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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 395-401, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138564

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La salmonelosis es una zoonosis universal, causante de frecuentes brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos; Salmonella enterica es la especie con la mayor prevalencia, describiéndose un aumento progresivo de su resistencia a antimicrobianos. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de serotipos y los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana en aislados de S. enterica remitidos al Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal. Se incluyeron en el estudio todas las cepas remitidas como parte de la vigilancia nacional basada en laboratorio entre los años 2012 y 2015. Las cepas fueron confirmadas mediante pruebas convencionales y serotipificadas por el esquema de Kauffmann-White; la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y la confirmación del fenotipo BLEE se realizó según el método de Kirby-Bauer y método de Jarlier. Resultados: Un total de 540 cepas de S. enterica fueron incluidos en el estudio, de las que 96% (520/540) correspondió a cepas de origen humano y 4% (20/540) de origen no humano (aves, alimentos y ambiental). En muestras humanas, el serovar más frecuente fue S. Infantis (57%), seguido de S. Enteritidis (27%) y S. Typhimurium (6%). Se encontró una alta resistencia a nitrofurantoína (74%), ácido nalidíxico (64%), ciprofloxacina (63%), tetraciclina (63%), ampicilina (56%), cotrimoxazol (56%), cefotaxima (53%) y cloranfenicol (50%). En muestras no humanas, el serotipo más frecuente fue S. Infantis (45%), seguido de S. Typhimurium (40%) y S. Enteritidis (10%). encontrándose una alta resistencia a ciprofloxacina (45%), cotrimoxazol (40%), y tetraciclina (40%). El 65% del total de las cepas presentó resistencia a más de dos antimicrobianos, 43,3% fueron productoras de BLEE y 99% de éstas presentaron resistencia a entre seis y ocho antimicrobianos. Conclusiones: Se encontró una alta frecuencia de Salmonella Infantis productoras de BLEE, con multi-resistencia a los antimicrobianos en los aislados de muestras humanas y no humanas recibidas en el Instituto Nacional de Salud.


Abstract Background: Salmonellosis is a universal zoonosis, causing frequent outbreaks of foodborne illness; Salmonella enterica is the species with the highest prevalence, a progressive increase in its resistance to antimicrobials is described. Aim: To determine the frequency of serovars and antimicrobial resistance patterns in S. enterica isolates submitted to the National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. All strains referred as part of national laboratory-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015 were included in the study. Strains were confirmed by conventional tests and serotyped by the Kauffmann-White scheme; antimicrobial susceptibility and confirmation of the BLEE phenotype was performed according to the method of Kirby-Bauer and Jarlier's method. Results: A total of 540 strains of S. enterica were included in the study, where 96% (520/540) corresponded to human strains and 4% (20/540) to non-human strains (birds, food and environmental). In human samples, the most frequent serovar was S. Infantis (57%), followed by S. Enteritidis (27%) and S. Typhimurium (6%). High resistance to nitrofurantoin (74%), nalidixic acid (64%), ciprofloxacin (63%), tetracycline (63%), ampicillin (56%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (56%), cefotaxime (53%) and chloramphenicol (50%) was detected. In non-human samples, the most frequent serotype was S. Infantis (45%), followed by S. Typhimurium (40%) and S. Enteritidis (10%); a high resistance to nalidixic acid (55%), ciprofloxacin (45%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (40%), nitrofurantoin (40%), tetracycline (40%) was found. 65% of all strains had resistance to more than two antibiotics, 43,3% were ESBL producers and 99% of these had resistance between six and eight antibiotics. Conclusions: We found a high frequency of S. Infantis producing ESBL with multi-resistance to the antimicrobials in human and nonhuman samples received by the National Institute of Health.


Subject(s)
Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Peru/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Serogroup , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 223-234, jan./feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049244

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian flora is known for its vast biodiversity; however, many species have been still little studied regarding to their chemical composition and biological potential. Thus, this study aimed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and acaricidal activity of the extracts of leaves of Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. In addition, phytochemical screening of these extracts was carried out to determine the main classes of secondary metabolites present in Z. caribaeum. Using the Z. caribaeum leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The antimicrobial activity of extracts was determined by broth microdilution method, and to detect antioxidant activity the method of capturing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was used. The acaricidal activity of the extracts was tested on Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans. The ethanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (71.2%) and antioxidant capacity (the lowest IC50 value - 24.39 µg mL-1). The crude extracts obtained with methanol and acetone were the most promising. In general, phytochemical screening indicated the presence of steroids, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids and xanthones.


