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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180285, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041544

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Salmonella enterica serovar Panama belongs to the D1 serogroup and is frequently associated with nontyphoidal salmonellosis in humans. This study aimed to characterize isolates collected from Northeast Brazil by phenotypic and molecular methods. METHODS Forty four S. Panama strains were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. RESULTS All strains were susceptible to antibiotics (except for streptomycin), presented classical virulence factors, and could be clustered into four groups and 18 pulsotypes. CONCLUSIONS This work calls for continuous surveillance for the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new clones in a geographical area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Genetic Variation , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 601-606, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella Gallinarum is a host-restrict pathogen that causes fowl typhoid, a severe systemic disease that is one of the major concerns to the poultry industry worldwide. When infecting the bird, SG makes use of evasion mechanisms to survive and to replicate within macrophages. In this context, phoPQ genes encode a two-component regulatory system (PhoPQ) that regulates virulence genes responsible for adaptation of Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial factors such as low pH, antimicrobial peptides and deprivation of bivalent cations. The role of the mentioned genes to SG remains to be investigated. In the present study a phoPQ-depleted SG strain (SG ΔphoPQ) was constructed and its virulence assessed in twenty-day-old laying hens susceptible to fowl typhoid. SG ΔphoPQ did cause neither clinical signs nor mortality in birds orally challenged, being non-pathogenic. Furthermore, this strain was not recovered from livers or spleens. On the other hand, chickens challenged subcutaneously with the mutant strain had discreet to moderate pathological changes and also low bacterial counts in liver and spleen tissues. These findings show that SG ΔphoPQ is attenuated to susceptible chickens and suggest that these genes are important during chicken infection by SG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Salmonella enterica/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Gene Silencing , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Spleen/microbiology , Spleen/pathology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Virulence , Chickens , Salmonella enterica/genetics
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 559-563, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951811

ABSTRACT

Abstract The growth of the population of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha constitutes a threat to public health and biological diversity because of their competition with and predation on native species and the possibility of transmission of pathogens to human beings, livestock and native wildlife. The aim here was to search for, isolate and identify serovars of Salmonella in clinically healthy local cattle egrets. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 456 clinically healthy cattle egrets of both sexes and a variety of ages. The swabs were divided into 51 pools. Six of these (11.7%) presented four serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: Salmonella serovar Typhimurium; Salmonella serovar Newport; Salmonella serovar Duisburg; and Salmonella serovar Zega. One sample was identified as S. enterica subspecies enterica O16:y:-. Results in this study suggest that cattle egrets may be reservoirs of this agent on Fernando de Noronha and represent a risk to public health and biological diversity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Bird Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Birds/microbiology , Brazil , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 244-246, Mar.-Apr. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897060

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella infections usually occur as gastroenteritis that is generally self-limited. However, some serotypes of Salmonella can cause severe extra-intestinal infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis. Here, we report the first Salmonella Panama case of meningitis in 4-month-old male newborn in Brazil. The invasive strain isolated was susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. The genes agfA, fimA, invA, sfbA, phoP, and slyA were detected using polymerase chain reactions. These findings are relevant and physicians should be alert to the possibility of meningitis in newborns due to S. Panama, which can present a high rate of mortality or recurrence of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Serotyping , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 499-508, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n = 33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Saudi Arabia , Serotyping , Tetracycline/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 196-201, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775099

ABSTRACT

Abstract Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n = 62) and human (n = 67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6')-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6')-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from ±600 to >1000 pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Environmental Microbiology , Food Microbiology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Brazil , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plasmids/analysis , Serotyping , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1257-1263, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769651

