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1.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(2, cont.): e2411, jul-dez. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1352319

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is the world's most common foodborne illness. In Brazil, foods contaminated by salmonella lead the statistics. Therefore, the aim of this study is, through biotechnological knowledge, to compile alternative and innovative techniques for the detection of salmonella in foods, such as fish-farming derivatives, immunological and biosensorial techniques. This is a descriptive exploratory data survey of a qualitative nature, aiming at data analysis. Research and data collection were carried out in bibliographic databases: Academic Google, Scielo, CAPES journals and institutional repositories using specific descriptors - in Portuguese and English, with words and terms separated by the Boolean operators 'AND' and 'OR'. Some innovative and alternative methods are available to identify the presence of salmonella in food. Immunological and biosensory techniques, despite being less frequent in the scientific literature than molecular methods, are techniques that present high specificity and sensitivity. These techniques have been the most developed alternative methods in fish in recent years. And, they can employ both molecular and immunological techniques in biorecognition, which is characterized as an advantage of not having a requirement for pre-enrichment of the sample. According to the literature found, the techniques covered in this study are quick to respond, which speeds up decision-making by researchers and technicians, which makes the techniques very promising for industrial application.(AU)


A salmonelose é uma enfermidade de maior ocorrência no mundo veiculada por alimentos. No Brasil, alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideram as estatísticas. Por isso, o objetivo desse estudo é através dos conhecimentos biotecnológicos compilar técnicas alternativas e inovadoras para a detecção de salmonelas em alimentos, como os derivados da piscicultura, as técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais. Trata-se de um estudo de levantamento de dados descritivo exploratório de de caráter qualitativo, visando à análise dos dados. As pesquisas e coletas de dados foram realizadas nas bases bibliográficas: Google Acadêmico, Scielo, periódicos da CAPES e repositórios institucionais utilizando os descritores específicos - nos idiomas português e inglês, com palavras e termos separados pelos operadores booleanos 'AND' e 'OR'. São disponibilizados alguns métodos inovadores e alternativos para identificação da presença de salmonelas em alimentos. As técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais, apesar de serem menos frequentes na literatura científica do que os métodos moleculares são técnicas que apresentaram elevada especificidade e sensibilidade. Essas técnicas têm sido os métodos alternativos mais desenvolvidos em peixes nos últimos anos. E, podem empregar tanto técnicas moleculares como imunológicas no biorreconhecimento, o que se caracteriza como vantagem de não haver requerimento de pré-enriquecimento da amostra. Conforme a literatura encontrada, as técnicas abordadas por esse estudo apresentam rapidez de resposta o que agiliza as tomadas de decisões dos pesquisadores e técnicos, o que torna as técnicas bastante promissora para aplicação industrial.(AU)


La salmonelosis es la enfermedad transmitida por alimentos más común del mundo. En Brasil, los alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideran las estadísticas. Por tanto, el objetivo de ese estudio fue a través de conocimientos biotecnológicos recopilar técnicas alternativas e innovadoras para la detección de salmonelas en los alimentos, como los derivados de la piscicultura, las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales. Se trata de una encuesta de datos exploratorio descriptivo de carácter cualitativo, cuyo objetivo es el análisis de datos. Las investigaciones y recopilaciones de datos se realizaron en bases de datos bibliográficas: Google Académico, Scielo, revistas CAPES y repositorios institucionales utilizando descriptores específicos, en portugués e inglés, con palabras y términos separados por los operadores booleanos 'AND' y 'OR'. Se encuentran disponibles algunos métodos innovadores y alternativos para identificar la presencia de salmonela en los alimentos. Las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales, a pesar de ser menos frecuentes en la literatura científica que los métodos moleculares, son técnicas de alta especificidad y sensibilidad. Esas técnicas han sido los métodos alternativos más desarrollados en peces en los últimos años. Y pueden emplear técnicas tanto moleculares como inmunológicas en el biorreconocimiento, que se caracteriza por la ventaja de no tener un requisito de preenriquecimiento de la muestra. Según la literatura encontrada, las técnicas abordadas en este estudio son de rápida respuesta, lo que agiliza la toma de decisiones por parte de investigadores y técnicos, lo que hace que las técnicas sean muy prometedoras para la aplicación industrial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections , Immunologic Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fisheries , Food Microbiology , Data Analysis
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3894, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251800

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La carne de ave y otros tipos de carnes provenientes de animales infectados son importantes vehículos de salmonelosis. Objetivo: Determinar la susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos y las serovariedades de Salmonella aisladas en carnes y productos cárnicos. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron 172 aislados en el período enero de 2012 a marzo de 2020 en el laboratorio de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Higiene Epidemiología y Microbiología de Cuba. El serotipaje se determinó según la norma ISO/TR 6579-3:2014. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó mediante el método de difusión con discos (Bauer-Kirby) de acuerdo con la metodología descrita en la normativa del Instituto de Normas Clínicas y de Laboratorio. Resultados: Las serovariedades identificadas con mayor frecuencia fueron: S. Enteritidis, S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Infantis y S. London, 18 (43,9 %) serovariedades identificadas en las carnes frescas también se encontraron en las procesadas. Los porcentajes más altos de resistencia antimicrobiana se hallaron frente al ácido nalidíxico, la tetraciclina y la ampicilina.S. Enteritidis y S. Typhimurium expresaron resistencia a un mayor número de antibióticos. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que las carnes frescas constituyen una fuente de diseminación de Salmonella, incluso aquellas portadoras de resistencia a los antimicrobianos(AU)


Poultry and other types of meat from infected animals are important vehicles of salmonellosis. Objective: To determine the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and serovarieties of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat products. Material and Methods: A total of 159 isolates were analyzed at the Cuban National Institute of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology during the period between January 2012 and March 2020. Serotypes were determined according to ISO/TR 6579-3: 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Bauer-Kirby technique, according to the methodology described in the regulations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The most frequent serovarieties identified were S. Enteritidis, S. Agona, S. Derby, S. Infantis and S. London. Also, 18 (43, 9 %) of serovarieties identified in fresh meat were found in processed meat. The highest percentages were related to antimicrobial resistance to nalidixic acid, tetracycline and ampicillin. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium serotypes showed resistance to a greater number of antibiotics. Conclusions: The results suggest that fresh meats are an important source of Salmonella contamination, including those that are carriers of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Salmonella Infections , Stroke , Environmental Pollution , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Disease Susceptibility
3.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347975

