Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 180
Filter
1.
Clinics ; 70(2): 91-96, 2/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a costly and crippling autoimmune disease that can lead to the development of depression, contributing to suboptimal clinical outcomes. However, no longitudinal studies have identified an association between rheumatoid arthritis and subsequent depression. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of depression among RA patients in Taiwan. METHODS: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 3,698 newly diagnosed RA patients aged 18 years or older, together with 7,396 subjects without RA matched by sex, age and index date, between 2000 and 2004. The incidence of depression and the risk factors among RA cases were evaluated using Cox proportional-hazard regression. RESULTS: The incidence of depression was 1.74-fold greater in the RA cohort than in the non-RA cohort (11.80 versus 6.89 per 1,000 person-years; p<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that RA subjects who were female, were older, or had comorbidities such as stroke, chronic kidney disease, or cancer had a significantly greater risk of depression compared with those without these conditions. CONCLUSION: This population-based cohort study showed a strong relationship between RA and a subsequent risk of depression. The findings could be beneficial to healthcare providers for identifying individuals with a higher predisposition for depression, thereby possibly facilitating the provision of an appropriate rehabilitation intervention after RA onset to support the patient's adaptation. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
2.
Clinics ; 70(2): 114-119, 2/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a new approach for the application of polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws. METHODS: Between June 2010 and February 2013, 43 patients with degenerative spinal disease and osteoporosis (T-score <-2.5) underwent lumbar fusion using cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale and the Oswestry Disability Index. Patients were given radiographic follow-up examinations after 3, 6, and 12 months and once per year thereafter. RESULTS: All patients were followed for a mean of 15.7±5.6 months (range, 6 to 35 months). The Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores showed a significant reduction in back pain (p = 0.018) and an improvement in lower extremity function (p = 0.025) in patients who underwent lumbar fusion using the novel screw. Intraoperative cement leakage occurred in four patients, but no neurological complications were observed. Radiological observation indicated no loosening or pulling out of the novel screw, and bone fusion was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The described polymethylmethacrylate augmentation technique using bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws can reduce pain and improve spinal dysfunction in osteoporotic patients undergoing osteoporotic spine surgery. .


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/pharmacology
3.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic, and membrane stabilization activities, and in vivo antiemetic and antipyretic potentials of ethanolic extract, n-hexane and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of Spilanthes paniculata leaves for the first time widely used in the traditional treatments in Bangladesh. RESULTS: In antipyretic activity assay, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) was observed in the temperature in the mice tested. At dose 400 mg/kg-body weight, the n-hexane soluble fraction showed the effect (36.7 ± 0.63°C ) as like as the standard (dose 150 mg/kg-body weight) after 5 h of administration. Extracts showed significant (P < 0.001) potential when tested for the antiemetic activity compared to the standard, metoclopramide. At dose 50 mg/kg-body weight, the standard showed 67.23% inhibition, whereas n-hexane and ethyl acetate soluble fractions showed 37.53% and 24.93% inhibition of emesis respectively at dose 400 mg/kg-body weight. In antimicrobial activity assay, the n-hexane soluble fraction (400 µg/disc) showed salient activity against the tested organisms. It exerts highest activity against Salmonella typhi (16.9 mm zone of inhibition); besides, crude, and ethyl acetate extracts showed resistance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, and Vibrio cholera respectively. All the extracts were tested for lysis of the erythrocytes. At the concentration of 1mg/ml, ethanol extract, and n-hexane and ethyl acetate soluble fractions significantly inhibited hypotonic solution induced lysis of the human red blood cell (HRBC) (27.406 ± 3.57, 46.034 ± 3.251, and 30.72 ± 5.679% respectively); where standard drug acetylsalicylic acid (concentration 0.1 mg/ml) showed 77.276 ± 0.321% inhibition. In case of heat induced HRBC hemolysis, the plant extracts also showed significant activity (34.21 ± 4.72, 21.81 ± 3.08, and 27.62 ± 8.79% inhibition respectively). In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the n-hexane fraction showed potent (LC50 value 48.978 µg/ml) activity, whereas ethyl acetate fraction showed mild (LC50 value 216.77 µg/ml) cytotoxic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the n-hexane extract has better effects than the other in all trials. In the context, it can be said that the leaves of S. paniculata possess remarkable pharmacological effects, and justify its folkloric use as antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antiemetic agent. Therefore, further research may be suggested to find possible mode of action of the plant part.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Erythrocyte Membrane/drug effects , Antipyretics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiemetics/pharmacology , Artemia/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Bacillus cereus/drug effects , Bacillus subtilis/drug effects , Vibrio cholerae/drug effects , Biological Assay/mortality , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chickens , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Asteraceae/classification , Ethanol , Erythrocyte Membrane/physiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Hot Temperature , Hexanes , Medicine, Traditional , Acetates
5.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 30(1): 30-33
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143890

