmento vermelho armazenado presente no músculo ou na casca do camarão e que se acumula no tecido adiposo é adquirido pela ingestão das algas e dos organismos unicelulares pelos camarões do mar. Os carotenóides utilizados nas indústrias alimentícia, farmacêutica, de cosméticos e de ração são corantes naturais responsáveis pelas cores amarela, laranja e vermelha. O salmão criado em aqüicultura não tem acesso aos organismos citados acima, entretanto é adicionada à sua ração a astaxantina (ATX), substância que confere a cor rosada à sua carne. A ATX (3,3'-dihidroxi-beta,beta-caroteno-4,4'-diona) é um pigmento carotenóide oxigenado, que confere a característica de coloração rosa-avermelhada a alguns peixes, crustáceos, aves e microrganismos. A ATX apresenta potente atividade na eliminação de radicais livres e na proteção quanto à peroxidação de lipídios e quanto aos danos causados pela oxidação das membranas celulares e de tecidos.

The color and appearance of food are the first fundamental attributes, if not the most important, to beevaluated by consumers at the time of its acquisition. The food can be more nutritious, safer and moreeconomical, however, if it is not attractive, its acquisition will not occur. Basically, salmon is a white fishthat becomes pink by eating shrimp. The stored red pigment existing in the shrimp muscle or shell, which isaccumulated in the adipose tissue, is acquired through the ingestion of algae and unicellular organisms bythe marine shrimps. The carotenoids employed in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and feed industriesare natural colorants responsible for providing yellow, orange and red colors. As the salmon raised inaquaculture do not have access to the organism above mentioned, the astaxanthin (ATX), a substance thatgives a pinkish color to salmon meat, is added to their feed. ATX (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a oxygenated carotenoid pigment which confers the characteristic reddish-pink colorationto certain fish, crustaceans, birds and microorganisms. The ATX has potent activity in removing the freeradicals and protecting against the lipid peroxidation and the damage caused by oxidation of cell andtissues membranes.

Carotenoids , Food Coloring Agents , Salmon
Neonatal Medicine ; : 151-157, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53870


PURPOSE: Birthmarks are commonly observed during neonatal period and its prevalence varies between races and countries. Most skin lesions are transient and not require medical treatment. But some birthmarks have potential medical significance and may be the first sign of systemic medical problems. We carried out a prospective study to determine the prevalence of birthmarks in Korean newborn infants. METHODS: From October 2012 to January 2013, 1,964 Korean newborn infants who were born in Cheil General Hospital, Kwandong University College of Medicine were evaluated for the presence of birthmarks within 48 hours after birth. RESULTS: Among 1,964 newborn infants, 980 (49.9%) infants were male and 984 (50.1%) were female. The most common pigmentary birthmark was Mongolian spot (97.1%), which was mostly presented on sacrogluteal area, and was followed by nevocellular nevi (0.8%), cafe-au-lait spot (0.8%), and sebaceous nevi (0.2%). Among vascular birthmarks, the most common lesion was salmon patch (30.8%), and followed by port-wine stain (0.2%) and hemangioma (0.2%). The common other lesions were sebaceous hyperplasia (37.4%), erythema toxicum neonatorum (10.2%), milia (4.1%), skin appendage (2.6%), anal dimple (1.2%), auricular pit (0.9%), miliaria (0.5%), aplasia cutis congenita (0.2%) in the order of frequency. CONCLUSION: We studied the prevalence of the birthmarks in Korean newborn infants. The most common pigmentary birth mark was mongolian spot, and the most common vascular birthmark was salmon patch in Korean newborn infants.

