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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 781-790, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143415

ABSTRACT

The intensification of pig production and advances in the sanitary control of herds profoundly changed the profile of risk attributed to pork consumption. In the actual scenario, most microorganisms related to macroscopic lesions observed in the post mortem inspection are not transmitted by food, while foodborne bacteria of importance to consumer health do not cause macroscopic lesions. In Brazil, the "Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento" requested a scientific opinion on the prioritizing of pathogens potentially transmitted by unprocessed pork. After conducting a qualitative risk assessment, only Salmonella enterica was classified as of high risk to consumers. The present study was part of the validation step of the risk assessment and aimed to investigate the frequency of S. enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes and hygienic-sanitary indicators in pig carcasses of pigs rose under intensive production and slaughtered under the Federal Inspection System in three slaughterhouses located in Southern Brazil. Additionally, the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated pathogens was also investigated. A total of 378 carcasses were sampled by superficial sponges before the chilling step in three slaughterhouses. Samples were investigated for the presence of the three aforementioned pathogens and subjected to enumeration of Colony Formation Units (log CFU.cm-1) of total aerobic mesophiles (TAM) and Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella strains were tested by disc diffusion test for resistance to eleven antimicrobials. There were significantly statistical differences (p<0.0001) on the median counts of both indicators between the slaughterhouses. The median of TAM was very close for Slaughterhouses A and B: 1.573 log CFU.cm-1 and 1.6014 log CFU.cm-1, respectively. While in Slaughterhouse C, a higher TAM median was detected (2.216 log CFU.cm-1). A similar profile was observed regarding to Enterobacteriaceae, and medians were calculated as follow: -0.426 log CFU.cm-1 in Slaughterhouse A; 0.2163 log CFU.cm-1 in B; and 0.633 log CFU.cm-1 in C. Regarding the pathogens investigated, L. monocytogenes was not detected and only one carcass from Slaughterhouse C was positive for Y. enterocolitica. Thus, the results suggest a very low prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in the sampled population. A total of 65 (17.2%) carcasses were positive for S. enterica, with a difference in frequencies between slaughterhouses and slaughter days. The prevalence of Salmonella positive carcasses was higher in the Slaughterhouse C (25.4%; CI 95% 19-32%) in comparison with A (9.5%; CI 95% 9-14%) and B (18.3%; CI 95% 12-24%). There was no significantly statistical association between Enterobacteriaceae counts and Salmonella isolation on carcass surface (p=0.69). The slaughtering day, nested within the slaughterhouse, explains 31.3% of Salmonella prevalence variability. S. Typhimurium (38.1%) was the most prevalent, followed by S. Infantis (30.1%). Among the 61 Salmonella strains tested for resistance to antimicrobials, 18 (31.6%) were full-susceptible. No strain displayed resistance to azithromycin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime and meropenem. The highest resistance frequency was displayed to tetracycline (54.1%), followed by ampicillin (50.82%), nalidixic acid (42.62%) and chloramphenicol (42.62). Multi-resistance was detected in 52.54% of the, strains. In conclusion, S. enterica is more prevalent in pre-chill pig carcasses than Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes and thus should be prioritized in monitoring and control programs at slaughter. Salmonella serovars varied among slaughterhouses and present significant differences in their resistance to antimicrobials. Slaughterhouses that present higher medians of TAM or Enterobacteriaceae in a monitoring period may have higher S. enterica prevalences as well. However, there is a high variation of S. enterica prevalence among slaughter days, which cannot be always related to the hygienic indicators counts observed on a given day.(AU)