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is a foodborne disease (FBD) that affects public health and can cause death in people. Many outbreaks of Salmonellosis have been reported due to the contamination of raw milk and dairy products with the pathogen. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in milk samples from four dairy herds in the Sabana of Bogotá in 2017, 112 milk samples were taken directly from the mammary gland during milking. All milk samples were cultured and tested to isolate and identify Salmonella spp. using microbiological and molecular methods. Salmonella spp. prevalence of milk samples was found to be 20.5% (n=23). The main Salmonella serovars isolated were S. Newport (60.87%), S.Typhimurium (17.4%), S. Virchow, S. Bredeney, and S. Anatum (4.3% each one of the serovars). However, it was not possible to determine the Salmonella serotype in two isolates. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in milk has not been studied extensively in Colombia. The 20.5% in the prevalence might be due to fact that the sample was taken directly from the mammary gland allowing a better chance of isolation by avoiding the dilutional effect of mixed milk from different cows in the buckets. This also suggests that the infection of the udder could have occurred by hematogenous dissemination or by milking machine contamination. This study highlights the need to implement measures to prevent contamination and reduce the problem in the herds, which will result in milk and dairy products with high standards of innocuity and quality and decrease the risk of foodborne illness(AU)


A salmonelose é uma doença transmitida por alimentos que afeta a saúde pública e pode causar a morte de pessoas. Muitos surtos de salmonelose têm sido relatados devido à contaminação de leite cru e produtos lácteos com o patógeno. Para determinar a prevalência de Salmonella spp. em amostras de leite de quatro rebanhos leiteiros na Sabana de Bogotá em 2017, cento e doze amostras de leite foram colhidas diretamente da glândula mamária durante a ordenha. Todas as amostras de leite foram cultivadas para isolar e identificar Salmonella spp. usando métodos microbiológicos e moleculares. A prevalência de Salmonella spp. nas amostras de leite foi de 20,5% (n = 23). Os principais sorovares de Salmonellaidentificados foram S. Newport (60,87%), S. Typhimurium (17,4%), S. Virchow, S. Bredeney e S. Anatum (4,3% cada um dos sorovares). No entanto, não foram determinados os sorovares de dois isolados. A prevalência de Salmonella spp. no leite ainda não foi extensivamente estudada na Colômbia. Os 20,5% na prevalência podem ser devidos ao fato de a amostra ter sido colhida diretamente da glândula mamária, permitindo uma melhor chance de isolamento, evitando o efeito de diluição do leite misto de diferentes vacas nos baldes, o que pode indicar infecção do úbere pela disseminação hematogênica ou por contaminação da ordenhadeira. Este estudo destaca a necessidade da implementação de medidas destinadas a prevenir a contaminação e reduzir o problema nos rebanhos, resultando em leite e produtos lácteos com altos padrões de inocuidade e qualidade, diminuindo o risco de doenças de origem alimentar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Cattle/microbiology , Zoonoses , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Salmonella Infections
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00402020, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349004

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology of salmonellosis in poultry is complex, which makes it difficult to identify the origin and spread of this disease in poultry farms. The aims of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution of Salmonella enterica in epidemiological units in Paraná, Brazil; and to investigate correlations between this microorganism and associated factors. Among the epidemiological units, 78 of 243 (32.10%) were positive. Spatially, the northwestern and western regions had higher concentrations of positive cases than the other regions. In bivariate analyses, the presence of other animal species in the epidemiological unit (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.43­0.95; p = 0.022) and proximity to establishments at risk (PR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32­0.81; p = 0.001) did not influence positivity, but the average population per poultry shed (between 30,501 and 32,500; PR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.72­3.83; p = 0.001) was associated with Salmonella positivity. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the average population per poultry shed, presence of surrounding risk-posing establishments and presence of surrounding poultry sheds produced a significant multiple model for S. enterica. The results indicated that the presence of S. enterica may be related to higher density broiler in poultry sheds, presence of surrounding poultry sheds, proximity between positive and negative epidemiological units and altitude of the municipality. The information obtained showed that some factors were related to positivity for this microorganism and emphasizes the importance of serotyping to obtain other epidemiological data.


Subject(s)
Poultry , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica , Birds , Serotyping , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence Ratio , Farms
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 78 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379072

ABSTRACT

Surtos de salmonelose e listeriose associados ao consumo de frutas inteiras ou minimamente processadas ocorrem com frequência. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de adesão e internalização de Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes em mangas (Mangifera indica) variedade Tommy Atkins, em diferentes condições de contaminação experimental e tratamento hidrotérmico, bem como avaliar a multiplicação dos patógenos internalizados na polpa das frutas durante armazenamento em refrigeração (8oC ) e temperatura ambiente (25oC). O estudo foi conduzido com as cepas S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076, S. Thyphimurium ATCC 14028, L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 e L. monocytogenes Scott A. Inicialmente as cepas foram avaliadas segundo o índice de hidrofobicidade e capacidade de formação de biofilme em poliestireno. A adesão à superfície da manga foi avaliada por técnicas microbiológicas e também pela técnica de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A internalização foi avaliada a partir de inoculação na cicatriz do pedúnculo (6 log UFC/mL) e após tratamento hidrotérmico e imersão em solução contaminada (6 log UFC/mL), mantidas a 8 °C e a 25 °C por 24h, 5 e 10 dias. A sobrevivência foi avaliada através da inoculação em região demarcada, em cenário de baixo (2 log UFC/mL) e alto nível de contaminação (6 log UFC/mL), a 8 °C e 25 °C, nos tempos 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 e 10 dias. A adesão foi observada nos dois patógenos, mesmo após sucessivas lavagens, com diferença significativa (p<0,05) após 1h de exposição e observou-se presença de estruturas exopolissacarídicas em diferentes tempos e condições de temperatura. A internalização ocorreu em todas as amostras avaliadas e a região do pedúnculo foi a mais afetada pela contaminação, diferindo significativamente na comparação com a região blossom end (p<0,05) a 8 °C e 25 °C. A sobrevivência foi observada nas duas temperaturas até o décimo dia. A multiplicação a 8°C foi significativamente mais baixa (p<0,05). Os resultados demonstraram que a Salmonella spp e L. monocytogenes são capazes de aderir à superfície, de internalizar e se alastrar pela polpa e ainda sobreviverem por períodos consideráveis, em 8 °C e 25 °C. Esses dados poderão auxiliar produtores e órgãos de saúde no desenvolvimento de avaliações quantitativas de risco e no estabelecimento de medidas adequadas para evitar surtos


