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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1243-1247, Sept.-Oct. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345271

ABSTRACT

Salmonelose é uma doença causada por bactérias do gênero Salmonella, com importância para saúde pública e animal. Dentre os sorotipos hospedeiro-específicos, destaca-se o Gallinarum, que possui os biovares Gallinarum e Pullorum adaptados às aves e amplamente difundidos pelo mundo. Os dados sobre a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em criações avícolas alternativas no Brasil são escassos. O objetivo deste estudo foi pesquisar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em galinhas coloniais encaminhadas para necropsia ao LRD/FV/UFPel. Foram realizadas análises histopatológicas, microbiológicas e moleculares das colônias bacterianas isoladas de 12 amostras de órgãos de galinhas domésticas dos municípios de Pelotas e Piratini, no Rio Grande do Sul. Na análise microbiológica, foram isoladas bactérias do gênero Salmonella sorotipo Gallinarum das 12 amostras, sendo 10/12 bioquimicamente compatíveis com biovar Gallinarum e 2/12 com biovar Pullorum. Na análise molecular PCR 11/12, 91,7% foram identificadas genotipicamente como Salmonella spp. O presente estudo demonstrou uma elevada frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum em aves sintomáticas criadas em regime extensivo. Além disso, os dados epidemiológicos das aves analisadas demonstram que a infecção por Salmonella Gallinarum nesses casos está associada ao contato com aves silvestres e falhas de manejo sanitário.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Chickens
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1353-1362, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131515

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, perfil de resistência antimicrobiana e padrão de similaridade genética de 71 cepas de Salmonella Minnesota isoladas na cadeia produtiva de frangos de corte, entre 2009 e 2010, em duas unidades de uma empresa (A e B). Os isolados foram sorotipificados e submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo teste de difusão em disco. Utilizando-se PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes invA, lpfA, agfA e sefA e os genes de resistência aos betalactâmicos (bla TEM , bla SHV e bla CTX-M ). A relação filogenética foi determinada por RAPD-PCR. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para tetraciclina e sulfonamida. Foram reconhecidos oito perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos entre as cepas isoladas na indústria A, e 11 perfis de resistência na indústria B. Do total de cepas, 100% foram positivas para o gene invA, 98,6% para o gene agfA, 49,3% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma para o gene sefA. Três cepas foram positivas para o gene bla TEM (4,2%) e 11 (15,5%) para o gene bla CTX-M . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de sete clusters com similaridade superior a 80% e três perfis distintos. Com base no dendrograma, observou-se a disseminação de um mesmo perfil em ambas as empresas.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance profile and the pattern of genetic similarity of 71 strains of Salmonella Minnesota isolated in the production chain of broilers between 2009 and 2010, into two units of a company (A and B). Isolates were serotyped and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion test. Using PCR, the presence of genes invA, lpfA, agfA and sefA and the genes conferring resistance to beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) were evaluated. The phylogenetic relationship was determined by the RAPD-PCR method. The highest percentages of resistance were to tetracycline and sulfonamide. Eight antimicrobial resistance profiles were recognized among strains isolated in industry A, and 11 resistance profiles in industry B. Of all strains of both industries, 100% were positive for the invA gene, 98.6% to agfA gene, 49.3% for lpfA gene, and no strain showed the sefA gene. Three strains were positive for the gene blaTEM (4.2%), 11 (15.5%) for the blaCTX-M gene. Phylogenetic evaluation showed the presence of seven clusters with similarity greater than 80% and three distinct profiles. Based on the dendrogram we observed the spread with similar profiles in both companies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Poultry , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Chickens , Virulence Factors , Virulence , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Susceptibility
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 580-586, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040726