ABSTRACT

Increasing interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife may result in inter-species transmission of infectious agents. To evaluate the presence of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates, rectal swabs from 36 different free-ranging wild mammals were taken from two distinct natural sites in Brazil: Cantareira State Park (CSP, state of São Paulo) and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro Region (SIRNR, state of Amazonas). The swabs were randomly collected and processed for bacterial isolation, identification, characterization and antimicrobial resistance. Eighteen E. coli strains from CSP and 20 from SIRNR were recovered from 14 and 22 individuals, respectively. Strains from animals captured in CSP, the site with the greatest anthropization, exhibited a higher range and percentage of virulence genes, including an eae+/bfpA+ strain. Antimicrobial resistance was verified in strains originating from both sites; however, in strains from SIRNR, aminopenicillins were almost the exclusive antimicrobial class to which strains exhibited resistance, whereas in CSP there were strains resistant to cephalosporins, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone, in addition to strains exhibiting multidrug resistance. Two strains of Salmonella enterica that are known to be associated with reptiles, serotypes Belem and 60:r:e,n,z15, were recovered only from Amazonian animals and showed susceptibility to all classes of antimicrobials that were tested. Although the potential impact of these pathogens on wildlife remains unknown, bacteria isolated from free-ranging wild animals may provide relevant information about environmental health and should therefore be more deeply studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Rectum/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/analysis , Virulence Factors/genetics
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(11): 990-995, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762905

ABSTRACT

A spontaneous fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant (STM1) was isolated from its parent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) clinical isolate. Unlike its parent isolate, this mutant has selective resistance to fluoroquinolones without any change in its sensitivity to various other antibiotics. DNA gyrase assays revealed that the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype of the STM1 mutant did not result from alteration of the fluoroquinolone sensitivity of the DNA gyrase isolated from it. To study the mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance, a genomic library from the STM1 mutant was constructed in Escherichia coli DH5α and two recombinant plasmids were obtained. Only one of these plasmids (STM1-A) conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. The chromosomal insert from STM1-A, digested with EcoRI and HindIII restriction endonucleases, produced two DNA fragments and these were cloned separately into pUC19 thereby generating two new plasmids, STM1-A1 and STM1-A2. Only STM1-A1 conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. Sequence and subcloning analyses of STM1-A1 showed the presence of an intact RecA open reading frame. Unlike that of the wild-type E. coli DH5α, protein analysis of a crude STM1-A1 extract showed overexpression of a 40 kDa protein. Western blotting confirmed the 40 kDa protein band to be RecA. When a RecA PCR product was cloned into pGEM-T and introduced into E. coli DH5α, the STM1-A11 subclone retained fluoroquinolone resistance. These results suggest that overexpression of RecA causes selective fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli DH5α.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Escherichia coli , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Rec A Recombinases/genetics , Salmonella enterica , Serogroup , Blotting, Western , Cloning, Molecular , DNA Gyrase/drug effects , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Genomic Library , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , R Factors/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158210