A flora brasileira é conhecida pela sua vasta biodiversidade, no entanto, muitas espécies ainda são pouco estudadas quanto à composição química e ao potencial biológico. Assim, esse trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e acaricida dos extratos vegetais das folhas de Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. Adicionalmente, foi realizada triagem fotoquímica desses extratos para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes em Z. caribaeum. Empregando-se as folhas de Z. caribaeum foram obtidos o extrato aquoso e orgânicos, utilizando os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, e para detecção da atividade antioxidante foi empregado o método de captura do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH). A atividade acaricida dos extratos foi avaliada frente a Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Os extratos brutos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, e também para a levedura Candida albicans. O extrato etanólico apresentou elevado potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (71,2%) e o menor valor de IC50 (24,39µg mL-1), revelando, portanto, sua capacidade antioxidante. No que se refere à atividade acaricida, os extratos obtidos com metanol e acetona foram os mais promissores. De modo geral, a triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de esteroides, flavanonas, flavonas, flavonóis, saponinas, taninos, triterpenóides e xantonas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Zanthoxylum , Acaricides/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Leaves , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Zanthoxylum/chemistry , Mites/drug effects
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180568, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132273

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sophorolipids are glycolipids that have natural antimicrobial properties and present great potential in the pharmaceutical field. The present study aimed to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using a chicken fat-based medium and evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans). The production of sophorolipids reached 27.86 g L-1. Based on the structural characterization, 73.55% of the sophorolipids present a mixture of acidic monoacetylated C18:2 and lactonic diacetylated C16:0, and 26.45% were present in the diacetylated C18:1 lactonic form. Bacteria submitted to sophorolipid exposure showed a reduction in viability at doses of 500 μg mL-1 and 2,000 μg mL-1 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results suggest that sophorolipids produced in chicken fat medium may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent or eliminate contamination by different pathogens.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Glycolipids/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Glycolipids/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180285, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041544

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Salmonella enterica serovar Panama belongs to the D1 serogroup and is frequently associated with nontyphoidal salmonellosis in humans. This study aimed to characterize isolates collected from Northeast Brazil by phenotypic and molecular methods. METHODS Forty four S. Panama strains were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. RESULTS All strains were susceptible to antibiotics (except for streptomycin), presented classical virulence factors, and could be clustered into four groups and 18 pulsotypes. CONCLUSIONS This work calls for continuous surveillance for the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new clones in a geographical area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Genetic Variation , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 113-118, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Poultry meat is a food product that usually carries high rates of microbial contamination, including foodborne pathogens. The poultry industry has established different systems to minimize these hazards. In recent years, extensive literature has demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of different contact surfaces made of copper to effectively reduce microbial loads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of copper surfaces on the transmission of two foodborne pathogens - Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes - and a poultry native microbiota bacterial species - Enterobacter cloacae. We also evaluated the impact of the poultry meat matrix on the antimicrobial activity of a copper surface. Our results indicated that copper surfaces reduced the bacterial load quickly (<than 4 min) when the microorganisms were exposed to polished copper surfaces. Even when bacteria were inoculated on copper surfaces soiled with the organic matrix (washing water from poultry carcasses) and survival rates were significantly higher, an antimicrobial effect was still observed. Survival rates of two microorganisms simultaneously exposed to copper did not show significant differences. We found an antimicrobial effect over pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. Results suggest a potential role for copper surfaces in the control of microbiological hazards in the poultry industry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Copper/pharmacology , Meat/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cadaver , Food Contamination/analysis , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Microbiota/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 458-466, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899743

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los alimentos de origen animal frecuentemente están implicados en brotes de salmonelosis. Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de Salmonella enterica en carnes molidas de pollo, res y cerdo (un total de 2.592 muestras) obtenidas de mercados sobre ruedas y supermercados de la Delegación Iztapalapa en la Ciudad de México, determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y efectuar ensayos de adherencia en las cepas aisladas. Métodos: El aislamiento de S. enterica se hizo de acuerdo a la BAM-FDA, la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de acuerdo con CLSI y el ensayo de adherencia en células HEp-2 conforme a Baffone y cols., 2001. Resultados: Salmonella enterica fue aislada en 511 del total de muestras analizadas (19,7%), de las cuales 244 (47,7%), 152 (29,7%) y 115 (22,5%) correspondieron a carne molida de pollo, res y cerdo, respectivamente. La mayor frecuencia de resistencia de S. enterica a antimicrobianos fue a ampicilina y cloranfenicol en pollo, perfloxacina y ampicilina en res y carbenicilina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol, cefotaxima y perfloxacina en cerdo. Noventa por ciento de las cepas mostraron un patrón de adherencia agregativo. Conclusión: La frecuencia de S. enterica en productos cárnicos es alta, por lo que es importante la adecuada cocción de la carne para disminuir el riesgo de una salmonelosis.


Background: Food of animal origin is often involved in salmonellosis outbreaks. Aim: To evaluate the frequency of Salmonella enterica in chicken, beef and pork ground meat (a total of 2,592 samples) obtained from travelling markets and supermarkets at the Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, in order to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and adherence capacity of isolated strains. Methods: Isolation of S. enterica was carried out according to the BAM-FDA, the microbial susceptibility according with CLSI and adherence assay on HEp-2 cell line according with Baffone et al., 2001. Results: S. enterica was isolated from 511 of all the analyzed samples (19.7%), from which 244 (47.7%), 152 (29.7%) and 115 (22.5%) corresponded to chicken, beef and pork ground meat, respectively. The highest frequency of resistance of S. enterica to antimicrobials was to ampicillin and chloramphenicol in chicken, perfloxacin and ampicillin in beef and carbenicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and perfloxacin in pork. Ninety percent of the strains showed an aggregative adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells. Conclusion: The frequency of S. enterica on meat products is high, which is the reason why a proper cooking of these ground meats is important in order to reduce the risk of acquiring salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion/physiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Red Meat/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Time Factors , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cattle , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chickens , Cell Line, Tumor/microbiology , Serogroup , Food Microbiology , Mexico
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 499-508, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n = 33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Saudi Arabia , Serotyping , Tetracycline/pharmacology
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 196-201, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775099

ABSTRACT

Abstract Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n = 62) and human (n = 67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6')-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6')-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from ±600 to >1000 pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Environmental Microbiology , Food Microbiology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Brazil , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plasmids/analysis , Serotyping , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1257-1263, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769651

ABSTRACT

Increasing interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife may result in inter-species transmission of infectious agents. To evaluate the presence of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates, rectal swabs from 36 different free-ranging wild mammals were taken from two distinct natural sites in Brazil: Cantareira State Park (CSP, state of São Paulo) and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro Region (SIRNR, state of Amazonas). The swabs were randomly collected and processed for bacterial isolation, identification, characterization and antimicrobial resistance. Eighteen E. coli strains from CSP and 20 from SIRNR were recovered from 14 and 22 individuals, respectively. Strains from animals captured in CSP, the site with the greatest anthropization, exhibited a higher range and percentage of virulence genes, including an eae+/bfpA+ strain. Antimicrobial resistance was verified in strains originating from both sites; however, in strains from SIRNR, aminopenicillins were almost the exclusive antimicrobial class to which strains exhibited resistance, whereas in CSP there were strains resistant to cephalosporins, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone, in addition to strains exhibiting multidrug resistance. Two strains of Salmonella enterica that are known to be associated with reptiles, serotypes Belem and 60:r:e,n,z15, were recovered only from Amazonian animals and showed susceptibility to all classes of antimicrobials that were tested. Although the potential impact of these pathogens on wildlife remains unknown, bacteria isolated from free-ranging wild animals may provide relevant information about environmental health and should therefore be more deeply studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Rectum/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/analysis , Virulence Factors/genetics
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(11): 990-995, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762905