Cafe-au-Lait Spots , Racial Groups , Ectodermal Dysplasia , Erythema , Female , Hemangioma , Hospitals, General , Humans , Hyperplasia , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Miliaria , Mongolian Spot , Nevus , Parturition , Port-Wine Stain , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Salmon , Skin
Int. j. morphol ; 31(1): 172-176, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-676154


En este estudio se describe el desarrollo post-eclosional de la médula espinal del salmón. Salmo salar. Se utilizaron 200 alevines recién eclosionados, los que fueron cultivados en el Centro de Estudios Acuícolas de la Universidad de Chile. Las condiciones ambientales de cultivo fueron de un 90% de saturación de oxigeno. La temperatura ambiental se mantuvo en 7°C. A los días 1, 3, 5 7 ds post-eclosión, 50 alevines por grupo etario fueron anestesiados y sacrificados por exposición a 5% Benzocaina diluida en agua (Kalmagin 20®, Farquímica). Posteriormente fueron fijados en formalina tamponada al 10% y procesados mediante técnica histológica. Para cada alevín se tomaron a nivel de la aleta dorsal un total de 40 cortes coronales seriados de 5µm de grosor, los que fueron procesados de acuerdo a las técnicas Cresil violeta. La cuantificación neuronal se realizó sobre imágenes microscópicas mediante el método del disector. Los resultados obtenidos se sometieron a una prueba de Coeficiente de Kurtosis con el propósito de analizar el grado de concentración que presentan los valores alrededor de la zona central de la distribución. La médula espinal de los alevines de 1 día es poco diferenciada. En los alevines de 3, 5 y 7 días se diferencian gradualmente las neuronas de la sustancia gris, pero no presenta la distribución característica en forma de "Y" invertida del salmón adulto. El número de neuronas aumenta desde 67+1.7 en el día 1 hasta 88+2.1 en el día 7. Esta observación se puede relacionar con la ausencia de movimientos natatorios de los peces durante los primeros días ya que estos caen sobre la gravilla al fondo de las bateas. Un factor determinante en la adquisición de la morfología de la médula espinal es el inicio de los movimientos natatorios, lo que ocurre aproximadamente al quinto día post-eclosión. La actividad motriz activa permite que las neuronas de la médula espinal sean reclutadas y se formen y activen las redes neurales, permaneciendo finalmente los circuitos más eficientes. El aumento del número de neuronas se puede explicar por neurogénesis post-eclosión, como ocurre en otros teleósteos. Este estudio indica que al momento de la eclosión, el sistema nervioso está muy indiferenciando, y que durante las primeras semanas de vida del alevín ocurre la diferenciación de las neuronas y neurogénesis. Este conocimiento es muy importante debido a que en las pisciculturas se cuidan las ovas, y se descuida la fase del alevinaje en la creencia que los tejidos están constituidos.

We describe the development of the spinal cord during the post eclosion period of the salmon (Salmo salar).We used a total of 200 newly hatched fry grown in the Aquaculture Research Center of the Universidad de Chile. Environmental conditions were of 90% oxygen saturation. Ambient temperature was maintained at 7° C. At days, 1, 3, 5 and 7, post-hatching, 50 fry were anesthetized and sacrificed by exposure to 5% benzocaine diluted in water, (Kalmagin 20 ®, Farquímica). They were then fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by histological technique. For each juvenile a total of 40 serial coronal sections of 5µm were taken at the level of the dorsal fin, which were then processed according to cresyl violet techniques.Neuronal quantitation was performed on microscopic images by dissector method. The results obtained were subjected to coefficient Kurtosis test in order to analyze the degree of concentration of values around the central distribution area.The spinal cord of the one-day fry is poorly differentiated. In fry of 3, 5 and 7 days neurons are gradually differentiated, they do not however present the characteristic neuronal distribution inverted "Y" of the adult salmon. The number of neurons increases from 67±1.7 on day one, to 88±2.1 on day 7.This observation may be related to the absence of fish swimming movements during days one and three as these fall on the gravel at the bottom of the trays. A determining factor in the acquisition of the morphology of the spinal cord is the start of swimming movements, which occur at around the fifth day post-hatching.Active motor activity allows spinal cord neurons to be recruited and form to activate neural networks, to remain finally in the most efficient circuits. Increasing the number of neurons can be explained by post-hatching neurogenesis as in other teleosts.This study indicates that at the time of hatching, the nervous system is very undifferentiated and that neuron differentiation and neurogenesis occur during the first weeks of life. This knowledge is very important as fish farms take care of eggs, neglecting the nursery stage in the belief that tissues are formed.

Animals , Salmon , Spinal Cord/growth & development , Salmo salar , Neurogenesis , Nervous System/growth & development