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study was performed to assess the current susceptibility pattern of blood isolates of Salmonella spp from a super specialty hospital in North India against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin and compare the in vitro and in vivo response against azithromycin. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration's (MIC's) of 107 blood isolates of Salmonella spp against nalidixic acid, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin and correlated in vitro and in vivo response of azithromycin from the treatment and discharge summaries from the Hospital Information System (HIS) software. Results: Among the 107 isolates evaluated, 94 (87.8%) were nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR) Salmonella and 36 were resistant to azithromycin by MIC testing. The MIC 90 value for azithromycin was 24 μg/mL. Among the 57 treatment histories evaluated using the HIS software, 19 (33%) patients had documented clinical non-response to azithromycin which required change of therapy. Conclusions: The present study observed a higher MIC 90 values for azithromycin compared to Salmonella isolates from Western studies. There was also a documented clinical non-response against azithromycin. The in vitro and in vivo findings in this study suggest a guarded use of azithromycin for cases of enteric fever in India. The study also augments the reversal of resistance pattern in favour of chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Nalidixic Acid/therapeutic use , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/isolation & purification , Typhoid Fever/drug therapy , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
7.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2011 Jul-Sept; 29(3): 223-229
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143822

ABSTRACT

Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. On a global scale, it has been appraised that Salmonella is responsible for an estimated 3 billion human infections each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths) and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5.4 million of these cases. Infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and South-eastern Asia experience the greatest burden of illness. In cases of enteric fever, including infections with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and B, it is often necessary to commence treatment before the results of laboratory sensitivity tests are available. Hence, it is important to be aware of options and possible problems before beginning treatment. Ciprofloxacin has become the first-line drug of choice since the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. There is increase in the occurrence of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin. Reports of typhoidal salmonellae with increasing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and resistance to newer quinolones raise the fear of potential treatment failures and necessitate the need for new, alternative antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin are the options available for the treatment of enteric fever. The emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance in typhoidal salmonellae leading to treatment failure. This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Asia, Southeastern , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella paratyphi B/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135671

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Almost round-the-year occurrence of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A has been noticed in Rourkela since last 13 and five years respectively. The incidence of infection along with the antibiogram of these two serotypes in this area were carried out. Methods: The study was carried out at Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela, India, between January 2005 and December 2008 with 5340 blood samples collected from patients with suspected enteric fever and pyrexia of unknown origin. Isolation, identification and antibiogram of the causative organisms were performed according to standard bacteriological procedures. Results: A total of 298 Salmonella isolates showed an overall per cent positivity of 5.58. Multidrug resistance was found in 11.96 per cent and 15.62 per cent isolates of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A respectively. Less than 2 per cent isolates of Salmonella showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. A resistance of 3.0 to 6.25 per cent against third generation cephalosporins was observed among the salmonella isolates. Interpretation & conclusion: A round-the-year occurrence of Salmonella spp. in Rourkela might have been due to the presence of a considerable number of carriers in the locality, poor sanitation in nearby slum areas, and inadequate and contaminated community water supply at times. Higher degree of susceptibility among S. Typhi isolates against various antibiotics was encouraging, but increasing trend of resistance observed among S. Paratyphi A isolates was a matter of concern.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Community-Acquired Infections , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/microbiology , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Paratyphoid Fever/drug therapy , Paratyphoid Fever/epidemiology , Paratyphoid Fever/microbiology , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella paratyphi A/isolation & purification , Salmonella paratyphi A/metabolism , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/isolation & purification , Salmonella typhi/metabolism , Sanitation , Typhoid Fever/drug therapy , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Water Pollutants
10.
Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2011; 31 (2): 204
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123790
11.
Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2010; 30 (4): 313-316
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105395