A intensificação da produção de suínos e os avanços no controle sanitário dos rebanhos alterou de forma importante o perfil de risco do consumo de carne suína. No cenário atual, a maioria dos microrganismos causadores de lesões macroscópicas detectáveis na inspeção post mortem não são transmissíveis por alimentos, enquanto bactérias de importância como causadoras de doenças transmitidas por alimentos não causam lesões macroscópicas. No Brasil, o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento solicitou uma opinião científica sobre a priorização de patógenos potencialmente transmitidos pela carne suína in natura. Após conduzir uma avaliação de risco qualitativa, apenas Salmonella enterica foi classificada como de alto risco para o consumidor. O presente estudo foi parte da etapa de validação da avaliação de risco e objetivou: investigar a frequência de S. enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica e Listeria. monocytogenes; e enumerar indicadores higiênico-sanitários em carcaças de suínos abatidos sob inspeção federal em frigoríficos dedicados ao abate de suínos sob sistema intensivo de criação no sul do Brasil. Além disso, o perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos dos patógenos isolados foi investigado. A superfície de um total de 378 carcaças foi amostrada por esponjas, na etapa de pré-resfriamento em três matadouros frigoríficos (A, B, C). As amostras foram investigadas quanto à presença dos três patógenos acima mencionados e quanto à enumeração de Unidades Formadoras de Colônia (log UFC.cm-1) de mesófilos aeróbios totais (MAT) e Enterobacteriaceae. As cepas isoladas de Salmonella foram testadas quanto à resistência a onze antimicrobianos pela técnica de disco difusão. As medianas de contagem de ambos os indicadores apresentaram diferença significativa (p<0,0001) entre matadouros-frigoríficos. A mediana de MAT foi bastante próxima para A e B (1,573 log UFC.cm-1 e 1,6014 log UFC.cm-1, respectivamente), enquanto em C uma mediana de MAT mais elevada foi determinada (2,216 log CFU.cm-1). Um perfil semelhante foi observado em relação a Enterobacteriaceae, sendo as medianas calculadas para A, B e C, respectivamente: -0,426 log CFU.cm-1; 0,2163 log UFC.cm-1; e 0,633 log UFC.cm-1. Em relação aos patógenos investigados, L. monocytogenes não foi detectada e apenas uma carcaça, do Matadouro C, foi positiva para Y. enterocolitica. Portanto, os resultados sugerem uma prevalência muito baixa desses patógenos na população amostrada. Em um total de 65 (17,2%) carcaças houve isolamento de S. enterica, com diferença nas frequências observadas entre matadouros e dias de abate. A prevalência de carcaças positivas para S. enterica foi maior no Matadouro C (25,4%; IC95% 19-32%) em comparação com A (9,5%; IC95% 9-14%) e B (18,3%; IC95% 12-24%). Não houve associação estatística entre o número de Enterobacteriaceae e o isolamento de S. enterica na superfície das carcaças (p=0,69). O dia de abate agrupado por frigorífico explica 31,3% da variação na prevalência de Salmonella. O sorovar mais frequente de S. enterica foi Typhimurium (38,1%) seguido de S. Infantis (30,1%). Entre as 61 cepas de S. enterica testadas quanto à resistência a antimicrobianos, 18 (31,6%) foram totalmente suscetíveis aos antimicrobianos testados. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência a azitromicina, ceftazidima, cefotaxima e meropenem. As maiores frequências de resistência foram demonstradas contra tetraciclina (54,1%), ampicilina (50,8%), ácido nalidíxico (42,62%) e cloranfenicol (42,62%). Em 52,54% das cepas foi detectada multi-resistência. Em conclusão, S. enterica é mais prevalente em carcaças suínas no pré-resfriamento do que Y. enterocolitica e L. monocytogenes. Portanto, S. enterica deve ser priorizada em programas de monitoramento e controle ao abate. Os sorovares de Salmonella variam entre matadouros e apresentam diferenças significativas na resistência a antimicrobianos. Matadouros de suínos que apresentam medianas de MAT e Enterobacteriaceae num período de monitoramento podem apresentar também prevalências mais de altas de presença de S. enterica. Entretanto, há uma alta variabilidade na frequência de S. enterica entre dias de abate, e nem sempre há relação entre essa frequência e a contagem de indicadores higiênico-sanitários determinados num determinado dia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Yersinia enterocolitica/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pork Meat/microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Abattoirs , Sus scrofa
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 201-208, Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002799