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is a known cause of enteric disorders in calves. However, cases in the septicemic form may not present enteric lesions, which may lead the veterinary practitioner to not suspect salmonellosis, compromising the diagnosis. The current study describes the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical aspects of septicemic salmonellosis in calves without enteric lesions. The protocols involving bovine material submitted to the Pathology Laboratory (LAP) of the "Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia" (FAMEZ) of the "Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul" (UFMS) from January 1995 to July 2018 were studied. Cases confirmed or suggestive of septicemic salmonellosis in calves without enteric manifestations were selected. Fragments of the liver, lung, and spleen embedded in paraffin were submitted to immunohistochemistry (IHC). Only cases in which there was positive marking on the IHC or culture isolation of Salmonella were included in this study. Of a total of 5,550 cattle examined in the period, ten presented septicemic salmonellosis without enteric lesions. Clinical signs included mucosal pallor, apathy, hyperthermia, and dyspnea. Only three calves presented diarrhea, and two were found dead before clinical changes were observed. The most common necropsy findings were hepatosplenomegaly; yellow, orange or brown discolored livers; pale mucous membranes; inflated and sometimes red lungs; fibrin or fluid within body cavities; and gallbladder filled with inspissated bile. Jaundice was observed in three calves that had a concomitant infection with Anaplasma sp. Microscopically, paratyphoid hepatic nodules and interstitial pneumonia were the most frequent manifestations, followed by thrombosis and bacterial colonies in the spleen, lung, liver, and brain. A strong positive marking was observed in IHC, predominantly in the lung and to a lesser extent in the liver. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated the Dublin serotype as the causative agent in the samples of the four calves submitted to this procedure. In calves, the septicemic form was the major cause of death due to salmonellosis. Septicemic salmonellosis was usually not accompanied by diarrhea. The clinical signs of septicemia are nonspecific and of little assistance in the diagnosis. IHC has been shown to be efficient in the detection of the agent, mainly in the lung and especially in situations where it is not possible to perform bacterial culture.(AU)


A salmonelose é uma causa conhecida de distúrbios entéricos em bezerros. Porém, casos na forma septicêmica podem não apresentar manifestação entérica, o que leva o médico veterinário a não suspeitar de salmonelose, comprometendo o diagnóstico. Este estudo descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e imuno-histoquímicos da salmonelose septicêmica em bezerros sem lesões entéricas. O estudo foi realizado a partir dos protocolos referentes a materiais de bovinos enviados para diagnóstico ao Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica (LAP) da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FAMEZ) da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) de janeiro de 1995 a julho de 2018. Foram selecionados os casos de bezerros confirmados ou sugestivos de salmonelose septicêmica sem lesões entéricas. Fragmentos de fígado, pulmão e baço embebidos em parafina foram submetidos ao exame de imuno-histoquímica (IHQ). Somente foram incluídos neste estudo casos em que houve marcação positiva na IHQ ou isolamento da bactéria em cultura. De um total de 5.550 bovinos examinados no período, dez apresentaram salmonelose septicêmica sem lesão entérica. Os sinais clínicos incluíram palidez de mucosas, apatia, hipertermia e dispneia. Apenas três bezerros apresentaram diarreia e dois foram encontrados mortos sem terem sido observadas alterações clínicas. Os achados mais frequentes de necropsia foram hepatoesplenomegalia, fígado amarelado, alaranjado ou acastanhado, palidez de mucosas, pulmões inflados e, por vezes, vermelhos, fibrina ou líquido nas cavidades do organismo e vesícula biliar repleta de bile grumosa. Icterícia foi observada em três bezerros que apresentavam infecção concomitante por Anaplasma sp. Microscopicamente, os nódulos paratifoides hepáticos e pneumonia intersticial foram as manifestações mais encontradas, seguidas por trombose e colônias bacterianas no baço, pulmão, fígado e encéfalo. Na IHQ, marcação fortemente positiva foi observada, predominantemente, no pulmão e, em menor intensidade, no fígado. A técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) tipificou o sorotipo Dublin como agente etiológico nas amostras dos quatro bezerros submetidos a este procedimento. Em bezerros, a forma septicêmica foi a principal responsável pelas mortes por salmonelose. Na maioria das vezes essa forma não estava acompanhada por diarreia. Os sinais clínicos da forma septicêmica são inespecíficos e de pouco auxílio no direcionamento do diagnóstico. A IHQ mostrou-se eficiente na detecção do agente principalmente no pulmão e especialmente nas situações em que não é possível a realização da cultura bacteriana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Sepsis/veterinary , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1257-1263, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769651

ABSTRACT

Increasing interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife may result in inter-species transmission of infectious agents. To evaluate the presence of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates, rectal swabs from 36 different free-ranging wild mammals were taken from two distinct natural sites in Brazil: Cantareira State Park (CSP, state of São Paulo) and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro Region (SIRNR, state of Amazonas). The swabs were randomly collected and processed for bacterial isolation, identification, characterization and antimicrobial resistance. Eighteen E. coli strains from CSP and 20 from SIRNR were recovered from 14 and 22 individuals, respectively. Strains from animals captured in CSP, the site with the greatest anthropization, exhibited a higher range and percentage of virulence genes, including an eae+/bfpA+ strain. Antimicrobial resistance was verified in strains originating from both sites; however, in strains from SIRNR, aminopenicillins were almost the exclusive antimicrobial class to which strains exhibited resistance, whereas in CSP there were strains resistant to cephalosporins, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone, in addition to strains exhibiting multidrug resistance. Two strains of Salmonella enterica that are known to be associated with reptiles, serotypes Belem and 60:r:e,n,z15, were recovered only from Amazonian animals and showed susceptibility to all classes of antimicrobials that were tested. Although the potential impact of these pathogens on wildlife remains unknown, bacteria isolated from free-ranging wild animals may provide relevant information about environmental health and should therefore be more deeply studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Rectum/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/analysis , Virulence Factors/genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104581

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and quantitative loads of Salmonella spp. on pig farms in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Thailand to assess loading levels before slaughtering. The serotype diversity, antimicrobial-resistance pattern and pulse-field type of Salmonella spp. were also characterized to assess the dynamic propagation of the pathogen. The Salmonella-positive prevalence was 246/805 (30.56%), and the quantitative loads varied from 1.48~4.04 Log10MPN/g, with a mean +/- standard deviation of 2.11 +/- 0.57. AMP/S/TE (ampicillin/streptomycin/tetracycline) was the highest frequency antimicrobial resistance pattern found in this study. In addition, Salmonella Rissen was the primary serotype in this region. PFGE results indicated the occurrence of infection by cross contamination among pig farms. Our study showed that pork is easily contaminated with this pathogen. Farm control programs must be based on strict biosecurity and hygienic measures, which could further reduce the contamination pressure at slaughterhouses or retail shops.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Load/veterinary , Colony Count, Microbial/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Feces/microbiology , Female , Male , Prevalence , Salmonella/classification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Serotyping/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(7): 573-580, July 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-557303

ABSTRACT

A diversidade biológica é representada por todas as unidades da natureza e sua conservação diz respeito à sobrevivência da própria espécie humana. Uma das ameaças à sua conservação são as doenças infecciosas que afetam a fauna, dentre as quais se podee incluir a salmonelose como uma das mais importantes, especialmente para a avifauna. Aves de topo de cadeia alimentar como os Ciconiiformes podem ser potenciais reservatórios e disseminadores da Salmonella spp. para outras espécies silvestres e também para populações humanas e animais domésticos, podendo causar prejuízos à saúde pública e ao meio ambiente. Objetivou-se descrever a infecção ou doença por Salmonella sp., o seu agente etiológico e sua ocorrência em Ciconiiformes, bem como demonstrar a importância destas aves na cadeia epidemiológica silvestre desta zoonose, verificando os riscos para a saúde pública e para a conservação da diversidade biológica.


Biological diversity is represented by all nature units and its conservation is about the survival of human beings. Infectious diseases are one of the possible threats for wildlife conservation, which includes salmonellosis as a most important disease, especially for the avifauna. Top alimentary chain birds such as Ciconiiformes can be reservoirs and disseminators of Salmonella spp. to other wild and domestic animals, and also for human populations, with serious risks to public and environmental health. This review describes infection by Salmonella spp., its etiological agent and occurrence in Ciconiiformes, as well as the importance of these wild birds for the epidemiological chain of the zoonosis, and discusses the risks for public health and biological diversity conservation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Salmonella
7.
INTJVR-International Journal of Veterinary Research. 2010; 4 (4): 273-276
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-143699

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to survey infections with Salmonella spp. in poultry flocks in the vicinity of Tehran and to determine the most frequent serogroups and serotypes implicated. Twenty-eight samples of pullet, layer, and broiler flocks were randomly collected [n=1463], including freshly dropped feces from live birds or visceral organs from dead birds. In most flocks, 60 samples were taken and 10 fecal samples of each were pooled. Standard cultural methods were used for Salmonella spp. isolation. The slide agglutination or tube agglutination tests were performed using Salmonella somatic O poly A-S antisera, and different somatic O monovalent or flagellar H monovalent antisera. Thirty-one Salmonella isolates were recovered from 1,463 samples. Nine broiler flocks out of 14 [64.2%] and one layer flock out of 11 [9%] were positive for Salmonella spp. but all pullet flocks were negative. One isolate was obtained from the layer flock and the other 30 Salmonella isolates were obtained from broiler flocks. The slide agglutination test determined that all isolates belonged to one of the serogroups from A to S. The frequency of serogroups among 30 broiler isolates was found to be 76.6% and 13.3% for groups C and D, respectively. Three [10%] of the broiler isolates and one layer isolate did not belong to any of the A to D serogroups. All group D isolates were found to be Salmonella enteritidis. This study showed a high incidence of Salmonella in broilers. Infection of broilers with Salmonella spp. poses a high risk to public health


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Poultry , Agglutination Tests
8.
Rev. salud pública ; 10(3): 470-476, jul. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-497311

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Determinar la prevalencia serológica de Salmonella enteritidis en la población canina de Tunja (Boyacá), durante julio y octubre del 2006 y establecer la relación entre los factores predisponentes y la serorreactividad en la población canina. Materiales y Métodos Sobre la población canina estimada en 9 623 animales (censo de 2002), y asumiendo una prevalencia critica preestablecida de 3 por ciento y un nivel de confianza del 95 por ciento, se recolectaron 72 muestras sanguíneas caninas distribuidas en cinco zonas de la ciudad, se aplicó una encuesta para cada animal para determinar la presencia de factores predisponentes y un examen clínico completo. Con los sueros obtenidos, se tituló el nivel de anticuerpos mediante la prueba de microaglutinación en placa para Salmonella enteritidis (MAG). Resultados La prevalencia serológica a Salmonella enteritidis fue del 41,7 por ciento, las prevalencias zonales fueron: 10 por ciento Norte, 10 por ciento occidente, 16,7 por ciento Oriente, 36,7 por ciento sur y 26,6 por ciento centro. Se determinó una correlación directa con la presentación de problemas entéricos anteriores (p<0,05) (OR 3,5) y en menor grado con el acceso a desechos orgánicos (p<0,05) (OR 0,4); otros factores como la convivencia con otros animales y la salud mostraron niveles de riesgo positivo (OR 1,4 Y OR 2). Conclusiones Existe una alta prevalencia serológica a Salmonella enteritidis en la ciudad de Tunja, con mayor incidencia en la zona sur, siendo el principal factor predisponente la presentación de problemas entéricos anteriores, el cual es un factor de alto riesgo en la diseminación de esta entidad.