Outbreaks of salmonellosis and listeriosis associated with the consumption of whole or minimally processed fruits occur frequently. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of spp. and Listeria monocytogenes to adhere and internalize in mangoes (Mangifera indica) variety Tommy Atkins, under different conditions of experimental contamination and hydrothermal treatment, as well as evaluate the multiplication of the internalized pathogens in the fruit pulp during storage under refrigeration (8oC) and room temperature (25oC). The study was conducted with the strains S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076, S. Thyphimurium ATCC 14028, L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and L. monocytogenes Scott A. Initially the strains were evaluated according to the hydrophobicity index and capability to form biofilms on polystyrene surface. Adhesion to the mango surface was evaluated by microbiological techniques and also by scanning electron microscopy. Internalization was evaluated by inoculating the peduncle scar (6 log CFU / mL) and immersion of the fruits in contaminated solution (6 log CFU / mL) after hydrothermal treatment, during storage at 8 °C and 25 °C for 24h, 5 and 10 days. Survival was assessed by inoculation in a demarcated region, using low (2 log CFU / mL) and high level of contamination (6 log CFU / mL), and storage at 8 °C and 25 °C during 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 days. Adhesion was observed for both pathogens, even after successive washes, with a significant difference (p <0.05) after 1 h of exposure. Adhesion was mediated by exopolysaccharide structures, observed at different times and temperature conditions. Internalization occurred in all samples and the peduncle region was the most affected by the contamination, differing significantly in comparison with the blossom end region (p <0.05) at 8 °C and 25 oC. Survival was observed at both temperatures until the tenth day. The multiplication at 8 °C was significantly lower than at 25 oC (p <0.05). The results showed that Salmonella spp and L. monocytogenes were able to adhere to the surface, to internalize and spread through the pulp and still survive for considerable periods, at 8 °C and 25 °C. This data may help producers and health agencies to develop quantitative risk assessments and to establish appropriate measures to prevent outbreaks


Subject(s)
Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections , Mangifera/adverse effects , Virus Internalization , Fruit , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Microbiological Techniques/instrumentation , Risk Assessment/methods , Listeriosis/complications
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 470-476, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138572

ABSTRACT

Resumen La meningitis por Salmonella spp. es infrecuente en pediatría, pero debe sospecharse especialmente en menores de seis meses. Salmonella subespecie enterica es la más frecuente a nivel mundial, siendo el serovar Enteritidis el más importante. Tiene una alta tasa de complicaciones, predominando las colecciones y abscesos, por lo que se recomienda realizar una neuroimagen a todos los pacientes. A pesar que el manejo no está estandarizado, hay consenso en que el tratamiento de elección son las cefalosporinas de tercera generación. La resistencia antimicrobiana es infrecuente pero va en aumento, principalmente en países subdesarrollados. Presentamos el primer caso publicado en Chile de una meningitis por S. Enteritidis en un lactante de 11 meses, que se presentó con fiebre y una convulsión focalizada, con hemocultivos y cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo positivos. El paciente completó tratamiento con ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacina por cuatro semanas con buena respuesta.


Abstract Salmonella spp meningitis is rare in pediatrics. However, it should be especially suspected in children younger than 6 months. The enteric subspecies is the most frequent worldwide, with the Enteritidis serovar being the most important. The complication rate is high, with collections and abscesses predominating. For this reason, neuroimaging is currently recommended for all patients. Even though management is not standardized, there is consensus that first line treatment should be with third generation cephalosporins. Antibiotic resistance is infrequent but increasing, mainly in underdeveloped countries. We present the first case reported in Chile of meningitis by Salmonella Enteritidis in an 11-month-old infant presenting with fever and focused epileptic crisis. Blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid culture were positive. The patient completed four weeks of treatment with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin with a good response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Salmonella enteritidis , Chile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 18(1): 108-118, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115533

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: en Colombia, del 2000 al 2012, se describió un aumento progresivo en la resistência a betalactámicos y quinolonas en los aislamientos de Salmonella sp. A partir de esta fecha se desconoce la evolución de las tasas de resistencia en el país. El objetivo de este estúdio fue describir el perfil de suscep tibilidad durante el periodo 2014-2017 así como evaluar la asociación entre las características clínicas y sociodemográficas de la población con los patrones de resistencia de Salmonella sp. Materiales y méto dos: estudio de corte transversal del 2014 al 2017, realizado en la Fundación Cardioinfantil en mayores de 18 años, con aislamiento de Salmonella sp en cualquier tipo de muestra biológica. Resultados: se encontraron sesenta casos, ningún aislamiento fue resistente a quinolonas, uno mostró resistencia a ampicilina y uno se caracterizó como ; el 95 % tenia perfil de susceptibilidad usual. No se encontró asociación entre las variables estudiadas y la presencia de resistencia. Conclusión: los resultados pueden reflejar un cambio en el perfil de susceptibilidad de Salmonella sp en Colombia, con una disminución en la resistencia a betalactámicos y quinolonas a partir del 2014. Sin embargo, se requiere una mayor muestra poblacional para corroborar esta hipótesis.


Abstract Objective: In Colombia, from 2000 to 2012, a progressive increase in resistance to beta-lactams and quinolones was described in isolates of Salmonella As of this date, the evolution of resistance rates in the country is unknown. The objective of this study is to describe the susceptibility profile from 2014 to 2017, as well as to evaluate the association between the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of the population with the resistance patterns of Salmonella Materials and methods: The study is a cross-sectional study between 2014 and 2017 at the Fundación Cardioinfantil, in patients over 18 years of age with Salmonella in any type of biologic sample. Results: The authors found 60 cases, no isolate was resistant to quinolones. One showed resistant to ampicillin, and añother one was characterized as amp-C; 95% had a usual susceptibility profile. No association was found between the variables studied and the presence of resistance. Conclusion: The results may reflect a change in the susceptibility profile of Salmonella in Colombia, with a decrease in resistance to beta-lactams and quinolones as of 2014; however, a larger population sample is required to corroborate this hypothesis.