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the presence of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family and determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates in canaries bred in northeastern Brazil; in addition, the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) was also verified in these birds. Samples were collected during an exhibition organized by the Brazilian Ornithological Federation in July 2015 in Fortaleza, Brazil. A total of 88 fecal samples were collected and submitted to pre-enrichment step using buffered peptone water, followed by enrichment with the following broths: brain-heart infusion, Rappaport-Vassiliadis, and Selenite-Cystine. Subsequently, aliquots were streaked on MacConkey, brilliant green and salmonella-shigella agar plates. Colonies were selected according to morphological characteristics and submitted to biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests with disk-diffusion technique. E. coli strains were evaluated for the presence of eight DEC genes and five APEC genes through conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. The most frequent species observed were Pantoea agglomerans (25%), Serratia liquefaciens (12.5%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (9.1%). A single rough strain of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica was identified in one sample (1.1%). High resistance rates to amoxicillin (78.7%) and ampicillin (75.4%) were identified. Polymyxin B (9.8%), gentamycin (6.6%), and enrofloxacin (6.6%) were the most efficient antibiotics. The total number of multidrug-resistant strains (isolates resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes) was 23 (37.7%). Four E. coli strains were tested for the virulence genes, and two were positive for APEC virulence genes: one strain was positive for iutA and the other for hlyF. In conclusion, canaries in northeastern Brazil participating in exhibitions may present Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria in the intestinal microbiota with antimicrobial resistance. These results indicate that, although the E. coli strains recovered from canaries in this study have some virulence genes, they still do not fulfill all the requirements to be considered APEC.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença de enterobactérias e determinar o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados oriundos de canários belgas criados em cativeiro do Nordeste do Brasil, adicionalmente verificou-se a presença de Escherichia coli diarreiogênicas (DEC) e E. coli patogênica aviária (APEC) nesses animais. A colheita das amostras ocorreu durante uma exposição de canários belgas organizada pela Federação Ornitológica do Brasil (FOB), em julho de 2015, na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Um total de 88 amostras de fezes foram coletadas e submetidas a pré-enriquecimento utilizando água peptonada, caldo de enriquecimento Brain Heart Infusion, Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Selenito-Cistina. Fez-se triagem em placas de ágar MacConkey, Verde Brilhante e ágar Salmonella Shigella. As colônias foram selecionadas e submetidas à identificação bioquímica e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana. Estirpes de Escherichia coli foram avaliadas quanto a presença de 8 genes de virulência de DEC e cinco de APEC por reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional (PCR). As enterobactérias encontradas com maior frequência foram Pantoea agglomerans (25%), Serratia liquefaciens (12,5%) e Enterobacter aerogenes (9,1%). Uma única estirpe de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (rugosa) esteve presente em um dos isolados (1,1%). Altos percentuais de resistência foram encontrados para dois antibióticos: amoxicilina (78,7%) e ampicilina (75,4%). Polimixina B (9,8%), gentamicina (6,8%) e enrofloxacina (6,5%) foram os antibióticos com melhor eficiência. O total de estirpes multirresistentes (a mais de três classes de antimicrobianos) foi de 23 (37,7%). Das quatro estirpes de E. coli isoladas, duas foram positivas para os genes de APEC, sendo uma estipe para o gene iss e outra para os genes iutA e hlyF. Portanto, canários belgas criados em cativeiro no Brasil que participam de exposições podem apresentar Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli e outras enterobactérias em sua microbiota intestinal com resistência antimicrobiana. Estes resultados indicam que as estirpes de E. coli isoladas de canário belga no presente estudo apresentam alguns, mas não todos, genes de virulência para serem caracterizadas como E. coli patogênica para aves (APEC).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Canaries/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Pantoea/isolation & purification , Serratia liquefaciens/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Virulence , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180285, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041544

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Salmonella enterica serovar Panama belongs to the D1 serogroup and is frequently associated with nontyphoidal salmonellosis in humans. This study aimed to characterize isolates collected from Northeast Brazil by phenotypic and molecular methods. METHODS Forty four S. Panama strains were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. RESULTS All strains were susceptible to antibiotics (except for streptomycin), presented classical virulence factors, and could be clustered into four groups and 18 pulsotypes. CONCLUSIONS This work calls for continuous surveillance for the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new clones in a geographical area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Genetic Variation , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180253, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977118

ABSTRACT

Abstract An eleven-year-old boy presented with fever and hip pain, with limited mobility of the right side of the hip. Computed tomography scan revealed an increased volume of the right coxo-femoral joint, requiring surgical drainage of purulent secretion, from which Salmonella enterica was isolated. After four weeks of treatment with third-generation cephalosporin, he was discharged with a favorable evolution. Invasive disease caused by Salmonella spp represents a small proportion of salmonellosis cases, although it is responsible for greater rates of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Children under 5 years, elders over 60 years and immunodeficient patients have greater risk for invasive salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2150-2154, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976397

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to isolate Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from captured feral pigeons in Fortaleza, Brazil, and, in addition to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and diagnose diarrheagenic E. coli strains. Pigeons were captured in four public locations in Fortaleza with three techniques. Individual cloacal swab samples were collected and submitted to bacterial isolation, biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Disk diffusion technique was used with twelve antibiotics. E. coli strains were submitted to DNA extraction followed by PCR to diagnose five diarrheagenic pathotypes. A total of 124 birds were captured. One bird was positive for Salmonella enterica (0.81%) and 121 (97.58%) were positive for E. coli. Among these, 110 isolates were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility test and 28.18% (31/110) presented resistance to at least one antibiotic. Resistance to azithromycin was the most frequent (21.82%), followed by tetracycline (10.91%) and sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim (8.9%). Multidrug resistance, calculated as a resistance to at least 3 antimicrobial classes, was identified in 3.64% (4/110) of strains. The maximum number of antimicrobial classes to which one strain was resistant was seven. Results demonstrated nine different resistance profiles and the most frequent was tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim (4 strains), followed by chloramphenicol, azithromycin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim (3 strains). Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and tobramycin presented lowest levels of antimicrobial resistance, to which none of the tested strains were resistant. A single strain was positive for the eltB gene, which is a diagnostic tool to identify the Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) pathotype. None of the other investigated genes (stx1, stx2, estA, eaeA, ipaH, aatA and aaiC) were identified. The single isolate of S. enterica was a rough strain of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, but serotype identification was not possible. However, this isolate presented resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim. Therefore, captured feral pigeons of Fortaleza presented a low prevalence of S. enterica and diarrheagenic E. coli. Considering the investigated pathogens, our results suggest a good health status and a low public health risk. However, important antimicrobial resistance profiles were identified.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella enterica de pombos urbanos capturados em Fortaleza, Brasil, e avaliar os perfis de resistência antimicrobiana dos isolados, bem como diagnosticar patotipos diarreiogênicos de E. coli. Pombos foram capturados em quatro locais públicos de Fortaleza utilizando três técnicas. Amostras individuais de suabes cloacais foram coletadas e submetidas a isolamento bacteriano, seguido de identificação bioquímica e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos. A técnica de disco difusão foi utilizada para avaliar resistência antimicrobiana a doze antibióticos. Cepas de E. coli foram submetidas à extração de DNA seguido de PCR para o diagnóstico de cinco patotipos diarreiogênicos. Um total de 124 aves foram capturadas, a partir das quais em uma houve isolamento de Salmonella enterica (0,81%) e em 121 (97,58%) houve isolamento de E. coli. Destas, 110 isolados foram submetidos a teste de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos e 28,18% (31/110) apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um antibiótico. Resistência a azitromicina foi a mais frequente (21,82%), seguida por tetraciclina (10,91%) e sulfametoxazol com trimetoprim (8,9%). Resistência a múltiplas drogas foi identificada em 3,64% (4/110) dos isolados e o número máximo de antibióticos aos quais uma única cepa foi resistente foi sete. Resultados demonstraram nove diferentes perfis de resistência e o mais frequente foi tetraciclina e sulfametoxazol com trimetoprim (4 cepas), seguido por cloranfenicol, azitromicina, tetraciclina e sulfametoxazol com trimetoprim (3 cepas). Amoxicilina com ácido clavulânico e tobramicina foram os antibióticos com menor resistência antimicrobiana, aos quais nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência. Uma única cepa foi positiva para o gene eltB que é usado para diagnóstico do patotipo E. coli enterotoxigênica (ETEC), enquanto que os demais genes investigados (stx1, stx2, estA, eaeA, ipaH, aatA e aaiC) não foram identificados. A única cepa de S. enterica isolada foi identificada como uma cepa rugosa de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica e, portanto, a identificação do sorotipo não foi possível. Entretanto, este isolado apresentou resistência a amoxicilina, amoxicilina com ácido clavulânico, tetraciclina e sulfametoxazol com trimetoprim. Portanto, pombos urbanos capturados em Fortaleza apresentaram baixa prevalência de cepas de S. enterica e E. coli diarreiogênicas. Considerando os patógenos investigados, os resultados encontrados sugerem um bom status sanitário destas aves e um baixo risco à saúde pública. Entretanto, importantes perfis de resistência antimicrobiana foram identificados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 559-563, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951811

ABSTRACT

Abstract The growth of the population of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha constitutes a threat to public health and biological diversity because of their competition with and predation on native species and the possibility of transmission of pathogens to human beings, livestock and native wildlife. The aim here was to search for, isolate and identify serovars of Salmonella in clinically healthy local cattle egrets. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 456 clinically healthy cattle egrets of both sexes and a variety of ages. The swabs were divided into 51 pools. Six of these (11.7%) presented four serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: Salmonella serovar Typhimurium; Salmonella serovar Newport; Salmonella serovar Duisburg; and Salmonella serovar Zega. One sample was identified as S. enterica subspecies enterica O16:y:-. Results in this study suggest that cattle egrets may be reservoirs of this agent on Fernando de Noronha and represent a risk to public health and biological diversity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Bird Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Birds/microbiology , Brazil , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 244-246, Mar.-Apr. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897060

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella infections usually occur as gastroenteritis that is generally self-limited. However, some serotypes of Salmonella can cause severe extra-intestinal infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis. Here, we report the first Salmonella Panama case of meningitis in 4-month-old male newborn in Brazil. The invasive strain isolated was susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. The genes agfA, fimA, invA, sfbA, phoP, and slyA were detected using polymerase chain reactions. These findings are relevant and physicians should be alert to the possibility of meningitis in newborns due to S. Panama, which can present a high rate of mortality or recurrence of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Serotyping , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 458-466, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899743

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los alimentos de origen animal frecuentemente están implicados en brotes de salmonelosis. Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de Salmonella enterica en carnes molidas de pollo, res y cerdo (un total de 2.592 muestras) obtenidas de mercados sobre ruedas y supermercados de la Delegación Iztapalapa en la Ciudad de México, determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y efectuar ensayos de adherencia en las cepas aisladas. Métodos: El aislamiento de S. enterica se hizo de acuerdo a la BAM-FDA, la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de acuerdo con CLSI y el ensayo de adherencia en células HEp-2 conforme a Baffone y cols., 2001. Resultados: Salmonella enterica fue aislada en 511 del total de muestras analizadas (19,7%), de las cuales 244 (47,7%), 152 (29,7%) y 115 (22,5%) correspondieron a carne molida de pollo, res y cerdo, respectivamente. La mayor frecuencia de resistencia de S. enterica a antimicrobianos fue a ampicilina y cloranfenicol en pollo, perfloxacina y ampicilina en res y carbenicilina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol, cefotaxima y perfloxacina en cerdo. Noventa por ciento de las cepas mostraron un patrón de adherencia agregativo. Conclusión: La frecuencia de S. enterica en productos cárnicos es alta, por lo que es importante la adecuada cocción de la carne para disminuir el riesgo de una salmonelosis.


Background: Food of animal origin is often involved in salmonellosis outbreaks. Aim: To evaluate the frequency of Salmonella enterica in chicken, beef and pork ground meat (a total of 2,592 samples) obtained from travelling markets and supermarkets at the Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, in order to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and adherence capacity of isolated strains. Methods: Isolation of S. enterica was carried out according to the BAM-FDA, the microbial susceptibility according with CLSI and adherence assay on HEp-2 cell line according with Baffone et al., 2001. Results: S. enterica was isolated from 511 of all the analyzed samples (19.7%), from which 244 (47.7%), 152 (29.7%) and 115 (22.5%) corresponded to chicken, beef and pork ground meat, respectively. The highest frequency of resistance of S. enterica to antimicrobials was to ampicillin and chloramphenicol in chicken, perfloxacin and ampicillin in beef and carbenicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and perfloxacin in pork. Ninety percent of the strains showed an aggregative adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells. Conclusion: The frequency of S. enterica on meat products is high, which is the reason why a proper cooking of these ground meats is important in order to reduce the risk of acquiring salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion/physiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Red Meat/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Time Factors , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cattle , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chickens , Cell Line, Tumor/microbiology , Serogroup , Food Microbiology , Mexico
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 499-508, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n = 33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Saudi Arabia , Serotyping , Tetracycline/pharmacology
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 196-201, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775099

ABSTRACT

Abstract Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n = 62) and human (n = 67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6')-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6')-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from ±600 to >1000 pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Environmental Microbiology , Food Microbiology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Brazil , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plasmids/analysis , Serotyping , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1257-1263, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769651

ABSTRACT

Increasing interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife may result in inter-species transmission of infectious agents. To evaluate the presence of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates, rectal swabs from 36 different free-ranging wild mammals were taken from two distinct natural sites in Brazil: Cantareira State Park (CSP, state of São Paulo) and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro Region (SIRNR, state of Amazonas). The swabs were randomly collected and processed for bacterial isolation, identification, characterization and antimicrobial resistance. Eighteen E. coli strains from CSP and 20 from SIRNR were recovered from 14 and 22 individuals, respectively. Strains from animals captured in CSP, the site with the greatest anthropization, exhibited a higher range and percentage of virulence genes, including an eae+/bfpA+ strain. Antimicrobial resistance was verified in strains originating from both sites; however, in strains from SIRNR, aminopenicillins were almost the exclusive antimicrobial class to which strains exhibited resistance, whereas in CSP there were strains resistant to cephalosporins, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone, in addition to strains exhibiting multidrug resistance. Two strains of Salmonella enterica that are known to be associated with reptiles, serotypes Belem and 60:r:e,n,z15, were recovered only from Amazonian animals and showed susceptibility to all classes of antimicrobials that were tested. Although the potential impact of these pathogens on wildlife remains unknown, bacteria isolated from free-ranging wild animals may provide relevant information about environmental health and should therefore be more deeply studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Rectum/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/analysis , Virulence Factors/genetics
13.
Rev. salud pública ; 17(1): 1-1, ene.-jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755627

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislamientos de Salmonella enterica obtenidos durante la etapa de prebeneficio y de animales. Método Se realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana con el método de difusión en agar a 333 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica obtenidos del prebeneficio de camiones de transporte y de corrales. Se obtuvieron heces en camión, heces en corral, nódulos linfáticos mesentéricos y contenido cecal. Los especímenes fueron obtenidos en cuatro plantas de beneficio porcino. Resultados El 99,6 % (n=332) de las aislamientos mostró resistencia frente al menos un antimicrobiano. Se encontraron los siguientes porcentajes de resistencia: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico 15,9 % (n=53), ampicilina 33,9 % (n=113), ceftiofur 41,4 % (n=138), ciprofloxacina 9 % (n=30), cloranfenicol 19,2 % (n=64), florfenicol 33 % (n=110), gentamicina 22,8 % (n=76), sulfametoxazol-trimetroprim 24,9 % (n=83), tetraciclina 93,1 % (n=310) y tilmicosina 73,8 % (n=246). Conclusiones Los resultados muestran que es indispensable reforzar las medidas de contención para prevenir el desarrollo de resistencias antimicrobianas y fortaleciendo la capacitación de operarios, trabajadores y médicos veterinarios en la producción primaria durante el procesamiento del producto, durante la distribución y venta hasta el consumidor, garantizando un alimento inocuo.


Objective To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Salmonella enterica isolated from animals and during the pre-slaughter period. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the agar diffusion method on 333 isolates of Salmonella enterica obtained from the pre-harvest period represented by transport trucks and pens. From the animals, isolates were obtained from the animals' feces in transport trucks and pens, mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecal content. The specimens were obtained from four slaughtering facilities. Results The antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed obtaining the following results: 99.6 % (n=332) of isolates showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent. The following resistance percentages were found: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 15.9 % (n=53), ampicillin 33.9 % (n=113), ceftiofur 41.4 % (n=138), ciprofloxacin 9 % (n=30 ), chloramphenicol 19.2 % (n=64), florfenicol 33 % (n=110), gentamicin 22.8 % (n=76), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim 24.9 % (n=83), tetracycline 93.1 % (n=310) and tilmicosin 73.8 % (n=246). Conclusion The results show that it is essential to reinforce containment measures to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistances and improve training of the operators, workers, and veterinarians in Colombia involved in the primary production, product processing, distribution, and sale to the consumer, thereby guaranteeing a safe food product and the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Sus scrofa/microbiology , Animal Husbandry , Colombia , Food Safety , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 73(4): 368-371, out.-dez. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-783215

ABSTRACT

Algumas espécies de aves silvestres têm sido identificadas como reservatórios de Campylobacter e Salmonella, as quais atuam como propagadoras desses micro-organismos; entretanto, não há estudo sobre o papel das aves silvestres na transmissão desses agentes patogênicos no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de verificar a presença desses agentes patogênicos em aves silvestres que se alimentam em lavouras orizícolas. Vinte e três Garibaldis (Chrysomus ruficapillus), uma Rolinha-picuí (Columbinapicui) e um Canário-da-terra (Sicalis flaveola) foram capturados com redes de neblina. As amostras de fezes das aves foram coletadas com o uso de zaragatoas e foram processadas para efetuar pesquisa de Campylobacter spp. e Salmonella enterica. Oito (32%) amostras de fezes de C. ruficapillus foram positivas para Campylobacter e seis (24%) foram positivas para Salmonella enterica. Cinco (20%) amostras coletadas de C. ruficapillus e uma de S. flaveola foram positivas para Salmonella. C. ruficapillus e S. flaveola mostraram ser reservatórios de Campylobacter e Salmonella e, consequentemente, podem atuar como potenciais disseminadores destes patógenos. Este é o primeiro registro de isolamento de Campylobacter e Salmonella de amostras de fezes de C. ruficapillus e S. flaveola silvestres...


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Campylobacter/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1435-1438, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729781

ABSTRACT

The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i-) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics...


O presente trabalho relata o isolamento de Salmonella enterica em órgãos de um pombo doméstico de vida livre. No exame clínico foi observada a presença de fezes pericloacal na região ventral, caquexia, incoordenação motora e opistótono. Antes de iniciar um protocolo terapêutico, a ave foi a óbito, e, em seguida, foi realizada uma necropsia para remoção do baço, fígado, rim e intestino para exame bacteriológico e teste de sensibilidade a antibióticos. Foi isolado Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (O:4,5:i-) e Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sorovar Typhimurium do fígado e intestino, e o teste de sensibilidade demonstrou que essas cepas são sensíveis a vários antimicrobianos...


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Ataxia/veterinary , Autopsy/veterinary , Cachexia/veterinary , Feces
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1017-1022, July-Sept. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727033

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to determine the depuration time and ability of Donax trunculus (Wedge Clam) and Tapes decussatus (Carpet Shell) contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Clams were contaminated with each bacterium at the level of 7.0 - 8.0 Log10 cfu/g. After contamination, clams were analyzed every 3 h in the first 24 h time period and every 6 h until the 72nd hour. During the depuration process of both clams, the level of bacteria decreased quickly to 40% of initial load in the first 12 h. The results of this study indicate that the depuration time of carpet shells for all bacteria is 66 h. The depuration process of the wedge clam was different from the carpet shell; S. typhimurium and E. coli can be depurated in 66 and 78 h, respectively, while V. parahaemolyticus was present after 72 h at the level of 1.7 Log10 cfu/g.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaculture/methods , Bivalvia/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Load , Time Factors
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 505-512, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722269

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar, quantificar os constituintes, e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais extraídos de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L.) e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivados nas condições de Manaus/AM frente a 14 salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada utilizando-se aparelho tipo Clevenger e a composição determinada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-MS). A atividade antibacteriana foi realizada com o emprego de técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de gengibre se mostrou expressivamente mais eficiente do que o óleo de açafrão, tanto em termos de ação bacteriostática (concentração inibitória mínima de 2500 a 5000 µg.mL-1) quanto bactericida (concentração bactericida mínima de 5000 a 10000 µg.mL-1) observando-se variação apenas em duas as amostras em termos de resistência a ação bactericida deste óleo. Assim, o óleo essencial de gengibre, representa uma alternativa para o controle de Salmonella enterica, entretanto, demais estudos abordando o sinergismo com alimentos são indicados.


The objective of this work was to identify, quantify constituents and evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils from rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown under conditions of Manaus/AM front of enteric salmonella isolated from chilled poultry. The extraction of essential oils was performed using the Clevenger type apparatus and composition determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was performed with the use of microdilution broth. The essential oil of ginger proved significantly more efficient than tumeric oil, both in terms of bacteriostatic action (minimum inhibitory concentration 2500-5000 mg µg mL-1) and bactericidal (minimum bactericidal concentration 5000-10000 mg µg mL-1) observing changes in only two samples in terms of resistance to bactericidal activity of this oil. Thus, the essential oil of ginger, is an alternative for the control of Salmonella enterica, however, other studies addressing the synergism with food are indicated.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Curcuma/classification , Ginger/classification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Feeding Behavior , Food Preservation/classification , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 667-676, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723111

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Shigella/isolation & purification , Chickens , Environmental Microbiology , Food Microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(1): 30-33, mar. 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009598

ABSTRACT

Salmonellaenterica serovar Heidelberg es uno de los principales agentes causantes de salmonelosis en humanos en Estados Unidos y Canadá, sin embargo, resulta infrecuente en los países de Sudamérica y Europa. En este trabajo se caracterizó un aislamiento de S. Heidelberg resistente a oximino-cefalosporinas recuperado de un paciente internaen un hospital de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se evidenció la presencia de un plásmido de 97 kbperteneciente al grupo de incompatibilidad IncN, portador del gen blaCMY-2. ISEcp1 fue localizado corriente arriba de blaCMY-2, promoviendo su expresión y movilización.El aislamiento de S. Heidelberg correspondió al secuenciotipo 15 y en la virotipifi cación se detectó el gen sopE. En este trabajo describimos por primera vez la producción de CMY-2 en una cepa de S. Heidelberg en nuestro país y América Latina


Salmonellaenterica serovar Heidelberg ranks among the most prevalent causes of human salmonellosis in the United States and Canada, although it has been infrequently reported in South American and European countries.Most Salmonella infections are self-limiting; however, some invasive infections require antimicrobial therapy. In this work we characterized an oxyimino-cephalosporin resistant S. Heidelberg isolate recovered from an inpatient in a Buenos Aires hospital. CMY-2 was responsible for the ß-lactam resistance profi le. S. Heidelberg contained a 97 kb plasmid belonging to the Inc N groupharboring blaCMY-2. ISEcp1 was located upstream blaCMY-2 driving its expression and mobilization.The isolate belonged to sequence type 15 and virotyping revealed the presence of sopE gene. In this study we identifi ed the fi rst CMY-2 producing isolate of S. Heidelberg in Argentina and even in South Americ


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , South America/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Plasmids/analysis , Salmonella enterica/pathogenicity
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(4): 431-437, July-Aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the potential factors include gene mutation, efflux pump and alteration of permeability associated with quinolone-resistance of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis and to evaluate the degree of synergistic activity of efflux pump inhibitors when combined with ciprofloxacin against resistant isolates. METHODS: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of fifty-eight Salmonella isolates were tested. Five isolates were selected to study the mechanism of resistance associated with quinolone group, including mutation in topoisomerase-encoding gene, altered cell permeability, and expression of an active efflux system. In addition, the combination between antibiotics and efflux pump inhibitors to overcome the microbial resistance was evaluated. RESULTS: Five Salmonella isolates totally resistant to all quinolones were studied. All isolates showed alterations in outer membrane proteins including disappearance of some or all of these proteins (Omp-A, Omp-C, Omp-D and Omp-F). Minimum inhibitory concentration values of ciprofloxacin were determined in the presence/absence of the efflux pump inhibitors: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, norepinephrin and trimethoprim. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for two of the isolates were 2-4 fold lower with the addition of efflux pump inhibitors. All five Salmonella isolates were amplified for gyrA and parC genes and only two isolates were sequenced. S. Enteritidis 22 had double mutations at codon 83 and 87 in addition to three mutations at parC at codons 67, 76 and 80 whereas S. Typhimurium 57 had three mutations at codons 83, 87 and 119, but no mutations at parC. CONCLUSIONS: Efflux pump inhibitors may inhibit the major AcrAB-TolC in Salmonella efflux systems which are the major efflux pumps responsible for multidrug resistance in Gramnegative clinical isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Membrane Transport Proteins/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
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