Objective Determining the serological prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis in the city of Tunja's canine population (in Boyacá) from July to October 2006 and establishing the relationship between predisposed factors and seroreactivity within this canine population. Materials and Methods 72 canine blood samples were gathered from all of the city's five areas from an estimated 9 623 canine population (2002 census), assuming a 3 percent pre-established critical prevalence and 95 percent confidence level. A survey was made of each animal to determine the presence of predisposed factors and they were all given a complete clinical examination. The sera so obtained were used for titering antibody levels by means of the microagglutination plate test for Salmonella enteritidis (MAG). Results Salmonella enteritidis serological prevalence was 41,7 percent. Area prevalence within the city was 10 percent for the north, 10 percent for the west, 16,7 percent for the east, 36,7 percent the south and 26,6 percent for the city-center. A direct correlation was established with the presentation of previous enteric problems (p<0.05) (OR 3.5) and, to a lesser extent, with access to organic waste (p<0.05) (OR 0.4). Other factors presented positive risk levels, such as coexistence with other animals and health (OR 1.4 and OR 2) Conclusions Salmonella enteritidis had a high serological prevalence in the city of Tunja, most incidents occurring in the southern area. The presentation of previous enteric problems was the main predisposed factor, this being a high risk factor in this entity's dissemination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/blood , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella enteritidis/immunology , Colombia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56725

ABSTRACT

Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry , Animals , Chickens , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/veterinary , Female , Food Microbiology , Korea/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Salmonella/classification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64226

ABSTRACT

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important commensal microorganism. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiological relation between NTS isolates from livestock and NTS isolates from human by analyzing antimicrobial susceptibilities and performing molecular typing. We determined the serotypes of 36 human clinical isolates and 64 livestock isolates, performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 8 antibiotics, and determined the molecular types of isolated NTS spp. by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In human isolates, S. enteritidis was the most common serotype (17 isolates; 47.2%) and S. typhimurium the second most (8 isolates; 22.2%). In livestock isolates, S. typhimurium was the most common serotype (15 isolates; 23.44%), and S. enteritidis was the second most (14 isolates; 21.88%). Ampicillin and tetracycline resistance were 50% (32/64 isolates) each among broiler-chicken NTS isolates. No human or livestock NTS isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, TMP-SMX, or ceftriaxone. However, 19.4% (7/36) and 46.8% (30/64) of the human and livestock NTS isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC > or =16 mg/mL), respectively. The presence of the three identical PFGE molecular types from human and broiler-chicken NTS isolates suggests the possibility of transmission from livestock to humans.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Chickens , Cluster Analysis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella enteritidis/metabolism , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolism , Serotyping
11.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2006 ; 37 Suppl 3(): 149-52
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30949

ABSTRACT

Two isolates of a new Salmonella serovar, Salmonella Lamphun were discovered from animal feeds in Thailand, in 2003, which belongs to group C, with antigenic formula 6,8:y: 1,2. Both isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis pattern of both isolates comprises 11 DNA fractions sized 48, 65, 77, 105, 110, 170, 244, 330, 337,453 and 1,135 kbp. Up to April 2005, no human or animal infection by this new Salmonella serovar was reported.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/microbiology , Animals , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Salmonella/classification , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-16877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the animals acts as a continuous threat to man. The present study was carried out to report the isolation along with the serotypes, phage types and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella among man, livestock and poultry in the northeastern India. METHODS: A total of 654 samples from diarrhoeic livestock and humans were processed for the isolation of Salmonella. All the isolates were subjected to antibiogram studies against 15 antimicrobials. Representative isolates of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were phage typed. RESULTS: Ninety five isolates of Salmonella enterica belonging to 5 serotypes- S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Gallinarum, S. Paratyphi B and S. Bareilly were obtained with an overall prevalence rate of 14.40 per cent. S. Typhimurium isolates were distributed among four phages- DT003, DT004, DT096 and DT193 and all the S. Enteritidis isolates belonged to a single phage type, PT13a/7. Interspecies sharing of the phages was observed. Norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamycin and ciprofloxacin were most effective, whereas, doxycycline, ampicillin, amoxycillin and tetracycline were relatively less effective. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that three of the five serovars as well as some of the phage types of these serovars were shared by animals and humans indicating the zoonotic potential of the organism. Thus, it is imperative that salmonellosis control measures adopted for humans should give adequate importance to its control in the animals particularly their products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/toxicity , Bacteriophage Typing , Cattle/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , India/epidemiology , Poultry/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica/classification , Sus scrofa/microbiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71823

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were investigated by multiplex PCR using fecal samples of pigs with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea. The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were 46.5%, 37.2% and 51.1%, respectively. Also, the prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. among all sampled pigs were 19.9%, 10.8% and 17.7%, respectively. Seventeen of 43 herds were positive with 2 enteric organisms, and 2 herds were positive with L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. simultaneously. It was notable that 11 of 12 herds with more than 2, 000 pigs were affected with Salmonella spp., and that only 2 of 12 the herds were affected with B. hyodysenteriae. This study suggested that herds positive for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were distributed throughout Korea, although the relationship among other pathogens such as viral or parasitic ones and/or with metabolic disorders was not determined.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Bacterial , Desulfovibrionaceae Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Korea/epidemiology , Lawsonia Bacteria , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Prevalence , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Brachyspira hyodysenteriae , Spirochaetales Infections/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 34(1): 29-35, jan.-fev. 2001. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-462076

ABSTRACT

A longitudinal study was conducted on selected livestock farms to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. The enteropathogens assayed from faecal samples and rectal swabs were bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica), parasites (coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes and Cryptosporidium spp.) and viruses (group A rotavirus and parvovirus). The prevalence of the enteropathogens in various animal species was related to age and month of the year. Generally, younger animals presented a higher prevalence of infection by enteropathogens than older animals while most infections occurred between the months of January and April.


Um estudo longitudinal foi realizado em fazendas de criação selecionadas, para determinar a prevalência de enteropatógenos em animais com ou sem diarréia. Os enteropatógenos analisados de amostras fecais e swabs retais foram: bactérias (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp e Yersinia enterocolitica); parasitas (coccídeos, nematóides gastrintestinais e Cryptosporidium spp ) e vírus (Rotavírus grupo A e parvovírus). A prevalência dos enteropatógenos em várias espécies de animais foi relacionada à idade e mês do ano. Geralmente, a prevalência de infecção por enteropatógenos foi maior entre os animais mais jovens que entre os animais mais velhos, enquanto a maioria das infecções ocorreu entre os meses de janeiro e abril.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Animals, Domestic , Diarrhea/veterinary , Campylobacter Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Age Factors , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , Sheep , Swine , Trinidad and Tobago/epidemiology
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112940

ABSTRACT

During the period 1990-91, 3222 Salmonella strains were identified at the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre (NSEC) at Central Research Institute, Kasauli. Of these, 2894 were from humans, 226 from poultry, 84 from animals and remaining 18 from reptiles, birds and other sources. These strains belonged to 53 different serotypes. These include 4 serotypes reported for the first time in India, namely S. kedogou, S. VP. bornheim, S. kisarawe and S. madras. Drug resistance studies revealed that 573 strains were sensitive to all the antibiotics commonly used, 1351 single drug resistant, 594 resistant to two drugs and 704 were multidrug resistant. One strain from human stool was resistant to all the antibiotics used. Prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes and their response to various drugs is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , India/epidemiology , Prevalence , Salmonella/classification , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Serotyping
16.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 31(3/4): 233-7, 1994. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-240026

ABSTRACT

Relatam-se dois surtos de salmonelose em cobaias (Cavia porcellus), envolvendo um total de 70 animais mantidos em biotério, que manifestaram emaciaçäo progressiva, prostraçäo, hipertermia, pelos arrepiados e rarefeitos. Após o início dos sintomas, 48,57 por cento dos animais (34/70) evoluíram para a morte, sendo os demais sacrificados com o intuito de se controlar os surtos. Na necrópsia, colheram-se fragmentos de fígado, baço, rins, pulmöes e intestinos para exames histopatológico e microbiológico. Ao exame microbiológico obteve-se o isolamento de cepas caracterizadas bioquímica e sorológicamente como Salmonella typhimurium. O exame histopatológico dos fragmentos de órgäos corados pela hematoxilina-eosina revelou a presença de lesöes condizentes com quadro septicêmico por este microrganismo. O presenta trabalho alerta quanto ao risco existente na utilizaçäo de animais de experimentaçäo portadores dessa bactéria, já que poderiam comprometer experimentos por uma possível interferência nos resultados, além de representarem fonte de infecçäo em biotérios e laboratórios


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella typhimurium
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 22(3): 130-6, 1990. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-102122

ABSTRACT

Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium sp. y Salmonella spp. fueron investigados en las heces de 452 terneros diarreicos provenientes de 36 rodeos de cría y 33 de tambo. Los animales muestreados tenían desde pocos días de vida hasta aproximadamente 1 mes de edad. Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica (ETEC) fue buscada en 212 terneros de 15 o menos días de edad. Los animales provenían de las Provincias de Buenos Aires (59%) de los terneros), Córdoba (18%), Santa Fe (16%), Entre Ríos (5%) y la Pampa (2%). Um mínimo de 4 terneros fue muestreado en cada establecimiento. En terneros de cría, rotavirus fue excretado por el 45,1% de los animales Cryptosporidium por el 30,5% y Salmonela serovariedades Arechabaleta, Livingstone, Panama y Typhimurium por el 1,9% (Cuadro 1). En terneros de tambo Cryptossporidium fue excretado per el 29,6%, rotavirus por el 23% y Salmonella serovariedad Dublin por el 1,6%. ETEC no fue detectado en ningún ternero. Rotavirus fue el agente más difundido, detectado en 32(88,9%) rodeos de cría (Cuadro 2) y excretado por más del 50% de los terneros en la mitad de esos rodeos. En contraste rotavirus fue solamente detectado en 19(57,5%) tambos y fue excretado por más del 50% de los terneros en 6 de esos rodeos. Se identificaron oocistos de Cryptosporidium en 27(75%) rodeos de cría y en 23(69,7%) tambos. La salmonelosis por la serovariedad Dublin se asoció con diarrea en 2 tambos. Infecciones concurrentes con dos o tres agentes ocurrieron en 36(8%) terneros y en 38(55,1%) establecimientos; la combinación rotavirus-Cryptosporidium se encontró en 31(6,9%) terneros y en 33(47,8) establecimientos


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Diarrhea/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/parasitology , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology
19.
Bol. Oficina Sanit. Panam ; 103(4): 373-7, oct. 1987.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-45651

ABSTRACT

Se estudió la prevalencia de salmonelas en cabritos recién faenados en un frigorífico de la provincia de San Luis, Argentina. La cría de este ganado es una actividad económica importante en esa zona. Se examinaron 200 muestras de contenido cecal. Todos los aislamientos se obtuvieron únicamente a partir de muestras enriquecidas en caldo nutritivo y seleccionadas en agar verde brillante. Las colonias sospechosas fueron purificadas por reaislamiento y sometidas a identificación por puebas bioquímicas y serológicas. La prevalencia de salmonelas en los animales estudiados fue de 6,5% y el único serotipo aislado fue Salmonella oranienburg. La patogenicidad de las cepas se determinó por vía digestiva y por inoculación intravenosa e intraperitoneal. La sensibilidad a los antibióticos se determinó por el método de Kirby Bauer. Las cepas fueron sensibles a cloramfenicol, kanamicina, fosfomicina, ampicilina, tobramicina, polimixina B, nitrofurantoína mezlocilina, piperacilina, cefalotina, cefotaxima y ala combinación de sulfametoxazol y trimetoprima, y se mostraron resistentes a sisomicina y a sulfisoxazol


Subject(s)
Cattle , Animals , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Argentina , Salmonella/pathogenicity
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