Resumo Objetivo: Na Colômbia do ao 2000 ao 2012 se descreveu um aumento progressivo na resistência a beta-lactâmicos e quinolonas nos isolamentos de Salmonella sp. A partir desta data se desconhece a evolução das taxas de resistência no país. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o perfil de susceptibilidade do ao 2014 ao 2017, assim como avaliar a associação entre as características clínicas e sociodemográficas da população com os patrões de resistência Salmonella sp. Materiais e métodos: Estudo de corte transversal do ano 2014 ao ao 2017 realizado na Fundación Cardioinfantil em maiores de 18 ao anos com isolamento de Salmonella sp, em qualquer tipo de amostra biológica. Resultados: se encontraram 60 casos, nenhum isolamento foi resistente a quinolonas, um mostrou resistência a ampicilina e um se caracterizou como AMP-C, o 95 % tinha perfil de susceptibilidade usual. Não se encontrou associação entre as variáveis estudadas e a presença de resistência. Conclusão: Os resultados podem refletir uma mudança no perfil de susceptibilidade de Salmonella sp. Na Colômbia, com uma diminuição na resistência a beta-lactâmicos e quinolonas a partir do año 2014, no entanto se requere uma maior amostra populacional para corroborar esta hipótese.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Epidemiology , Colombia
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 208-214, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088921

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a chitosan biofilm against Salmonella enteritidis, for the conservation of fertile and table eggs. Two experiments were performed. Experiment 1: 400 specific pathogen-free table eggs were divided in a completely randomized design into four treatments, five replicates and each replicate with 20 table eggs. Experimental groups were assigned to control and 1, 5 and 10% chitosan treatment. The eggs were immersed in the chitosan solution. They were then exposed to Salmonella enteritidis and stored for 1, 24, 96 and 168h at 4ºC. The eggs were then washed with 10mL of physiological saline solution. Experiment 2: 80 specific pathogen-free fertile eggs were tested, the assays were assigned to control and 1, 5 and 10% chitosan treatment. Each treatment had 20 fertile eggs. The eggs were immersed in the chitosan solution. They were individually weighed and incubated. Egg weight, humidity loss, and hatchability (weight and length of newly hatched chicks) characteristics were assessed. In Experiment 1, comparison between treatments showed differences (P< 0.05) in the total recovered of Salmonella enteritidis on eggshell, with the lower values in 5 y 10% chitosan treatment at 96 y 168h respectively. In Experiment 2, chitosan did not show any effect on the egg weight and chick weight, where the average was 57.44 and 38.23g respectively. The humidity loss and chick length showed differences (P< 0.05), with the lower values in 5 y 10% chitosan treatment. The antibacterial activity of chitosan biofilm provide a practical tool against Salmonella enteritidis in fertile and table eggs because the chitosan did not affect egg weight and chick weight, relevant parameters in the poultry industry.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver um biofilme de quitosana contra Salmonella enteritidis, para conservação de ovos férteis e de mesa. Dois experimentos foram realizados. Experimento 1: 400 ovos de mesa livres de patógenos especificados foram divididos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e cada réplica contendo 20 ovos de mesa. Grupos experimentais foram designados para controle e 1, 5 e 10% de tratamento com quitosana. Os ovos foram imersos em solução de quitosana. Em seguida foram expostos a Salmonella enteritidis, e armazenados por 1, 24, 96 e 168h a 4ºC. Após, os ovos foram lavados com 10mL de solução salina fisiológica. Experimento 2: 80 ovos férteis livres de patógenos especificados foram testados. Os ensaios foram atribuídos a controle e 1, 5 e 10% de tratamento com quitosana. Cada tratamento teve 20 ovos férteis. Os ovos foram imersos em solução de quitosana. Em seguida foram individualmente pesados e incubados. Peso dos ovos, perda de umidade e características de eclodibilidade (peso e comprimento dos pintinhos recém-nascidos) foram avaliados. No Experimento 1, a comparação entre tratamentos mostrou diferenças (P< 0,05) na quantidade total recuperada de Salmonella enteritidis na casca, com os menores valores em 5 e 10% de tratamento com quitosana a 96 e 168h respetivamente. No experimento 2, a quitosana não mostrou nenhum efeito no peso do ovo e no peso do pintinho, onde a média foi de 57,44 e 38,23g respetivamente. A perda de umidade e comprimento do pintinho apresentaram diferenças (P< 0,05), com os menores valores em 5 e 10% de tratamento com quitosana. A atividade antibacteriana do biofilme de quitosana, fornece uma ferramenta prática contra Salmonella enteritidis em ovos férteis e de mesa, pois a quitosana não afetou o peso do ovo e peso do pintinho, parâmetros relevantes na indústria avícola.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella enteritidis , Salmonella Infections/prevention & control , Biofilms , Chitosan , Eggs/microbiology
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(1): 29-38, Jan. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091660

ABSTRACT

Salmonella Infantis is frequently associated with human infections worldwide and is transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods, particularly those of animal origin, especially the chicken meat. We aimed to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and the genetic similarity of 51 strains of S. Infantis isolated from samples of poultry origin. The strains were isolated from 2009 to 2010 in a company with full cycle of broiler's production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed and, by PCR, we evaluated the presence of the genes lpfA (hem-adhesion), agfA (hem-biofilm) and sefA (hem-adhesion) and resistance genes to beta-lactams (blaTEM, blaSHV, bla CTX-M and blaAmpC ). The phylogenetic relationship was determined by RAPD-PCR method. Among the drugs tested, the highest percentages of resistance were to amoxicillin (35.3%) and to sulfonamide (15.7%). Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified (A1 to A11), none of them presented a multiresistance profile (> 3 antimicrobials classes). There was 100% of positivity for the agfA gene, 92.2% for the lpfA gene, and no strain presented the sefA gene. Most of the isolates showed similarities in virulence potential, since they were simultaneously positive for two studied genes, agfA and lpfA (92.2%, 47/51). Of the 18 (35.3%) strains resistant to antimicrobials of the β-lactam class, 10 (55.5%) were positive to blaAmpC gene, five (27.8%) for blaCTX-M , two (11.1%) to blaSHV and no strain presented the blaTEM gene. The phylogenetic evaluation has shown the presence of five clusters (A, B, C, D and E) with similarity greatSalmonella Infantis is frequently associated with human infections worldwide and is transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods, particularly those of animal origin, especially the chicken meat. We aimed to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and the genetic similarity of 51 strains of S. Infantis isolated from samples of poultry origin. The strains were isolated from 2009 to 2010 in a company with full cycle of broiler's production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed and, by PCR, we evaluated the presence of the genes lpfA (hem-adhesion), agfA (hem-biofilm) and sefA (hem-adhesion) and resistance genes to beta-lactams (blaTEM, blaSHV, bla CTX-M and blaAmpC ). The phylogenetic relationship was determined by RAPD-PCR method. Among the drugs tested, the highest percentages of resistance were to amoxicillin (35.3%) and to sulfonamide (15.7%). Eleven antimicrobial resistance patterns were identified (A1 to A11), none of them presented a multiresistance profile (> 3 antimicrobials classes). There was 100% of positivity for the agfA gene, 92.2% for the lpfA gene, and no strain presented the sefA gene. Most of the isolates showed similarities in virulence potential, since they were simultaneously positive for two studied genes, agfA and lpfA (92.2%, 47/51). Of the 18 (35.3%) strains resistant to antimicrobials of the ß-lactam class, 10 (55.5%) were positive to blaAmpC gene, five (27.8%) for blaCTX-M , two (11.1%) to blaSHV and no strain presented the blaTEM gene. The phylogenetic evaluation has shown the presence of five clusters (A, B, C, D and E) with similarity greater than 80%, and three distinct strains which were not grouped in any cluster. Cluster B grouped 33 strains, all positive for lpfA and agfA genes, from both, the broiler farming facility and the slaughterhouse, persistent throughout all the study period. This cluster also grouped 18 strains clones with genetic similarity greater than 99%, all isolated in the slaughterhouse. The presence of virulence genes associated with persistent strains clones for a long period, warns to the possibility of S. Infantis to form biofilm, and should be constantly monitored in broilers' production chain, in order to know the profile of the strains that may contaminate the final product and evaluate the hazards that represents to public health.er than 80%, and three distinct strains which were not grouped in any cluster. Cluster B grouped 33 strains, all positive for lpfA and agfA genes, from both, the broiler farming facility and the slaughterhouse, persistent throughout all the study period. This cluster also grouped 18 strains clones with genetic similarity greater than 99%, all isolated in the slaughterhouse. The presence of virulence genes associated with persistent strains clones for a long period, warns to the possibility of S. Infantis to form biofilm, and should be constantly monitored in broilers' production chain, in order to know the profile of the strains that may contaminate the final product and evaluate the hazards that represents to public health.(AU)