ABSTRACT

Recent reports indicate that nalidixic acid susceptibility correlates well with the clinical outcome of patients with Salmonella Typhi infection treated with quinolones. We report a case of enteric fever caused by S Typhi in which the isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid, but showed in vitro susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Following treatment with ciprofloxacin, the clinical outcome was not satisfactory and the patient had a relapse. However, after using a higher dose of ciprofloxacin, the patient was cured. We recommend that all Salmonella systemic infections resistant to nalidixic acid with in vitro but decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones be treated with other antibiotics like third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin. These patients should be closely followed up and observed for further relapse


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella typhi/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Treatment Outcome , Quinolones/pharmacology
12.
Oman Medical Journal. 2010; 25 (3): 199-202
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105651

ABSTRACT

Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic. 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method [NCCLS criteria]. The susceptibility limit was >/= 21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed>13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug. Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli [95%], P. aeruginosa [92.7%], K. pneumonia [89.4%] and S. typhi [87.2%]. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms [83.8%]. Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis


Subject(s)
Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology. 2010; 27 (2): 27-30
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178279

ABSTRACT

Many drugs have been used for the treatment of enteric fever. Azithromycin is a newer macrolide antibiotic also said to be effective against Salmonella typhi. In order to evaluate its effectiveness in our population, suspected typhoid patients were randomly selected from the OPD's of JPMC, Department of Medicine and were subjected to blood culture. 40 blood culture positive patients were given capsule Azthromycin in a dose of 500 mg per day for 10 days. Patients were observed for settlement of fever and/or any adverse effect during this period. Their CBC, ALT and creatinine levels were measured before the start of treatment. They were again subjected to blood culture on day 14, 4 days after the cessation of treatment. Fever settled in all patients between days 4 to 5. Blood cultures were negative in all patients after treatment. It was concluded that Azithromycin was effective in treating cases of enteric fever


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Azithromycin , Salmonella typhi/drug effects
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009; 22 (2): 184-186
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-92346

ABSTRACT

The present research is preliminary biological screening of Euphorbia helioscopia L. [Euphorbiaceae]. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the plant were investigated for their antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and phytotoxic activities. Dichloromethane extract exhibited significant activity against Fusarium solani with 90% Inhibition, where as the same extract also showed non-significant activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. Methanolic extract has promising radical-scavenging activity in this assay. Both the extracts have non-significant phytotoxicity against lemna minor


Subject(s)
Herbal Medicine , Antioxidants , Antifungal Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae , Plant Extracts , Fusarium/drug effects , Bacillus subtilis/drug effects , Methylene Chloride , Methanol
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 147-151, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52279

ABSTRACT

We report a relapsed case of a 25 year-old man with multi-drug resistant Salmonella serovar Typhi (MDRST) bacteremia who had recently returned from travel in India. Due to unresponsiveness to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, we examined the strain's resistance to quinolones and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The strain had a single gyrA mutation at codon 83 (Ser83Phe), which explains its decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolone and resistance to nalidixic acid. In the screening tests of ESBLs, TEM-1 was positive, which is beta-lactamase but not ESBL. The patient was finally successfully treated with meropenem and aztreonam. In the presence of clinical unresponsiveness despite favorable sensitivity tests, further laboratory evaluations are needed, which should include studies of genes related to antibiotic resistance and ESBLs. In addition, further prospective trials should be done about the possible inclusion of antibiotics not yet mentioned in the current guidelines. With MDRST on the rise worldwide, the most optimal and effective line of antibiotic defense needs to be devised.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Aztreonam/administration & dosage , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Male , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Thienamycins/administration & dosage , Typhoid Fever/drug therapy
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46029