ABSTRACT

The immune performance, SNPs and expression levels of candidate genes (IL1-β, Nramp1, TLR4, MyD88, NF-кB and NLRC5) were analyzed in carrier chickens of a Chinese indigenous breed infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum at different persistence periods (12, 19 and 24 weeks of age). Carrier birds at 19 weeks of age presented significant difference in most immune parameters, as compared to carriers at 12 and 24 weeks of age, while no significant difference in most immune parameters was observed between carriers at 12 and 24 weeks of age. The genotype distributions of IL1-β and TLR4 presented significant differences between carriers and healthy birds. The expression levels of most candidate genes in carriers at 19 weeks of age were significantly higher than that in carriers at 12, 24 weeks of age and healthy birds and reached 1% level of significance between carriers at 19 weeks of age and healthy birds. The expression patterns of all genes, but IL-1β and NLRC5 between carriers at 12 and 24 weeks of age in all tissues were similar. Compared with carriers at 12 weeks of age, IL1-β was significantly down-regulated, but NLRC5 was significantly up-regulated in carriers at 24 weeks of age. Our study demonstrated that immune performance of carrier birds was severely impaired at age of sexual maturation and NLRC5 might play as a negative mediator of NF-кB pathway involved in immune response to asymptomatic infection by S. Pullorum. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-кB pathway might be suitable for study on S. Pullorum infection in Chinese indigenous breeds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/genetics , /genetics , /immunology , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/immunology
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(4): 431-437, July-Aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the potential factors include gene mutation, efflux pump and alteration of permeability associated with quinolone-resistance of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis and to evaluate the degree of synergistic activity of efflux pump inhibitors when combined with ciprofloxacin against resistant isolates. METHODS: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of fifty-eight Salmonella isolates were tested. Five isolates were selected to study the mechanism of resistance associated with quinolone group, including mutation in topoisomerase-encoding gene, altered cell permeability, and expression of an active efflux system. In addition, the combination between antibiotics and efflux pump inhibitors to overcome the microbial resistance was evaluated. RESULTS: Five Salmonella isolates totally resistant to all quinolones were studied. All isolates showed alterations in outer membrane proteins including disappearance of some or all of these proteins (Omp-A, Omp-C, Omp-D and Omp-F). Minimum inhibitory concentration values of ciprofloxacin were determined in the presence/absence of the efflux pump inhibitors: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, norepinephrin and trimethoprim. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for two of the isolates were 2-4 fold lower with the addition of efflux pump inhibitors. All five Salmonella isolates were amplified for gyrA and parC genes and only two isolates were sequenced. S. Enteritidis 22 had double mutations at codon 83 and 87 in addition to three mutations at parC at codons 67, 76 and 80 whereas S. Typhimurium 57 had three mutations at codons 83, 87 and 119, but no mutations at parC. CONCLUSIONS: Efflux pump inhibitors may inhibit the major AcrAB-TolC in Salmonella efflux systems which are the major efflux pumps responsible for multidrug resistance in Gramnegative clinical isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Membrane Transport Proteins/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 125-130, Mar.-Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673188

ABSTRACT

Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values < 0.125 [1]g/mL (sensitive to ciprofloxacin), the most expressed gene in the strains both with and without mutations was acrB. In the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values > 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility), with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , Trans-Activators/genetics , Trans-Activators/metabolism
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Apr; 51(4): 280-287
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147593

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi (S. Abortusequi), a host adapted Salmonella causes abortions, still births and foal mortality in equids. Though known since more than 100 years, it is still a problem in many of the developing countries including India. There is dearth of really good vaccine affording immunity lasting at least for one full gestation. In search of a potential vaccine candidate, three defined deletion mutants (ΔaroA, ΔhtrA and ΔaroAΔhtrA) of S. Abortusequi were tested in guinea pig model for attenuation, safety, immunogenicity, humoral immune response, protective efficacy and persistence in host. The ΔhtrA and ΔaroAΔhtrA mutants were found to be safe on oral inoculation in doses as high as 4.2×109 cfu/animal. Also through subcutaneous inoculation ΔaroAΔhtrA mutant did not induce any abortion in pregnant guinea pigs. All the three mutants did not induce any illness or death in 1-2 week-old baby guinea pigs except ΔhtrA mutant which caused mortality on intraperitoneal inoculation. Inoculation with mutants protected against challenge and increased breeding efficiency of guinea pigs. After >4.5 months of mutant inoculation, guinea pigs were protected against abortifacient dose of wild type S. Abortusequi and mother guinea pigs also conferred resistance to their babies to the similar challenge. Early humoral immune response of S. Abortusequi mutants was characteristic. Faecal excretion of ΔaroA and htrA mutants was detected up to 45 days of inoculation in guinea pigs while ΔaroAΔhtrA mutant could not be detected after 21 days of inoculation. The results indicated that the double deletion mutant (ΔaroAΔhtrA) was the most effective and safe candidate for vaccination against S. Abortusequi through mucosal route of inoculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibody Formation , Female , Gene Deletion , Guinea Pigs , India , Male , Mutation , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Salmonella Infections, Animal/genetics , Salmonella Infections, Animal/immunology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control , Salmonella Vaccines/genetics , Salmonella Vaccines/immunology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Time Factors , Vaccination
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 657-662, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688597

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the Quinolone Resistance Determining sources Regions (QRDR) of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes and to determine if any of the qnr variants or the aac(6')-Ib-cr variant were present in strains of Salmonella spp. isolated in Brazil. A total of 126 Salmonella spp. strains from epidemic (n = 114) and poultry (n = 12) origin were evaluated. One hundred and twelve strains (88.8%) were resistant to nalidixic acid (NAL) and 29 (23.01%) showed a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (Cip). The mutations identified were substitutions limited to the QRDR of the gyrA gene in the codons for Serine 83, Aspartate 87 and Alanine 131. The sensitivity to NAL seems to be a good phenotypic indication of distinguishing mutated and nonmutated strains in the QRDR, however the double mutation in gyrA did not cause resistance to ciprofloxacin. The qnrA1 and qnrB19 genes were detected, respectively, in one epidemic strain of S. Enteritidis and one strain of S. Corvallis of poultry origin. Despite previous detection of qnr genes in Brazil, this is the first report of qnr gene detection in Salmonella, and also the first detection of qnrB19 gene in this country. The results alert for the continuous monitoring of quinolone resistance determinants in order to minimize the emergence and selection of Salmonella spp. strains showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to quinolones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , DNA Topoisomerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Mutation , Quinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Poultry , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 385-391, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688601

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, ready-to-eat (RTE) salad vegetables are gaining increasing importance in human diet. However, since they are consumed fresh, inadequate washing during processing can bring on some foodborne illnesses, like salmonellosis, since these food items have natural contamination from soil and water. During 2009-2010, a total of 81 samples were purchased arbitrarily from local markets in Ankara, and were examined for Salmonella contamination. Salmonella screening was performed by using anti-Salmonella magnetic beads system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of the suspected colonies. Then, the antibiotic resistance profiles of four Salmonella strains identified (strains RTE-1, RTE-2, RTE-3, and RTE-4) were also investigated, since the mechanism by which Salmonella spp. have accumulated antibiotic resistance genes is of interest. All strains showed resistance against sulfonamides (MIC > 128 mg/L). Further results suggested that associated sulfonamide resistance genes were encoded by the 55.0 kb plasmid of strain RTE-1 that involves no integrons. As a result of using two primers (P1254 and P1283) in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis, two common amplicons (364 bp and 1065 bp) were determined. The findings of this study provide support to the adoption of guidelines for the prudent use of antibiotics in order to reduce the number of pathogens present on vegetable and fruit farms. Besides, since it is shown that these bacteria started to gain resistance to antibiotics, it is necessary to further investigate the prevalence of them in foods.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Vegetables/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Molecular Typing , Plasmids/analysis , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145371

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi continues to be a major health problem in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Inability to make an early laboratory diagnosis and resort to empirical therapy, often lead to increased morbidity and mortality in cases of typhoid fever. This study was aimed to optimize a nested PCR for early diagnosis of typhoid fever and using it as a diagnostic tool in culture negative cases of suspected typhoid fever. Methods: Eighty patients with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever and 40 controls were included in the study. The blood samples collected were subjected to culture, Widal and nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene of S. Typhi. Results: The sensitivity of PCR on blood was found to be 100 per cent whereas the specificity was 76.9 per cent. The positive predictive value (PPV) of PCR was calculated to be 76.9 per cent with an accuracy of 86 per cent. None of the 40 control samples gave a positive PCR. Interpretation & conclusions: Due to its high sensitivity and specificity nested PCR can be used as a useful tool to diagnose clinically suspected, culture negative cases of typhoid fever.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Early Diagnosis , Flagellin/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , Typhoid Fever/genetics
17.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 12(2): 55-66, dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-590774

ABSTRACT

Para la comprensión de las bases genéticas de los mecanismos de patogenicidad de Salmonella se han descrito diversas metodologías para manipular el ADN genómico y generar mutantes con características particulares. En este estudio se reporta la construcción de mutantes a partir de varios serotipos de S. enterica, por sustitución e inactivación de los genes invG/invE en SPI-1 y de los genes ssaJ/ssaK en SPI-2 mediante la técnica de recombinasa Red del fago λ descrita por Datsenko y Wanner (2000). Los genes delecionados en las SPI-1 y SPI-2 codifican para las proteínas que participan en la formación de los sistemas de secreción tipo III, responsables de la invasión y supervivencia intracelular de S. enterica en las células hospedadoras. Los resultados de este trabajo permitirán realizar estudios futuros in vivo para evaluar la posible atenuación de la virulencia de las cepas mutantes, así como aportar nuevos conocimientos sobre los mecanismos genéticos involucrados en la fisiopatogenia de las enfermedades producidas por los serovares estudiados. Además, esta técnica se recomienda para generar de manera eficiente mutantes de diferentes serotipos de S. enterica con la finalidad de estudiar los genes cromosómicos y sus productos.


To understand the genetic basis of Salmonella pathogenicity mechanisms, various methods have been described to manipulate and generate mutant genomic DNA with specific characteristics. In this study we report the construction of mutants from several serotypes of S. enterica, substitution and inactivation of genes invG/invE in SPI-1 gene and ssaJ/ssaK in SPI-2 by the technique of phage λ Red recombinase, as described by Datsenko and Wanner (2000). The gene deletion in SPI-1 and SPI-2 encodes proteins involved in the formation of type III secretion systems responsible for the invasion and intracellular survival of S. enterica in the host cells. The results of this work will allow in vivo studies to evaluate the possible attenuation of virulence of the mutant strains, as well as to provide new insights into the genetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by these bacteria. Moreover, this technique is recommended to efficiently generate mutants of different serotypes of S. enterica in order to study the chromosomal genes and their products.


Subject(s)
Salmonella enterica/physiology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/immunology , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Salmonella enterica/chemistry , Salmonella enterica/ultrastructure , Mutation/genetics , Mutation/immunology
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(3): 729-740, Oct. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-549415

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi z66-positive strains have two different flagellin genes, fliC:d/j and fljB:z66, located on the chromosome and on a linear plasmid, respectively. To investigate the mechanism underlying the expressional regulation of fljB:z66, gene deletion mutants of the regulators FliA, FlhDC, and OmpR were constructed in this study. The expression levels of fliC and fljB:z66 were analyzed by qRT-PCR in the wild-type strain and mutants at high and low osmolarity. The results show that the expression levels of both fljB:z66 and fliC were greatly reduced in fliA and flhDC mutants under both high and low osmotic conditions. In the ompR mutant, the expression levels of fljB:z66, fliC, fliA, and flhD were increased at low osmotic conditions. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of the secreted proteins revealed that the FljB:z66 was almost absent in the fliA and flhDC mutants at both high and low osmolarity. In the wild-type strain, the fljB:z66 was more highly expressed under high-osmolarity conditions than under low-osmolarity conditions. However, this difference in expression disappeared in the ompR mutant. Translational expression assay of FljB:z66 showed that the FljB:z66 expression was decreased in ompR mutant at both low and high osmolarity. These results suggest that the expression of fljB:z66 in S. enterica serovar Typhi is dependent on FliA and FlihDC, and OmpR can regulate the expression and secretion of FljB:z66 in different osmolarity.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Movement , Flagellin , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Mutagenesis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plasmids/genetics , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Methods , Osmolar Concentration , Methods , Virulence
19.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 21(2): 215-217, abr.-jun. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-570009

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica es uno de los principales causantes de gastroenteritis infecciosa en el mundo, debido al consumo de alimentos y aguas contaminadas con esta bacteria. Este grupo de bacterias Gram negativas se caracteriza por tener la capacidad de invadir células eucariontes y sobrevivir en el interior de ellas, evento fundamental para que la bacteria cause una enfermedad tanto localizada como sistémica. Las proteínas de virulencia que este agente utiliza para invadir y sobrevivir en células eucariontes son codificadas por genes presentes en islas de patogenicidad, que corresponden a grandes bloques de material genético integrados en el cromosoma bacteriano y que fueron posiblemente adquiridos a través de transferencia lateral de genes desde otros microorganismos. Estudios recientes han permitido identificar el rol que poseen estas proteínas de virulencia en el proceso infectivo de Salmonella y su impacto en el funcionamiento de la célula eucarionte. De este modo, ha sido posible entender de mejor manera los mecanismos moleculares utilizados para infectar a su hospedero y se han identificado posibles blancos terapéuticos para el tratamiento de los cuadros infecciosos causados por este patógeno.


Salmonella enterica is one of the main ethiological agents of infectious gastroenteritis in the world, due the consumption of food and water contaminated with these bacteria. This group of Gram negative bacterials characterized by its capacity to invade eukaryotic cells and survive inside them, an event that is fundamental for the bacteria to cause a localized as well as a systemic disease. The virulence proteins that this bacterium uses to invade and survive within eukaryotic cells are encoded by genes found in pathogenicity islands, big blocks of genetic material integrated in the bacterial chromosome, that were probably acquired through lateral gene transfer from other microorganisms. Recent studies have identified the role that these virulence proteins play in the infective process of Salmonella, and their impact in the function of the eukaryotic cell. This way, it has been possible to better understand the molecular mechanisms used by Salmonella to infect their hosts, and potential therapeutic targets have been identified to improve the treatment of the infection caused by this pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Bacterial Proteins , Virulence Factors/genetics , Genomic Islands , Salmonella Infections/genetics , Salmonella/genetics , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Virulence/genetics
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(2): 121-124, Mar.-Apr. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545763

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella sp infections have been reported over recent years in hospitals in Argentina and other countries due to multiresistant strains. The aim of this study was to characterize the extended-spectrum β-lactamases in third-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg. METHODS: We studied 60 strains isolated from children with gastroenteritis and/or extraintestinal complications. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were analyzed and the β-lactamases were characterized using phenotyping and genotyping methods. RESULTS: All the strains were resistant to ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefepime and aztreonam and partially susceptible to ceftazidime, thus corresponding well with the resistance phenotype conferred by CTX-M-type β-lactamases. An isoelectric point enzyme (pI = 7.9) was detected in all of the strains, and this was confirmed by PCR as a member of the CTX-M-2 group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg producing β-lactamases of the CTX-M-2 group in a pediatric hospital in Tucumán, Argentina.


INTRODUÇÃO: Em recentes anos foram informadas infecções por Salmonella sp em hospitais da Argentina e outros países devido as cepas multiresistentes. O objetivo deste estudo era caracterizar as β-lactamasas de espectro extendido em cepas de Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg resistentes às cefalosporinas de terceira geração. MÉTODOS: Nós estudamos 60 cepas obtidas de pacientes com gastroenterites e com complicações extraintestinais. Os padrões de susceptibilidade antibiotica foram estudados em os isolamentos, as β-lactamasas foram caracterizadas por métodos fenotípicos e genotípicos. RESULTADOS: Todas as cepas eram resistentes a ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefepime e aztreonam e parcialmente suscetível a ceftazidime que corresponde bem com o fenótipo de resistência conferido por as β-lactamasas tipo CTX-M. Na totalidade das cepas, se detectou uma enzima de ponto isoelétrico (pI) 7,9, confirmada por PCR como pertencente ao grupo CTX-M2. CONCLUSÕES: Este é o primeiro reporte de Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg produtora de β-lactamasa grupo CTX-M2 em um hospital pediátrico de Tucuman, Argentina.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Argentina , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genotype , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Salmonella enterica/genetics
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