Salmonella Infantis é frequentemente associada a infecções humanas no mundo todo sendo transmitida pelo consumo de alimentos contaminados, principalmente aqueles de origem animal, com destaque para a carne de frango. Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, resistência antimicrobiana e a similaridade genética de 51 estirpes de S. Infantis isoladas em amostras de origem avícola. As estirpes foram isoladas no período de 2009 a 2010 em uma empresa com ciclo completo de produção de frango de corte, localizada no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi realizado o teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e pela técnica de PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes lpfA (fímbria-adesão), agfA (fímbria-biofilme) e sefA (fímbria-adesão) e os genes de resistência aos beta-lactâmicos (bla TEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M e blaAmpC ). A relação filogenética foi determinada pelo método de RAPD-PCR. Dentre as drogas testadas, os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para amoxacilina com 35,3% e sulfonamida com 15,7%. Onze perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos foram identificados (A1 a A11), sendo que nenhum deles apresentou perfil de multirresistência (>3 classes de antimicrobianos). Houve 100% de positividade para o gene agfA, 92,2% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma estirpe apresentou o gene sefA. A maioria dos isolados apresentaram semelhanças no potencial de virulência, pois foram positivos simultaneamente para dois genes estudados, agfA e lpfA (92,2% - 47/51). Das 18 (35,3%) estirpes resistentes aos antimicrobianos da classe dos ß-lactâmicos, 10 (55,5%) foram positivas para o gene blaAmpC , cinco (27,8%) para blaCTX-M , duas (11,1%) para blaSHV e nenhuma estirpe apresentou o gene bla TEM . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de cinco clusters (A, B, C, D e E) com similaridade superior a 80%, e três estirpes distintas que não foram agrupadas em nenhum dos clusters. O cluster B agrupou 33 estirpes, todas positivas para os genes lpfA e agfA, provenientes tanto do aviário quanto do matadouro frigorífico, persistentes durante todo o período do estudo. Este cluster ainda agrupou 18 estirpes clones com similaridade genética superior a 99%, todas isoladas no matadouro frigorífico. A presença dos genes de virulência, associada à persistência das estirpes clones durante um longo período do estudo, alertam para a possibilidade de S. Infantis em formar biofilme, devendo ser constantemente monitorada na cadeia de produção avícola, especialmente no ambiente de abate, de forma a conhecer o perfil das estirpes que podem contaminar o produto final e assim avaliar os perigos que representam para a saúde pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella/genetics , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections, Animal , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Chickens/microbiology , beta-Lactams , Amoxicillin , Salmonella Infections
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200458, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Calotropis procera latex protein fraction (LP) was previously shown to protect animals from septic shock. Further investigations showed that LP modulate nitric oxide and cytokines levels. OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether the protective effects of LP, against lethal bacterial infection, is observed in its subfractions (LPPII and LPPIII). METHODS Subfractions (5 and 10 mg/kg) were tested by i.p. administration, 24 h before challenging with lethal injection (i.p.) of Salmonella Typhimurium. LPPIII (5 mg/kg) which showed higher survival rate was assayed to evaluate bacterial clearance, histopathology, leukocyte recruitment, plasma coagulation time, cytokines and NO levels. FINDINGS LPPIII protected 70% of animals of death. The animals given LPPIII exhibited reduced bacterial load in blood and peritoneal fluid after 24 h compared to the control. LPPIII promoted macrophage infiltration in spleen and liver. LPPIII restored the coagulation time of infected animals, increased IL-10 and reduced NO in blood. MAIN CONCLUSIONS LPPIII recruited macrophages to the target organs of bacterial infection. This addressed inflammatory stimulus seems to reduce bacterial colonisation in spleen and liver, down regulate bacterial spread and contribute to avoid septic shock.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Proteins/therapeutic use , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Calotropis/chemistry , Homeostasis/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Latex/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections/immunology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Down-Regulation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0462019, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1145888

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to review aspects of Salmonella spp. in free-living birds and their potential as disseminators for domestic animals, man, and the environment. Isolation of Salmonella spp. have been reported in several species of wild birds from Passeridae and Fringillidae, among other avian families, captured in countries of North America and Europe, where Salmonella ser. Typhimurium is the most frequently reported serotype. The presence of pathogens, including Salmonella, may be influenced by several factors, such as diet, environment, exposure to antibiotics, infection by pathogenic organisms and migration patterns. Researches with wild birds that live in urbanized environment are important, considering that birds may participate in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, which are more prevalent in cities due to the human activity. Based on the information collected, this article concludes that wild birds are still important disseminators of pathogens in several geographic regions and may affect man, domestic animals, and other birds.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão acerca da Salmonella spp. em aves de vida livre e o potencial delas como disseminadores para animais domésticos, homem e meio ambiente. Casos na literatura relatando Salmonella spp. têm sido descritos em diversas espécies de aves silvestres da família Passeridae e Fringilidae em países da América do Norte e Europa, sendo Salmonella ser. Typhimurium o sorotipo relatado mais frequentemente. A presença de patógenos como Salmonella spp. pode ser influenciada por fatores como dieta, ambiente onde vive, contaminação por antibióticos, infecção por organismos patogênicos e padrões de migração. Pesquisas envolvendo as aves silvestres que vivem em ambiente urbanizado são importantes, pois as aves podem possibilitar a transmissão de patógenos zoonóticos que têm maior prevalência em áreas urbanas devido a mecanismos de ação humana. Com base nas informações coletadas, conclui-se que as aves silvestres continuam sendo importantes na disseminação de patógenos em diversas regiões geográficas, podendo afetar o homem, animais domésticos e outras aves silvestres.(AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Animals, Domestic , Zoonoses , Urban Area , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Sparrows , Environment , Serogroup
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 816-822, Oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056900

ABSTRACT

To determine Salmonella spp. prevalence/seroprevalence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and risk factor identification associated with its presence in Colombian swine farms. 504 samples (Faeces, swabs and environment samples) were obtained from 21 farms distributed in four geographical regions in Colombia. Salmonella spp. microbiological and molecular detection were determined by two Salmonella spp. MDS3M™ and MALDI-TOF MS assays, respectively. In addition, for serological evaluation 231 serum samples were analyzed employing ELISA Salmonella Pigtype®-Salmonella Ab (QUIAGEN®). Additionally, 41 isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using broth microdilution technique (Panel B1016-180 Beckman Coulter NC72®) and verified with WHONET 2016 software. Risk factors were assessed from a survey and analyzed for statistical significance by U Mann-Whitney test. An 8.9% prevalence (n=45) and 38.1% (n=88) seroprevalence were determined. All isolates presented 100% antimicrobial susceptibility against amikacin. However, resistance against penicillin, tetracycline, cefuroxime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was present in more than 50% of evaluated strains. Risk factors associated with Salmonella spp. presence were surface water use, rough-surfaced on floors, presence of hoppers as feeders and worker's boots. Bacteria were present in animals and environmental samples from evaluated farms. Animal contact and/or exposure with the microorganism were also evident in obtained serological response. Bacteria presence depended on management practices and infrastructure, likewise antibiotic use, supplemented in the diet may have induced an increase in Salmonella spp. antimicrobial resistance.(AU)


Para determinar Salmonellaspp. prevalência/soroprevalência, padrões de resistência antimicrobiana e identificação de fatores de risco associados à sua presença em granjas suínas colombianas. Foram obtidas 504 amostras (fezes, zaragatoas e amostras do ambiente) de 21 fazendas distribuídas em quatro regiões geográficas da Colômbia. Salmonella spp., a detecção microbiológica e molecular foi determinada por 2 Salmonella spp. Ensaios MDS3M™ e MALDI-TOF MS, respectivamente. Além disso, para avaliação sorológica, foram analisadas 231 amostras de soro empregando ELISA Salmonella Pigtype® - Salmonella Ab (QUIAGEN®). Além disso, 41 isolados foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade antimicrobiana usando a técnica de microdiluição em caldo (Painel B1016-180 Beckman Coulter NC72®) e verificados com o software WHONET 2016. Os fatores de risco foram avaliados em uma pesquisa e analisados quanto à significância estatística pelo teste U Mann-Whitney. Foram determinadas prevalências de 8,9% (n=45) e 38,1% (n=88). Todos os isolados apresentaram 100% de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana à amicacina. No entanto, resistência à penicilina, tetraciclina, cefuroxima e trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol estava presente em mais de 50% das cepas avaliadas. Fatores de risco associados à Salmonella spp., presença de uso de água de superfície, superfície áspera no chão, presença de tremonhas como alimentadores e botas de trabalho. Bactérias estavam presentes em animais e amostras ambientais de fazendas avaliadas. O contato animal e/ou a exposição ao microrganismo também foram evidentes na resposta sorológica obtida. A presença de bactérias dependia de práticas de manejo e infraestrutura, assim como o uso de antibióticos suplementados na dieta pode ter induzido um aumento de Salmonella spp. resistência antimicrobiana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Sus scrofa/microbiology
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(1): 66-69, Jan. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990229

ABSTRACT

The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the largest rodent in the world. In the state of Acre, Brazil, populations of capybaras have been increasing significantly. The role of capybaras in the transmission of certain bacterial zoonotic infections is not well understood, including bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Salmonella spp. generally cause enteritis or septicemia in mammals, however many mammalian species can carry the bacteria asymptomatically and shed it in their feces. To better understand the possible role of capybaras as reservoirs of Salmonella spp., we conducted a study of Salmonella within fecal samples from capybara in Acre. In a convenience sample, 54 capybaras from two urban and two rural areas of Acre were captured and kept for three to four days for sampling. None of the animals were symptomatic of any intestinal illness. Three separate fecal samples were collected from each animal, during their stays in captivity. Each sample was cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. at the bacteriology laboratory of the Veterinary College of the Federal University of Acre. Samples were seeded in tetrationate pre-enrichment broth and in pre-enrichment broth peptone. After a 24 hour of incubation all samples were streaked on MacConkey Agar (MC) and Salmonella-Shigella Agar (SS). Suggestive colonies were submitted to biochemical analysis. Salmonella compatible colonies according to biochemical profile were submitted to serotyping (Sorokit for Salmonella - Probac do Brasil). In addition, the first sample from each of the 54 capybara was tested for Salmonella spp. using PCR targeting gene hilA. Eight (5%) of the 162 samples examined by bacterial culture were positive for Salmonella spp., while four (7%) of the 54 examined by PCR were positive. From the eight positive animals on culture, five were from urban area and three from rural area. On PCR, only one positive animal was from urban area and four were from rural area. Overall, by either test, one of the 54 animals was positive. All samples were collected in free - living animals with no apparent clinical signs of salmonellosis, indicating the potential of capybara as reservoir on this ecosystem.(AU)


A capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) é o maior roedor do mundo. No estado do Acre, Brasil, as populações de capivaras têm aumentado significativamente. O papel das capivaras na transmissão de certas infecções zoonóticas bacterianas não é bem compreendido, incluindo as bactérias do gênero Salmonella. Salmonella spp. geralmente causam enterite ou septicemia em mamíferos, porém muitas espécies de mamíferos podem carregar a bactéria de forma assintomática e eliminá-la em suas fezes. Para entender melhor o possível papel das capivaras como reservatórios de Salmonellaspp., realizamos um estudo para identificação de Salmonella spp. em amostras fecais de capivaras no Acre. Em uma amostra de conveniência, 54 capivaras de duas áreas urbanas e duas áreas rurais do Acre foram capturadas e mantidas por três a quatro dias para amostragem. Nenhum dos animais era sintomático de qualquer doença intestinal. Três amostras fecais foram coletadas de cada animal, durante sua permanência em cativeiro. Cada amostra foi cultivada para a presença de Salmonella spp. no Laboratório de Bacteriologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Acre. As amostras foram semeadas em caldo de pré-enriquecimento tetrationato e em peptona de caldo de pré-enriquecimento. Após 24 horas de incubação, todas as amostras foram semeadas em ágar MacConkey (MC) e ágar Salmonella-Shigella (SS). Colônias sugestivas foram submetidas a análises bioquímicas. Colônias compatíveis com Salmonella de acordo com o perfil bioquímico foram submetidas à sorotipagem (Sorokit para Salmonella - Probac do Brasil). Além disso, a primeira amostra de cada uma das 54 capivaras foi testada para Salmonella spp. usando PCR, visando gene hilA. Oito (5%) das 162 amostras examinadas por cultura bacteriana foram positivas para Salmonella spp. Enquanto quatro (7%) das 54 examinadas pela PCR foram positivas. Dos oito animais positivos em cultura, cinco eram de área urbana e três de área rural. Na PCR, apenas um animal positivo era de área urbana e quatro de área rural. Considerando o diagnóstico conjunto por ambos os testes, PCR e cultura, um animal foi considerado positivo. Todas as amostras foram coletadas em animais livres, sem sinais clínicos aparentes de salmonelose, indicando o potencial da capivara como reservatório nesse ecossistema.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/microbiology , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Feces/microbiology
14.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-10, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257322

ABSTRACT

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, molecular epidemiological investigation of outbreaks caused by antimicrobial-resistant enteric bacterial pathogens have mostly been described for Salmonella species, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella species and Escherichia coli. For these organisms, I reviewed all publications describing the use of molecular subtyping methodologies to investigate outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) enteric bacterial infections.Objectives: To describe the use of molecular subtyping methodologies to investigate outbreaks caused by MDR enteric bacterial pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa and to describe the current status of molecular subtyping capabilities in the region. Methods: A PubMed database literature search (English language only) was performed using the search strings: 'Africa outbreak MDR', 'Africa outbreak multi', 'Africa outbreak multidrug', 'Africa outbreak multi drug', 'Africa outbreak resistance', 'Africa outbreak resistant', 'Africa outbreak drug', 'Africa outbreak antibiotic', 'Africa outbreak antimicrobial'. These search strings were used in combination with genus and species names of the organisms listed above. All results were included in the review. Results: The year 1991 saw one of the first reports describing the use of molecular subtyping methodologies in sub-Saharan Africa; this included the use of plasmid profiling to characterise Salmonella Enteritidis. To date, several methodologies have been used; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and multilocus sequence typing have been the most commonly used methodologies. Investigations have particularly highlighted the emergence and spread of MDR clones; these include Salmonella Typhi H58 and Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 clones. In recent times, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis approaches have increasingly been used. Conclusion: Traditional molecular subtyping methodologies are still commonly used and still have their place in investigations; however, WGS approaches have increasingly been used and are slowly gaining a stronghold. African laboratories need to start adapting their molecular surveillance methodologies to include WGS, as it is foreseen that WGS analysis will eventually replace all traditional methodologies


Subject(s)
Africa South of the Sahara , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190290, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057257

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a cause of food-borne human illness. Given the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and the lack of antibiotic efficacy in future years, its replacement with other agents is necessary. One of the most useful agents is bacteriophages. METHODS S. Enteritidis was identified using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The effective bacteriophages were isolated from hospital wastewater samples. The effects of the bacteriophages were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS The phage SE20 belonged to the Podoviridae family, and the genome size was 40 kb. The evaluation of phage SE20 at variable pH ranges showed its susceptibility to pH < 3 and pH > 12. The animal model showed that mice infected with S. Enteritidis developed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, but did not experience gastrointestinal complications after receiving the bacteriophages. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that phage SE20 is a promising candidate for controlling salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella enteritidis , Salmonella Infections/therapy , Phage Therapy/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180253, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977118

ABSTRACT

Abstract An eleven-year-old boy presented with fever and hip pain, with limited mobility of the right side of the hip. Computed tomography scan revealed an increased volume of the right coxo-femoral joint, requiring surgical drainage of purulent secretion, from which Salmonella enterica was isolated. After four weeks of treatment with third-generation cephalosporin, he was discharged with a favorable evolution. Invasive disease caused by Salmonella spp represents a small proportion of salmonellosis cases, although it is responsible for greater rates of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Children under 5 years, elders over 60 years and immunodeficient patients have greater risk for invasive salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy
17.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(1): e150479, jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1007833

ABSTRACT

Cases of salmonellosis in humans have been associated with consumption of eggs contaminated with this bacterial pathogen due to insufficient heat treatment. The most prevalent serotypes of Salmonella in Brazil include serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg. The first two serotypes are major causes for eggs to be withheld from sale and for recalls over Salmonella contamination concerns in both domestic and foreign markets. Eggs may be contaminated through transovarian infection (transovarial transmission) due to the presence of the microorganism in the hen's oviduct and bacterial penetration of the eggshell. There is little data in the literature on the susceptibility of egg contamination and eggshell penetration by Brazilian serotypes of Salmonella. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium serotypes to penetrate through the eggshell and detect these bacteria in the albumen and yolk according to the thickness of the eggshell. SPF (specific-pathogen-free) eggs were artificially contaminated by contact with moist cotton containing Salmonella (15 x 108 CFU/ml). Eggs were divided into the following groups: negative control (not contaminated), S. Heidelberg, and S. Typhimurium. Subsequently, these eggs were incubated at 37°C, and their contents analyzed after 4 h and 24 h of incubation. The evaluation (assessment) of the contamination was performed by traditional bacteriology and confirmed by biochemical and serological tests. Treatments were compared with Fisher's test using a SAS statistical software. For S. Heidelberg, the percentage of positivity (positive cases) was lower in both albumen and yolk at 4 h and 24 h intervals (33.33% and 3.7%, and 3.7% and 3.7%, respectively) compared to S. Typhimurium (26.63% and 7.41%, and 33.33% and 33.33%, respectively). These findings suggest that the former strain (S. Heidelberg) was unable to survive in the hostile environment of the albumen. In contrast, eggshell thickness had no significant correlation with the number of positive samples. In conclusion, the results obtained in the egg infection model show that the Salmonella strains tested were able to penetrate the eggshell and multiply in both the albumen and yolk and that S. Typhimurium proved to be the most efficient to grow within these portions of the egg.(AU)


Salmonelose em humanos é frequentemente associada ao consumo de ovos contaminados sem o devido processamento térmico. No Brasil, os sorotipos mais prevalentes são: Enteritidis, Typhimurium e Heidelberg, alvo de barreiras sanitárias na comercialização de ovos. O ovo pode ser contaminado por via transovariana, pela presença da bactéria no oviduto da ave e também por penetração da bactéria através da casca do ovo. Existem poucas informações acerca da capacidade de contaminação no ovo por sorotipos isolados no Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade dos sorotipos S. Heidelberg e S. Typhimurium penetrar através da casca do ovo e colonizar a albumina e gema, relacionando à espessura da casca. Os ovos SPF (livres de patógenos específicos) foram contaminados artificialmente pelo contato com algodão umedecido (15 x 108 CF/mL). Os ovos foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: controle negativo (sem contaminação), S. Heidelberg e S. Typhimurium. Posteriormente foram incubadas a 37°C e seu conteúdo foi analisado após 4 e 24 h. A avaliação da contaminação foi realizada por bacteriologia tradicional e confirmada por testes bioquímicos e sorológicos. Os tratamentos foram comparados com o teste de Fisher usando o software estatístico SAS. Para S. Heidelberg, a percentagem de positividade foi menor no albúmen e gema às 4 e 24 h (33,33% e 3,7%, 3,7% e 3,7%, respectivamente) em comparação com S. Typhimurium (26,63% e 7,41%, 33,33% e 33,33%, respectivamente), sugerindo que a primeira estirpe foi mais vulnerável as condições hostis da albumina. Por outro lado, a espessura da casca do ovo não teve relação significativa com a positividade das amostras. Em conclusão, o modelo de infecção do ovo mostrou que as cepas foram capazes de penetrar a casca do ovo e sobreviver na albumina e gema, sendo que o sorotipo S. Typhimurium foi mais eficiente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Food Supply , Chickens
18.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019002-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to reveal the epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson in Busan Metropolitan City and to identify points for improvement to prevent of food-borne disease outbreak. METHODS: This was a case-control study. The control group comprised asymptomatic students in the same classes of the cases. The presence or absence of symptoms, ingestion of each food provided by school meal service, and commonly ingested foods in addition to those foods in meal service were investigated. Moreover, specimens collected from rectal swab, preserved foods, and environmental surface were tested. RESULTS: Of the 6,092 subjects, 1,111 (1,083 students, 22 school personnel, and 6 foodservice employees) were included in the case group; this corresponded to an 18.4% attack rate. Symptoms included diarrhea (n=1,051, 94.6%), abdominal pain (n=931, 83.8%), febrile sensation (n=502, 45.2%), and vomiting (n=275, 24.8%). The epidemic curves of each 10 schools were unimodal. Investigation of food intake showed a significantly high odds ratio for chocolate cake in 5 out of the 10 schools. Laboratory test detected Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson both in rectal swab specimens of 9 schools and in collected preserved chocolate cakes of 9 schools. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis test result showed that Salmonella enterica seorvar Thompson isolated from human and foods were the same. CONCLUSIONS: The source of infection for the Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson outbreak in the 10 schools of Busan Metropolitan City is chocolate cake. Traceback investigation for origin of contaminated food in food-borne disease outbreak and safety control during food production should be more enhanced.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Cacao , Case-Control Studies , Diarrhea , Eating , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Food, Preserved , Foodborne Diseases , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Korea , Meals , Odds Ratio , Salmonella enterica , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella , Sensation , Serogroup , Vomiting
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758914

ABSTRACT

Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is a global cause for substantial economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we constructed live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) mutant strains expressing and secreting 4 selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely, optA, optB, Lawsonia flagellin (LfliC), and Lawsonia hemolysin (Lhly); the resultant recombinant strains were designated Sal-optA, Sal-optB, Sal-LfliC, or Sal-Lhly, respectively. Using the BALB/c mouse model, we demonstrate that mice vaccinated once orally, either with a mixture of all 4 recombinant strains or with an individual recombinant strain, show significant (p < 0.05) production of LI-specific systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) G and mucosal IgA responses compared to the Salmonella alone group. Upon restimulation of vaccinated splenocytes with the LI-specific antigens, significant (p < 0.05) and comparable production of interferon-γ responses are found in all vaccinated groups, except the Sal-Lhly group, which shows non-significant levels. Challenge studies were performed in C57BL/6 vaccinated mice. On challenge with the LI (10(6.9) 50% tissue culture infectious dose) 14 days post-vaccination, 20% (1/5) of mice in all vaccinated groups, except Sal-Lhly group, show the presence of the LI-specific genomic DNA (gDNA) in stool samples. In contrast, 40% (2/5) and 60% (3/5) of mice vaccinated with the Sal-Lhly strain and the attenuated Salmonella alone, respectively, were found positive for the LI-specific gDNA. Furthermore, 0% mortality was observed in mice vaccinated against the ST challenge compared to the 30% mortality observed in the unvaccinated control group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Salmonella-based LI-vaccines induce LI-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunities, and encompass the potential to offer dual protection against PPE and salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA , Flagellin , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulins , Lawsonia Bacteria , Mice , Mortality , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella , Swine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786516

ABSTRACT

Acute myocarditis is clinically rare in children, but poses a significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Children with myocarditis show a wide variety of clinical manifestations ranging from subclinical myocarditis to heart failure, hemodynamic compromise, arrhythmia, and even sudden death. Salmonella species are associated with clinical presentations including gastroenteritis, enteric fever, bacteremia, and extra-intestinal focal infections. Non-typhoidal Salmonella infections usually cause self-limiting gastroenteritis, but are rarely associated with myocarditis. In this report, we present a case of myocarditis associated with Salmonella serogroup B gastroenteritis in a previously healthy 15-year-old boy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Bacteremia , Child , Death, Sudden , Focal Infection , Gastroenteritis , Heart Failure , Hemodynamics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mortality , Myocarditis , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella , Serogroup , Typhoid Fever
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