ABSTRACT

A spontaneous fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant (STM1) was isolated from its parent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) clinical isolate. Unlike its parent isolate, this mutant has selective resistance to fluoroquinolones without any change in its sensitivity to various other antibiotics. DNA gyrase assays revealed that the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype of the STM1 mutant did not result from alteration of the fluoroquinolone sensitivity of the DNA gyrase isolated from it. To study the mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance, a genomic library from the STM1 mutant was constructed in Escherichia coli DH5α and two recombinant plasmids were obtained. Only one of these plasmids (STM1-A) conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. The chromosomal insert from STM1-A, digested with EcoRI and HindIII restriction endonucleases, produced two DNA fragments and these were cloned separately into pUC19 thereby generating two new plasmids, STM1-A1 and STM1-A2. Only STM1-A1 conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. Sequence and subcloning analyses of STM1-A1 showed the presence of an intact RecA open reading frame. Unlike that of the wild-type E. coli DH5α, protein analysis of a crude STM1-A1 extract showed overexpression of a 40 kDa protein. Western blotting confirmed the 40 kDa protein band to be RecA. When a RecA PCR product was cloned into pGEM-T and introduced into E. coli DH5α, the STM1-A11 subclone retained fluoroquinolone resistance. These results suggest that overexpression of RecA causes selective fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli DH5α.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Escherichia coli , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Rec A Recombinases/genetics , Salmonella enterica , Serogroup , Blotting, Western , Cloning, Molecular , DNA Gyrase/drug effects , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Genomic Library , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , R Factors/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics
12.
Rev. salud pública ; 17(1): 1-1, ene.-jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755627

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislamientos de Salmonella enterica obtenidos durante la etapa de prebeneficio y de animales. Método Se realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana con el método de difusión en agar a 333 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica obtenidos del prebeneficio de camiones de transporte y de corrales. Se obtuvieron heces en camión, heces en corral, nódulos linfáticos mesentéricos y contenido cecal. Los especímenes fueron obtenidos en cuatro plantas de beneficio porcino. Resultados El 99,6 % (n=332) de las aislamientos mostró resistencia frente al menos un antimicrobiano. Se encontraron los siguientes porcentajes de resistencia: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico 15,9 % (n=53), ampicilina 33,9 % (n=113), ceftiofur 41,4 % (n=138), ciprofloxacina 9 % (n=30), cloranfenicol 19,2 % (n=64), florfenicol 33 % (n=110), gentamicina 22,8 % (n=76), sulfametoxazol-trimetroprim 24,9 % (n=83), tetraciclina 93,1 % (n=310) y tilmicosina 73,8 % (n=246). Conclusiones Los resultados muestran que es indispensable reforzar las medidas de contención para prevenir el desarrollo de resistencias antimicrobianas y fortaleciendo la capacitación de operarios, trabajadores y médicos veterinarios en la producción primaria durante el procesamiento del producto, durante la distribución y venta hasta el consumidor, garantizando un alimento inocuo.


Objective To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Salmonella enterica isolated from animals and during the pre-slaughter period. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the agar diffusion method on 333 isolates of Salmonella enterica obtained from the pre-harvest period represented by transport trucks and pens. From the animals, isolates were obtained from the animals' feces in transport trucks and pens, mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecal content. The specimens were obtained from four slaughtering facilities. Results The antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed obtaining the following results: 99.6 % (n=332) of isolates showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent. The following resistance percentages were found: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 15.9 % (n=53), ampicillin 33.9 % (n=113), ceftiofur 41.4 % (n=138), ciprofloxacin 9 % (n=30 ), chloramphenicol 19.2 % (n=64), florfenicol 33 % (n=110), gentamicin 22.8 % (n=76), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 24.9 % (n=83), tetracycline 93.1 % (n=310) and tilmicosin 73.8 % (n=246). Conclusion The results show that it is essential to reinforce containment measures to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistances and improve training of the operators, workers, and veterinarians in Colombia involved in the primary production, product processing, distribution, and sale to the consumer, thereby guaranteeing a safe food product and the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Sus scrofa/microbiology , Animal Husbandry , Colombia , Food Safety , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 63(3): 247-253, sep. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-749967

ABSTRACT

En la literatura científica mundial, existen muchos estudios que demuestran la capacidad antimicrobiana de diferentes hierbas, incluyendo el té verde. No obstante, muchos resultados son divergentes o no comparables. También, existen en el mercado muchas formulaciones de té verde, de las cuales hay poca información respecto a su actividad. En el presente trabajo se determinó el potencial efecto antimicrobiano contra cepas de Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans y Aspergillus niger de 50 muestras diferentes de té verde seco y en infusión al 10%, distribuidas de manera comercial en Costa Rica. Se contrastó su actividad con la del té verde (Camellia sinensis) de origen chino. Se evaluaron diferentes solventes para preparar extractos ricos en polifenoles a partir del té verde. Los fenoles totales se determinaron mediante el método espectrofotométrico de Folin-Ciocalteu usando el ácido gálico como material de referencia. La evaluación de la capacidad antimicrobiana del extracto y las infusiones de té verde se llevó a cabo mediante el método de microplatos descrito por Breukink (2006). El etanol fue el solvente que mostró mayor eficiencia. No hubo efecto antimicrobiano de las diferentes muestras contra los microorganismos evaluados, excepto con Listeria monocytogenes, dondese evidenció un efecto inhibitorio en las concentraciones de 10,5 y 1,05 mg/mL de los extractos en el 70% de marcas analizadas y en el control. Ninguna de las infusiones evaluadas, incluyendo la del té control mostró efecto inhibitorio contra esta bacteria.


Many studies can be found in scientific literature demonstrating the antimicrobial capacity of different herbs, including green tea. Nevertheless, many results are divergent or cannot be compared. Several green tea formulations may be found in market, but there is scarce or non-information about its activity. In this work, the potential antimicrobial effect of 50 samples of dry green tea and in 10% infusion against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica, was determined. This activity was compared with the effect produced by Chinese origin green tea (Camellia sinensis). Different solvents were evaluated for preparing polyphenol enriched extracts from green tea samples. Total phenols were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric methodology, using galic acid as reference. Antimicrobial activity of green tea extracts and infusions was evaluated using the microplate methodology described by Breuking (2006). Ethanol was the most efficient solvent used for the polyphenol extractions. There was no antimicrobial effect of the different green tea extracts and infusions against the microorganisms evaluated, except for Listeria monocytogenes, where the extracts of 70% of samples analyzed and the control showed an inhibitory effect in the 10,5 mg/mL and 1,05 mg/L concentrations. None of the infusions tested, including the control, showed any effect against this bacteria.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tea/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Costa Rica , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(4): 431-437, July-Aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the potential factors include gene mutation, efflux pump and alteration of permeability associated with quinolone-resistance of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis and to evaluate the degree of synergistic activity of efflux pump inhibitors when combined with ciprofloxacin against resistant isolates. METHODS: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of fifty-eight Salmonella isolates were tested. Five isolates were selected to study the mechanism of resistance associated with quinolone group, including mutation in topoisomerase-encoding gene, altered cell permeability, and expression of an active efflux system. In addition, the combination between antibiotics and efflux pump inhibitors to overcome the microbial resistance was evaluated. RESULTS: Five Salmonella isolates totally resistant to all quinolones were studied. All isolates showed alterations in outer membrane proteins including disappearance of some or all of these proteins (Omp-A, Omp-C, Omp-D and Omp-F). Minimum inhibitory concentration values of ciprofloxacin were determined in the presence/absence of the efflux pump inhibitors: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, norepinephrin and trimethoprim. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for two of the isolates were 2-4 fold lower with the addition of efflux pump inhibitors. All five Salmonella isolates were amplified for gyrA and parC genes and only two isolates were sequenced. S. Enteritidis 22 had double mutations at codon 83 and 87 in addition to three mutations at parC at codons 67, 76 and 80 whereas S. Typhimurium 57 had three mutations at codons 83, 87 and 119, but no mutations at parC. CONCLUSIONS: Efflux pump inhibitors may inhibit the major AcrAB-TolC in Salmonella efflux systems which are the major efflux pumps responsible for multidrug resistance in Gramnegative clinical isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Membrane Transport Proteins/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 125-130, Mar.-Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673188

ABSTRACT

Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values < 0.125 [1]g/mL (sensitive to ciprofloxacin), the most expressed gene in the strains both with and without mutations was acrB. In the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values > 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility), with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , Trans-Activators/genetics , Trans-Activators/metabolism
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(3): 298-304, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677336

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacterial resistance to one or more antimicrobiak is worrisome. Aim: To determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials of Salmonella entérica isolates from animáis and food, from the Laboratory ofVeterinary Microbiology at the University of Concepción. Material andMethods: The samples were isolated according to traditional microbiological methods standardized protocols. Resistance was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations (2008). Results: Nine serotypes were identified among the 68 isolates. Strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 11 patterns of resistance were identified. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observ.ed in20.5% ofthestrains tested. The mostcommon was Oxytetracycline resistance (69.1%). Infood, the predominant serotype was S. Derby (2.9%) and S. Senftenberg (2.9%), which is commonly found infood intended for animal consumption. In samples of animal origin, the predominant serotypes were S. infantis (33.8%) and S. Group E (3.9;-;-) (23.5%). Conclusions: The frequeney of resistance found and the impending risk that these strains could reach humans through the food chain, should prompt afollow-up study ofthispathogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Contamination , Food Microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Serotyping , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 657-662, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688597

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the Quinolone Resistance Determining sources Regions (QRDR) of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes and to determine if any of the qnr variants or the aac(6')-Ib-cr variant were present in strains of Salmonella spp. isolated in Brazil. A total of 126 Salmonella spp. strains from epidemic (n = 114) and poultry (n = 12) origin were evaluated. One hundred and twelve strains (88.8%) were resistant to nalidixic acid (NAL) and 29 (23.01%) showed a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (Cip). The mutations identified were substitutions limited to the QRDR of the gyrA gene in the codons for Serine 83, Aspartate 87 and Alanine 131. The sensitivity to NAL seems to be a good phenotypic indication of distinguishing mutated and nonmutated strains in the QRDR, however the double mutation in gyrA did not cause resistance to ciprofloxacin. The qnrA1 and qnrB19 genes were detected, respectively, in one epidemic strain of S. Enteritidis and one strain of S. Corvallis of poultry origin. Despite previous detection of qnr genes in Brazil, this is the first report of qnr gene detection in Salmonella, and also the first detection of qnrB19 gene in this country. The results alert for the continuous monitoring of quinolone resistance determinants in order to minimize the emergence and selection of Salmonella spp. strains showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to quinolones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , DNA Topoisomerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Mutation , Quinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Poultry , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 385-391, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688601

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, ready-to-eat (RTE) salad vegetables are gaining increasing importance in human diet. However, since they are consumed fresh, inadequate washing during processing can bring on some foodborne illnesses, like salmonellosis, since these food items have natural contamination from soil and water. During 2009-2010, a total of 81 samples were purchased arbitrarily from local markets in Ankara, and were examined for Salmonella contamination. Salmonella screening was performed by using anti-Salmonella magnetic beads system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of the suspected colonies. Then, the antibiotic resistance profiles of four Salmonella strains identified (strains RTE-1, RTE-2, RTE-3, and RTE-4) were also investigated, since the mechanism by which Salmonella spp. have accumulated antibiotic resistance genes is of interest. All strains showed resistance against sulfonamides (MIC > 128 mg/L). Further results suggested that associated sulfonamide resistance genes were encoded by the 55.0 kb plasmid of strain RTE-1 that involves no integrons. As a result of using two primers (P1254 and P1283) in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis, two common amplicons (364 bp and 1065 bp) were determined. The findings of this study provide support to the adoption of guidelines for the prudent use of antibiotics in order to reduce the number of pathogens present on vegetable and fruit farms. Besides, since it is shown that these bacteria started to gain resistance to antibiotics, it is necessary to further investigate the prevalence of them in foods.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Vegetables/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Molecular Typing , Plasmids/analysis , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
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