ABSTRACT

The presence of bacteria in blood is simply known as bacteraemia. The main aim of this study is to determine the bacteraemia in patients visiting Kathmandu Model Hospital and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates with special interest on ciprofloxacin. This prospective study was carried out in microbiology laboratory, Kathmandu Model Hospital from April 2005 to June 2005. Standard procedure was followed for blood sample collection. The bacteria were isolated and identified by standard microbiological procedure. Further, antibiotic susceptibility test was determined by NCCLS recommended Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Out of 532 culture requests, 123 samples showed evidential microbial growth. The number of isolate of Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A and Escherichia coli were 78, 44 and one respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility test demonstrated that chloramphenicol was the foremost drug of choice among the tested antibiotics with its sensitive rate of 98.4%. All the isolates of Salmonella typhi were susceptible to ceftriaxone and all isolates of Salmonella paratyphi A were susceptible to chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and amoxycillin. Ciprofloxacin resistant serotype of Salmonella was not isolated but out of 16 isolated serovar of Typhi and 10 serovar of Paratyphi A screened with nalidixic acid, 10 serovar of Typhi and all serovar of Paratyphi A were found to be resistant. Three isolates of Salmonella typhi were found as multidrug resistant (MDR) whereas no MDR was found in Salmonella paratyphi A. From this it can be concluded that Salmonella bacteraemia is more than other. Although nalidixic acid resistant serovars were isolated, ciprofloxacin resistant serovar were not present.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/pharmacology , Typhoid Fever
19.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2008 Jan-Mar; 26(1): 50-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53507

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Over the last few years, resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica has become a global concern. The present study was undertaken to find out the susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica isolates in our hospital. METHODS: Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT 3D system. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using CLSI breakpoints. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant strains using E-test and Vitek-1 automated system. RESULTS: A total of 25,953 samples of blood culture yielded 431 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and 198 serotype Paratyphi A isolates. Twenty-two isolates of serotype Typhi were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while two isolates of Typhi and two Paratyphi A were intermediately susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin resistance is 5.6% (24 isolates) among Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi appears to have decreased to 14.9% (64/431) in comparison to the 27% (55/205) during 2003. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin can no longer be considered as the drug of choice in treating Salmonella infections. While first-line antimicrobials may still have a role to play in the treatment of enteric fever, ceftriaxone remains the sole defence against ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Blood/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Paratyphoid Fever/microbiology , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
20.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2007 Oct; 105(10): 582, 584, 586 passim
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-102673

ABSTRACT

A prospective clinical and microbiological study was conducted in 145 blood culture positive cases of enteric fever below the age of 18 years over a period of eleven months (June 2004 to April 2005). It aimed to study the clinical profile, the relative magnitude of enteric fever in children, especially in those below the age of two years and to determine the current antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi and S paratyphi. Enteric fever is a significant problem in the preschool years. Sixty-five per cent of cases were in the age group of 2 to 9 years, 27% in 0-5 years and 13% in age group 0-2 years. Ninety-two per cent of the cases were caused by S typhi. Paratyphoid fever is less common (8%), when occurs is caused by S paratyphi A. In-vitro sensitivity, using the Bauer-Kirby agar disc diffusion method, to ceftriaxone was 99%, cefixime-99%, cefotaxime-99%, cefpodoxime-72%, cefoperazone-93%, among quinolones, ciprofloxacin-95%, ofloxacin-83%, norfloxacin-79%. Sensitivity to the originally used antibiotics is reappearing: Ampicillin-87%, amoxicillin-89%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-76%, chloramphenicol-86%. Among other drugs, sensitivity to imepenam-100%, azithromycin-49%, aztreonam-65%, amikacin-98%. Nalidixic acid resistance is very high ie, 88%.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cephalosporins , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL