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Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e198402, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1417480


The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and disease prevention is being constantly reduced in several animal production systems, including in the swine industry. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using acidifiers to control Salmonella Typhimurium in 65-day-old pigs by detecting the pathogen in organs at euthanasia. For this, 24 piglets were divided into two experimental groups consisting of 12 piglets each. An untreated control group (G1) and a treatment group (G2) received a liquid organic acidifier in the drinking water for 10 days (D-5 to D5). Five days after the start of treatment (D0), all piglets were challenged with 106 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and assessed for 12 days (D12). Every three days (D3, D6, D9, and D12), three animals from each experimental group were euthanized and then submitted for necropsy. Samples from the intestines (ileum, cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileocolic lymph nodes), liver, spleen, and lungs were collected to isolate Salmonella. The results show that, numerically, Salmonella isolation in the organs of G2 was lower than in G1 and that the number of positive cecum samples in G1 (66.7%; 8/12) was statistically different from the number of positive models in G2 (16.7%; 2/12), with a reduction of 28.6% of the total cecum positive samples in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it was observed that the liquid organic acidifier product could reduce the colonization of organs by Salmonella Typhimurium. (AU)

Animals , Salmonella Infections/prevention & control , Swine/physiology , Organic Acids/analysis , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e198402, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419067


The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and disease prevention is being constantly reduced in several animal production systems, including in the swine industry. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using acidifiers to control Salmonella Typhimurium in 65-day-old pigs by detecting the pathogen in organs at euthanasia. For this, 24 piglets were divided into two experimental groups consisting of 12 piglets each. An untreated control group (G1) and a treatment group (G2) received a liquid organic acidifier in the drinking water for 10 days (D-5 to D5). Five days after the start of treatment (D0), all piglets were challenged with 106 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and assessed for 12 days (D12). Every three days (D3, D6, D9, and D12), three animals from each experimental group were euthanized and then submitted for necropsy. Samples from the intestines (ileum, cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileocolic lymph nodes), liver, spleen, and lungs were collected to isolate Salmonella. The results show that, numerically, Salmonellaisolation in the organs of G2 was lower than in G1 and that the number of positive cecum samples in G1 (66.7%; 8/12) was statistically different from the number of positive models in G2 (16.7%; 2/12), with a reduction of 28.6% of the total cecum positive samples in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it was observed that the liquid organic acidifier product could reduce the colonization of organs by Salmonella Typhimurium.(AU)

O uso de antimicrobianos como promotores de crescimento e prevenção de doenças vem sendo constantemente reduzido em diversos sistemas de produção animal, inclusive na suinocultura. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do uso de acidificantes no controle de Salmonella Typhimurium em suínos de 65 dias de idade, detectando o patógeno em órgãos após a eutanásia. Para isso, 24 leitões foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais constituídos por 12 leitões cada. Um grupo controle não tratado (G1) e um grupo de tratamento (G2) que recebeu um acidificante orgânico líquido na água de beber por 10 dias (D-5 a D5). Cinco dias após o início do tratamento (D0), todos os animais foram inoculados oralmente com 106 UFC de Salmonella Typhimurium e avaliados por 12 dias (D12). A cada três dias (D3, D6, D9 e D12), três leitões de cada grupo experimental foram eutanasiados e posteriormente submetidos à necropsia. Amostras de intestino (íleo, ceco, linfonodos mesentéricos e linfonodos ileocólicos), fígado, baço e pulmões foram coletadas para o isolamento de Salmonella. Os resultados mostram que, numericamente, o isolamento de Salmonella nos órgãos do G2 foi inferior ao G1, e que o número de amostras positivas de ceco no G1 (66,7%; 8/12) foi estatisticamente diferente do número de amostras positivas no G2 (16,7%; 2/12), com redução de 28,6% do total de amostras positivas de ceco no grupo tratado em relação ao controle. Portanto, observou-se que o ácido orgânico líquido foi capaz de reduzir a colonização de órgãos por Salmonella Typhimurium.(AU)

Animals , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Swine/physiology , Organic Acids/adverse effects , Salmonella Infections, Animal/drug therapy , Virus Shedding
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411461


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic potential of fluoxetine and fluoxetine-galactomannan. Methods: Chromosomal aberration test and Salmonella typhimurium/microsome mutagenicity assay. Results: The results showed that fluoxetine (250 µg/mL) can cause chromosomal breaks of treated leukocytes and increase the frequency of reversion of the tester strains of S. typhimurium / microsome assay only at the highest concentration (5 mg/mL), while fluoxetine encapsulated in galactomannan did not cause these changes (leukocytes and S. typhimuriums strains). Conclusion: In summary, fluoxetine showed a mutagenic effect detectable only at high concentrations in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic models. Furthermore, the fluoxetine/galactomannan complex, in this first moment, prevented the mutagenicity attributed to fluoxetine, emphasizing that the present encapsulation process can be an alternative in preventing these effects in vitro.

Objetivos: avaliar o potencial mutagênico da fluoxetina e da fluoxetina-galactomanana. Métodos: Teste de aberração cromossômica e ensaio de mutagenicidade de Salmonella typhimurium /microssoma. Resultados: a fluoxetina (250 µg/mL) pode causar quebras cromossômicas de leucócitos tratados e aumentar a frequência de reversão das cepas testadoras de S. typhimurium /microssoma apenas na concentração mais alta (5 mg/mL), enquanto a fluoxetina encapsulada em galactomanano não causou essas alterações (leucócitos e cepas de S. typhimurium). Conclusão: a fluoxetina mostrou um efeito mutagênico detectável apenas em altas concentrações em modelos eucarióticos e procarióticos. Além disso, o complexo fluoxetina/galactomanan, neste primeiro momento, evitou a mutagenicidade atribuída à fluoxetina, ressaltando que o presente processo de encapsulamento pode ser uma alternativa na prevenção desses efeitos in vitro.

Fluoxetine , Chromosome Aberrations , Salmonella typhimurium , Chromosome Breakage , Microsomes , Mutagenicity Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979397


Aims@#Typhoid fever is a life-threatening disease in the developing world that claims >600,000 deaths per year. Its causative agent Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) can be treated with ciprofloxacin, an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic that enhances the natural host defenses. However, the emergence of resistant bacterial strains may be a warning alarm against the clinical use of this antibiotic. This study was aimed to investigate the efficiency of ciprofloxacin treatment (250 mg/mL) against S. Typhi by altering the production of serum cytokines IL-10, 1L-6 and TNF-α in acute typhoid fever patients in Diwanyah Hospitals.@*Methodology and results@#ELISA and Western Blot methods were used to investigate cytokine levels in patients and healthy controls sera. Our results showed that all cytokines’ levels before treatment with ciprofloxacin were significantly higher than the control (healthy group). However, treated patients with ciprofloxacin revealed a significantly reduced concentration of IL-10 and TNF-α compared to untreated control samples. However, the level of IL-6 was higher even with ciprofloxacin treatment.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#The study concluded that ciprofloxacin (250 mg/mL) might significantly alter serum cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in acute typhoid fever patients. Therefore, further molecular studies are essential to understand the effect of ciprofloxacin on the production of cytokines.

Typhoid Fever , Ciprofloxacin , Salmonella typhimurium , Cytokines
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979285


Aims@#This study aimed to investigate the effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) as pre-refrigeration and pre-freezing processing steps for chicken meat in regard to the behavior of S. Typhimurium and E. coli during storage.@*Methodology and results@#AEW (free available chlorine 30 ppm and pH 2.7) was tested against S. Typhimurium and E. coli in growth media (brain heart infusion broth) and by exposing inoculated chicken fillets. The in vitro study appointed 10 minutes as the straightening exposure time of fresh prepared AEW for S. Typhimurium and E. coli. The reduction effect of AEW was significant (p<0.05) for both S. Typhimurium and E. coli along the 8 days of refrigerated storage with a maximum reduction after 24 h of post-treatment reaching 23.3% (1.4 log CFU/g) and 32.43% (2.15 log CFU/g) for S. Typhimurium and E. coli, respectively. AEW resulted in a significant reduction (p<0.05) as a pre-freezing application for both microorganisms, where the maximum reductions of 20% (1.2 log CFU/g) and 31.84% (2.14 log CFU/g) for S. Typhimurium and E. coli, respectively, were reported at zero time (just after dipping). In exposed samples to AEW, S. Typhimurium could not be detected by the 6th week of frozen storage while E. coli continued detectable until till 10th week but with a reduced population of 30% compared to control.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#The findings of the present study suggest the application of AEW as a pre-refrigeration and pre-freezing treatment for chicken products. AEW application significantly improved the safety of chicken products.

Electrolytes , Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00022021, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416873


Biosecurity, cleaning and disinfection of swine and poultry facilities are fundamental for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms of importance for public and animal health. The objective of this work was to compare the levels of active ingredient described on the label and the real levels detected in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of two disinfectants., then evaluate the antimicrobial activity since, following the Germicidal Sanitizing Action and Disinfectant Detergent (Official Method AOAC 960.09) in four different dilutions with the presence of 3% organic matter during 15 min of contact, against Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). The product "A" presents active levels of agreement according to the label. The content of quantified assets for product "B" was lower than that recorded on the label. The disinfectant "A" was effective in microbiological evaluation while the disinfectant "B" had microbiocidal activity compromised by the deficit of assets.

Salmonella , Salmonella typhimurium , Benzalkonium Compounds/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Glutaral/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 722-733, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142437


Resumen: Introducción. La variante monofásica (1,4,[5],12:i:-) de Salmonella Typhimurium ocupa los primeros lugares en los programas de vigilancia de Salmonella a nivel mundial. En Colombia, Salmonella enterica variante monofásica alcanza el cuarto lugar en cuanto a los aislamientos clínicos recuperados por medio de la vigilancia por laboratorio del Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud, pero se desconoce si dichos aislamientos están relacionados con la variante monofásica de Typhimurium que circula a nivel global, y con sus características genéticas y fenotípicas. Objetivo. Caracterizar los aislamientos de Salmonella monofásica recuperados en Colombia entre el 2015 y el 2018 por el Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 286 aislamientos clínicos de Salmonella enterica variante monofásica mediante PCR o secuenciación del genoma completo (Whole Genome Sequencing, WGS) para confirmar si correspondían a Salmonella Typhimurium variante monofásica, en tanto que, en 54 aislamientos, se determinó la estructura genética del operón que codifica la segunda fase flagelar y, en 23, se evaluó la motilidad, el crecimiento y la expresión de las proteínas de membrana externa. Resultados. El 61 % (n=174) de los aislamientos de Salmonella monofásica correspondió a Salmonella Typhimurium serovar monofásico. El 64,8 % (n=35/54) se relacionó con el clon europeo-español y, el 13 % (n=7/54), con el estadounidense. En dos aislamientos de orina se encontró una diferencia significativa en la motilidad y el crecimiento, así como ausencia de la porina OmpD en medio mínimo M9. Conclusiones. En el periodo de estudio, circuló en Colombia la variante monofásica de Salmonella Typhimurium relacionada con el clon europeo-español, y se registró ausencia total del operón fljAB. Los resultados evidenciaron cambios fenotípicos en los aislamientos provenientes de muestras de orina que sugieren adaptación en procesos invasivos.

Abstract: Introduction. The Salmonella Typhimurium monophasic variant (1,4,[5],12:i:-) is currently the most commonly detected variant in Salmonella surveillance programs worldwide. In Colombia, the Salmonella enterica monophasic variant is the fourth most common clinical isolate recovered through the laboratory surveillance of the Grupo de Microbiología from the Instituto Nacional de Salud; however, it is unknown whether these isolates are closely related to the monophasic Typhimurium variant, which circulates globally, and their genetic and phenotypic characteristics have not been reported. Objective. To characterize monophasic Salmonella enterica isolates identified in Colombia from 2015 to 2018 by the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Materials and methods. Two hundred eighty-six clinical isolates of the monophasic Salmonella enterica variant were analyzed by PCR or whole-genome sequencing to confirm whether they corresponded to the Salmonella Typhimurium monophasic variant while the genetic structure of the operon encoding the second flagellar phase was determined in 54 isolates. Motility, growth, and expression of the outer membrane proteins were evaluated in 23 isolates. Results. During the study period in Colombia, 61% (n=174) of Salmonella monophasic isolates belonged to Salmonella Typhimurium serovar monophasic (1,4,[5],12:i-). Of these, 64.8% (n=35/54) were related to the European/Spanish clone and 13% (n=7/54) to the U.S. clone. Two isolates recovered from urine samples showed differences in motility, growth, and the absence of the OmpD porin in M9 minimal medium. Conclusions. Most of the monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium variants that have circulated in Colombia since 2015 lacked the second phase of operon fljAB, which is related to the European/Spanish clone. The results evidenced phenotypic changes in urine samples suggesting bacterial adaptation in the case of these invasive samples.

Salmonella typhimurium , Porins , Colombia , Surveillance in Disasters , Flagella
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 281-285, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115499


Synthetic preservatives are widely present in processed foods, but most of them have carcinogenic potential, requiring the development of new natural alternatives such as fruit extracts, for microbial control. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical characterization, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the sugar apple pulp (Annona squamosa L.). Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, an extract was prepared, and its antioxidant activity by DPPH method and antimicrobial by disk diffusion. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The physicochemical analysis revealed that sugar apple pulp had 75.0% moisture, 3.0% ash, 4.0% protein, 0.2% lipids, 3.3% fibers, and 14.5% carbohydrates. The antioxidant activity of the extract by the DPPH method was 20.6%. The pulp extract from the sugar apple had inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus, satisfactory inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium, but did not present a bactericidal effect. Sugar apple pulp presents adequate levels of nutrients and potential for food application due to its microbiological activity and antioxidant properties.

Los conservantes sintéticos están ampliamente presentes en los alimentos procesados, pero la mayoría tienen potencial carcinogénico, lo que requiere el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas naturales para el control microbiano, como los extractos de frutas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la caracterización química, la actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de la pulpa de manzana de azúcar (Annona squamosa L.). Se evaluaron las características fisicoquímicas, y se evaluó su actividad antioxidante mediante el método DPPH y antimicrobiano por difusión en disco, concentración inhibitoria mínima y concentración bactericida mínima contra cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. El análisis fisicoquímico reveló que la pulpa de manzana de azúcar tiene 75.0% de humedad, 3.0% de cenizas, 4.0% de proteínas, 0.2% de lípidos, 3.3% de fibras y 14.5% de carbohidratos. La actividad antioxidante del extracto por el método DPPH fue del 20.6%. El extracto de pulpa de la manzana de azúcar tenía zona de inhibición para Staphylococcus aureus, efecto inhibidor satisfactorio contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella Typhimurium, pero no presenta efecto bactericida. La pulpa de manzana de azúcar presenta niveles adecuados de nutrientes y potencial para la aplicación de alimentos debido a su actividad microbiológica y propiedades antioxidantes.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Annona/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. 176 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425156


A interação entre membros do microbioma intestinal humano, células hospedeiras e patógenos invasores pode ocorrer de diversas formas, sendo uma delas através de pequenas moléculas chamadas metabólitos. A percepção e resposta efetiva de um microrganismo às diferentes condições encontradas em seu ambiente, incluindo metabólitos produzidos por outros microrganismos, são fatores importantes para sua adaptação, sobrevivência e disseminação. Os sistemas de dois componentes (TCS) permitem a percepção e resposta a mudanças ambientais, regulando a expressão de genes específicos. Nosso grupo mostrou anteriormente que um extrato orgânico de fezes humanas (EF), bem como o ácido 3,4-dimetilbenzoico (3,4-DMB), encontrado no EF, inibe a capacidade de Salmonella enterica sorovar Typhimurium de invadir células hospedeiras. O presente trabalho propôs investigar o impacto do microbioma intestinal humano, bem como de pequenas moléculas produzidas por Clostridium citroniae (membro deste microbioma) na expressão e atividade dos genes de TCS de Salmonella. Os metabólitos de EF e de culturas puras de C. citroniae foram extraídos com acetato de etila e adicionados a meio de cultura. O pH do meio foi ajustado (~ 7,4) e a solução foi esterilizada por filtragem. Salmonella foi cultivada na presença ou ausência do EF e do extrato de C. citroniae, bem como do ácido 3,4-DMB, em condições aeróbias e anaeróbias, até alcançar o meio da fase logarítmica de crescimento. O RNA foi extraído para a realização de PCR em Tempo Real utilizando iniciadores direcionados a quase todos os TCS de Salmonella. Nossos resultados mostraram que vários genes de TCS envolvidos na virulência de Salmonella (SsrAB, EnvZ-OmpR, QseCB, PhoQP, TorSR, TtrRS) foram regulados diferencialmente por esses metabólitos, tanto em condições aeróbias quanto anaeróbias. EnvZ-OmpR, PhoPQ e SsrAB estão diretamente envolvidos na regulação das Ilhas de Patogenicidade 1 e 2 de Salmonella. QseCB é crucial para a detecção de quorum em Salmonella, de hormônios hospedeiros e para a regulação da motilidade (swimming). Vários outros TCS também foram regulados, incluindo TorSR e TtrRS, envolvidos na regulação da respiração anaeróbica de N-óxido de trimetilamina (TMAO) e tetrationato, respectivamente. Esses compostos são importantes para a sobrevivência de Salmonella no ambiente anaeróbico do intestino humano. Nossos resultados de avaliação de expressão gênica global de Salmonella cultivada na presença de ácido 3,4-DMB (aerobiose e anaerobiose) bem como na presença do EF em anaerobiose, mostraram que genes condificados em SPI-1 e SPI-2, SPI-4 e alguns genes do TCS foram reprimidos, enquanto genes marR, marB e marA foram ativadas nessas condições. Adicionalmente, comparamos nossos resultados de RNAseq, de Salmonella cultivada na presença do ácido 3,4-DMB em aerobiose, com resultados disponíveis da base de dados Salmonella Compendium. Ainda, a capacidade de Salmonella de adentrar e sobreviver dentro de células fagocíticas (macrófagos RAW 264.7) parece ser afetada pelas três condições testadas neste trabalho. Nossos resultados mostram que importantes vias de sinalização da virulência de Salmonella podem ser moduladas pelos metabólitos presentes no microbioma intestinal humano e abrem caminhos para novas pesquisas sobre a sinalização intercelular microbioma-patógeno no ambiente intestinal.

The interaction between members of the human gut microbiome, host cells and invading pathogens often occurs through small molecules, also called metabolites. The perception and effective response of a microorganism to the different conditions found in its environment, including metabolites produced by other microbes, is important for its adaptation, survival and dissemination. Two-component systems (TCS) allow the perception and response to environmental changes by regulating the expression of specific genes. Our group previously showed that organic extracts of human feces (EF) as well as the specific metabolite 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid (3,4-DMB) found within the EF, inhibit the ability of Salmonella enterica sorovar Typhimurium to invade host cells. In the present work, we investigated the impact of the human gut microbiome as well as small molecules produced by Clostridium citroniae (a member of this microbiome) on the expression and activity of Salmonella TCS genes. Metabolites (from feces or C. citroniae cultures) were extracted using ethyl acetate and added to culture medium. The pH of the medium was adjusted (~7.4), and the solution was filter sterilized. Salmonella was grown in the presence or absence of the organic extracts as well as 3,4-DMB acid under aerobic and anaerobic conditions until it reached mid-log growth. RNA was then extracted for Real-time PCR using primers targeting almost all Salmonella TCS. Our results showed that several TCS involved in Salmonella virulence (SsrAB, EnvZ-OmpR, QseCB, PhoQP, TorSR, TtrRS) were differentially regulated by these metabolites both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. EnvZ-OmpR, PhoPQ, and SsrAB are directly involved in the regulation of Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2. QseCB is crucial for Salmonella =quorum sensing, sensing of host hormones and regulation of swimming motility. Several other TCS were also regulated, including TorSR and TtrRS, which are involved in the anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and tetrathionate, respectively. These compounds are important for Salmonella survival in the anaerobic environment of the human gut. Our results of the evaluation of global Salmonella gene expression grown in the presence of 3,4-DMB acid (aerobiosis and anaerobiosis) as well as in the presence of EF in anaerobiosis, showed that genes encoded in SPI-1 and SPI-2, SPI-4 and some TCS genes have been repressed, while multiple drug resistance genes, as well marR, marB and marA genes have been activated under these conditions. Besides, we compared our results of RNAseq, Salmonella was grown in the presence of 3,4-DMB acid in aerobiosis, with results available from the Salmonella Compendium database. Also, Salmonella's ability to enter and survive within phagocytic cells (macrophages RAW 264.7) appears to be affected by the three conditions tested in this work. Our results show that important Salmonella virulence signalling pathways can be modulated by the metabolites present in the human intestinal microbiome and open the way for further research on the microbiome-pathogen intercellular signalling in the intestinal environment.

Humans , Salmonella enterica , Metabolome , Intestines/microbiology , Salmonella typhimurium , Aerobiosis , Virulence Factors , Genomic Islands , Feces/virology , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Anaerobiosis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18468, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249147


Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) essential oil has been considered a candidate antimicrobial for use in food conservation systems. However, studies on the influence of concomitant variations of different food components or physicochemical parameters on the antibacterial properties of OVEO are scarce. This study assessed the influence of concomitant variations in amounts of proteins - PTN (4.0, 6.0 or 8.0 g/100 mL) and lipids - LIP (3.75, 5.0 or 6.25 g/100 mL) and pH values (5.0, 5.5 or 6.0) in cultivation medium on the inhibitory effects of OVEO against Escherichia coli (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). Lowest minimum inhibitory concentration values of OVEO against EC and ST were observed in media with the highest LIP amounts regardless the PTN amount and pH value. In absorbance based microtiter plate assay (MPA), for both EC and ST, OVEO caused the lowest Grmax values in medium containing the highest LIP and PTN amounts and lowest pH value. Highest Grmax values for EC and ST were observed in medium containing the lowest LIP and PTN amount and highest pH value. Grmax values estimated from viable counts of EC and ST in tested media with OVEO confirmed bacterial growth behavior similar to that observed in MPA. Overall, the LIP amount in media was as the most influential factor to enhance the antibacterial effects of OVEO. These results indicate that the concomitant influence of LIP and PTN amounts and pH values on the antibacterial effects of OVEO should be considered for optimizing its antimicrobial efficacy in foods.

Salmonella typhimurium/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Origanum/classification , Escherichia coli/classification , Lipids/adverse effects , Proteins , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Bacterial Growth , Efficacy , Food , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18654, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132041


The 4-Hydroxycoumarin derivatives are known to show a broad spectrum of pharmacological applications. In this paper we are reporting the synthesis of a new series of 4-Hydroxycoumarin derivatives synthesized through Knovenegal condensation; they were characterized by using UV-Vis, FT-IR, NMR spectroscopies. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium strains. The compounds (2), (3) and (8) showed favorable antibacterial activity with zone of inhibitions 26.5± 0.84, 26.0 ± 0.56 and 26.0 ± 0.26 against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) respectively. However, the compounds (5) and (9) were found more active with 19.5 ± 0.59 and 19.5 ± 0.32 zone of inhibitions against Salmonella typhimurium (Gram-negative). Whereas, in urease inhibition assay, none of the synthesized derivatives showed significant anti-urease activity; although, in carbonic anhydrase-II inhibition assay, the compound (2) and (6) showed enzyme inhibition activity with IC50 values 263±0.3 and 456±0.1, respectively.

Carbonic Anhydrases/adverse effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Salmonella typhimurium/classification , Urease/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Condensation
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 172-181, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038837


Resumen Introducción. La función inmunológica de las células dendríticas plasmacitoides durante las infecciones bacterianas, como la de Salmonella spp., es poco conocida. En ese contexto, se analizó su función efectora para presentar antígenos de Salmonella Typhimurium ante linfocitos T citotóxicos. Objetivo. Analizar la respuesta de los linfocitos T citotóxicos específicos para Salmonella evocada por las células dendríticas plasmacitoides. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron células dendríticas plasmacitoides marcadas con éster de succinimidil-carboxifluoresceína, pulsadas con el epítopo de Salmonella OmpC73 Kb- restringido o infectadas con S. Typhimurium como blanco en ensayos de citotoxicidad. Resultados. La lisis específica tuvo significación estadística usando células dendríticas plasmacitoides positivas pulsadas con OmpC73 en todas las relaciones de células efectoras y blanco (E:B) (p≤0,05); en cuanto a las células dendríticas plasmacitoides positivas para S. Typhimurium, solo se observó significación estadística en la relación de 1:100 (p≤0,05) usando las células efectoras OmpC73. Conclusión. Las células dendríticas plasmacitoides pueden evocar la respuesta de los linfocitos T citotóxicos durante la infección con S. Typhimurium.

Abstract Introduction: The immunological role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in bacterial infections such as Salmonella has been poorly documented. Therefore, we analyzed the effector function of these cells by presenting cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) with Salmonella Typhimurium antigens. Objective: To analyze the Salmonella-specific CTL response evoked by pDCs. Materials and methods: We used plasmacytoid dendritic cells stained with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and pulsed with OmpC73, Salmonella Kb- restricted epitopes or S. Typhimurium as targets for cytotoxicity assays. Results: Specific lysis was shown to be statistically significant in pDC + OmpC73 for all effector:target ratios (p≤0.05). For pDC + S. Typhimurium, statistical significance was only observed at a 1:100 ratio (p≤0.05) using OmpC73. Conclusion: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells evoke CTL response during S. Typhimurium infection.

Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Salmonella Infections, Animal/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Salmonella typhimurium , Immunization , CpG Islands , Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2506-2510, abr.-maio 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482249


O ultrassom tem sido amplamente estudado na inativação de microrganismos e no processamento de alimentos. Entretanto, o efeito sobre o crescimento de bactérias ainda é pouco elucidado. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de diferentes densidades energéticas de ultrassom (0; 0,11; 0,22 e 0,43 KJ/mL) no crescimento de Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium em caldo BHI. Altas densidades energéticas diminuíram (p < 0,05) a duração da fase lag e a densidade de células na fase estacionária. Entretanto, não houve diferença (p < 0,05) na velocidade de crescimento. Portanto, os resultados do presente estudo alertam para os riscos do ultrassom quando aplicado isoladamente. Assim, as aplicações desta tecnologia, isoladamente, em alimentos que suportam o crescimento de patógenos, como carne e produtos cárneos, devem ser minuciosamente avaliadas para cada tipo de produto.

Salmonella typhimurium/pathogenicity , Microbiological Techniques , Ultrasonography/methods
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2702-2706, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482320


O doce é uma alternativa para o aproveitamento de frutas, tendo em vista a diversidade e a quantidade produzida no Brasil. Os indicadores microbiológicos são importantes parâmetros para definir a qualidade dos alimentos quanto aos critérios de higiene, manipulação, processamento e armazenamento. Diante disso, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica por meio da contagem de bolores e leveduras, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium e Coliformes totais em amostras de doces e compará-las com as legislações vigentes. Foram elaboradas 11 formulações de doces de guapeva com substituição da pectina comercial por albedo de maracujá, onde de todas as amostras analisadas nenhuma apresentou crescimento dos microorganismos citados, denotando assim boas praticas de manipulação e assegurando um alimento apto para consumo.

Food Analysis , Coliforms , Fruits in Syrup , Food Microbiology , Pouteria/microbiology , Salmonella typhimurium , Staphylococcus aureus
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(1)ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094616


Con la finalidad de evaluar la patogenia en cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium con mutaciones en los genes invG/invE de la Isla de Patogenicidad de Salmonella 1 (SPI-1) y de los genes ssaJ/ssaK en la SPI-2, se evaluaron los modelos asa intestinal ligada de ratón asociado a la observación de los tejidos por microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET) y la producción de salmonelosis sistémica en ratón. Para ello, se utilizaron seis cepas de Salmonella: S. Typhimurium SL-1344 (cepa control) y sus derivadas mutantes: ∆invEG S. Typhimurium SL-1344 (mutante en SPI-1) y ∆ssaJK S. Typhimurium SL-1344 (mutante en SPI-2), S. Typhimurium (cepa clínica) y sus derivadas mutantes: ∆invEG S. Typhimurium y ∆ssaJK S. Typhimurium. Los resultados de MET permitieron verificar las alteraciones morfológicas del epitelio intestinal en el ratón infectado con cepas de Salmonella cuyos genes de patogenicidad estaban intactos. Fue comprobada la pérdida del poder invasivo solo en las cepas mutadas en la SPI-1. A través del modelo de salmonelosis sistémica en ratón se pudo comprobar la pérdida de la capacidad de diseminación en ambas mutantes. En conclusión los modelos permitieron verificar la importancia que tienen los genes invG/invE de la SPI-1 y ssaJ/ssaK de la SPI-2 en la patogenia de la salmonelosis, utilizando como modelo experimental de infección ratones BALB/c. Se sugieren estos modelos in vivo para evaluar mutantes de genes implicados en la patogenia de Salmonella, ya que representan una herramienta importante para la comprensión de la interacción Salmonella-hospedero(AU)

With the aim of evaluate the pathogenesis in Salmonella Typhimurium strains with mutations in genes invG/invE of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) and genes ssaJ/ssaK in the SPI-2 models were evaluated ligated intestinal loop associated mouse tissues by observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the production of mouse systemic salmonellosis. For this, we used six Salmonella strains: S. Typhimurium SL-1344 (control strain) and its derived mutants: ΔinvEG S. Typhimurium SL-1344 (mutant in SPI-1) and ΔssaJK S. Typhimurium SL-1344 (mutant in SPI-2), S. Typhimurium (clinical isolate) and its derived mutants: ΔinvEG S.Typhimurium and ΔssaJK S. Typhimurium. TEM results allowed us to verify the morphological alterations of the intestinal epithelium in mice infected with Salmonella strains whose pathogenicity genes were intact. It was proven invasive power loss only in strains mutated in the SPI-1. Through systemic salmonellosis model mouse we noted the loss of the ability to spread in both mutants. In conclusion, the models allowed us to verify the importance of the invG/invE genes of SPI-1 and ssaJ/ssaK of SPI-2 in the pathogenesis of salmonellosis, using BALB/c mice as an experimental model of infection. These in vivo models are suggested to evaluate mutants of genes involved in the pathogenesis of Salmonella, since they represent an important tool for the understanding of the Salmonella-host interaction(AU)

Animals , Mice , Salmonella typhimurium/pathogenicity , Genomic Islands/genetics , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Mutation/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758914


Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is a global cause for substantial economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we constructed live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) mutant strains expressing and secreting 4 selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely, optA, optB, Lawsonia flagellin (LfliC), and Lawsonia hemolysin (Lhly); the resultant recombinant strains were designated Sal-optA, Sal-optB, Sal-LfliC, or Sal-Lhly, respectively. Using the BALB/c mouse model, we demonstrate that mice vaccinated once orally, either with a mixture of all 4 recombinant strains or with an individual recombinant strain, show significant (p < 0.05) production of LI-specific systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) G and mucosal IgA responses compared to the Salmonella alone group. Upon restimulation of vaccinated splenocytes with the LI-specific antigens, significant (p < 0.05) and comparable production of interferon-γ responses are found in all vaccinated groups, except the Sal-Lhly group, which shows non-significant levels. Challenge studies were performed in C57BL/6 vaccinated mice. On challenge with the LI (10(6.9) 50% tissue culture infectious dose) 14 days post-vaccination, 20% (1/5) of mice in all vaccinated groups, except Sal-Lhly group, show the presence of the LI-specific genomic DNA (gDNA) in stool samples. In contrast, 40% (2/5) and 60% (3/5) of mice vaccinated with the Sal-Lhly strain and the attenuated Salmonella alone, respectively, were found positive for the LI-specific gDNA. Furthermore, 0% mortality was observed in mice vaccinated against the ST challenge compared to the 30% mortality observed in the unvaccinated control group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Salmonella-based LI-vaccines induce LI-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunities, and encompass the potential to offer dual protection against PPE and salmonellosis.

Animals , Mice , DNA , Flagellin , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulins , Lawsonia Bacteria , Mortality , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella , Swine
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758908


Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus and anti-GnRH antibodies are not formed under normal conditions. However, administration an excess of recombinant GnRH protein results in the formation of anti-GnRH. We evaluated the efficacy of the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2)-GnRH vaccine in inducing infertility in 17 intact male cats. The first vaccination and a boosting vaccine was injected for examination. Serum was obtained from blood collected at monthly intervals and anti-GnRH antibodies and testosterone concentrations were determined. Six months after the vaccination, testicular samples are obtained and used for histological examination. Compared with sham control group, the injection groups showed an increase in anti-GnRH antibody titers and testosterone concentrations tended to be reduced in the injection groups and increased in the control group. Histological evaluations and Johnsen's testicular biopsy scores revealed testicular hypoplasia in the 2 injection groups. Consequently, normal sexual maturation with sperm production was observed in the control group. In contrast, the cats that received the GnRH vaccine showed weak (2 of 7 cats) or moderate (4 out of 7 cats) dose-dependent infertility effects. On the basis of the results, the STF2-GnRH vaccine was identified to be effective in inducing infertility in male cats. The results of this study thus indicate the possibility of immunological castration targeting feral cats.

Animals , Cats , Humans , Male , Antibodies , Biopsy , Castration , Contraception, Immunologic , Fertility Agents , Flagellin , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Hypothalamus , Infertility , Salmonella typhimurium , Sexual Maturation , Spermatozoa , Testis , Testosterone , Vaccination , Vaccines
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.

Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2037-2043, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976392


The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in samples collected from beef meat at three points of the slaughter line (after skinning, washing and cooling) at three slaughterhouses in Brazil that export meat. Detection was based on ISO 6579:2002 and confirmed by PCR and qPCR. The isolates were typified using slide agglutination tests and PFGE. The antibiotic sensitivity profile was determined using the disk diffusion method. Contamination was detected in only one slaughterhouse. The overall frequency of contamination by Salmonella spp. was 6.7% of carcasses (6/90) and 2.6% of carcass surface samples (7/270). All isolates were confirmed by PCR and qPCR. The serological analysis and the PFGE showed a single profile: Typhimurium. The strains demonstrated 100% susceptibility to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline. Positive carcasses after cooling pose a direct risk to consumers, since the meat is considered ready to be marketed after this process.(AU)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a presença de Salmonella spp. em amostras coletadas de carcaças de bovinos, em três pontos da linha de abate (após a esfola, lavagem e refrigeração) de três frigoríficos exportadores no Brasil. A detecção foi realizada pela ISO 6579:2002, e confirmada por PCR e qPCR. Os isolados foram tipificados por testes de soroaglutinação e PFGE e avaliado o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos pelo método de difusão em disco. A contaminação foi detectada em apenas um abatedouro-frigorífico. As contaminações das carcaças (n=90) e amostras de carne (n=270) por Salmonella spp. foram 6 (6,7%) e 7 (2,6%), respectivamente. Todos os isolados foram confirmados por PCR e qPCR. A análise sorológica e o PFGE mostraram um único perfil: Typhimurium. As cepas apresentaram 100% de suscetibilidade à ampicilina, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol, gentamicina e tetraciclina. As carcaças positivas após a refrigeração apresentam um risco direto para o consumidor, uma vez que, após este processo, a carne está pronta para ser comercializada.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella typhimurium , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Meat Industry , Red Meat/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Abattoirs
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 424-432, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974235


ABSTRACT Introduction: Nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes are the main cause of human food-borne infection, including several hospitalization cases in the developing countries. Aim: To detect the main serotypes and to characterize the antibiotic resistance of human non-enteric and enteric nontyphoidal Salmonella from clinical isolates in Brazil. Methods: Salmonella serotypes were identified by microbiological and molecular methods. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics was performed by agar disk diffusion. Real-time PCRs were carried out for the detection of the genus Salmonella as well as serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Results: A total of 307 nontyphoidal Salmonella were isolated from 289 different patients in a reference laboratory (LACEN-RS) from Southern Brazil in a six-year period (2010-2015). There were 45 isolates from emerging cases and 244 from sporadic cases in hospitalized patients. Non-enteric isolates were detected in 42.6% of the patients from sources such as urine, blood and other clinical fluids. Serological and PCR-specific tests demonstrated that Typhimurium (48.4%) and Enteritidis (18.3%) were the most frequent serotypes. Typhimurium isolates were generally resistant to three or more antibiotic classes, while Enteritidis isolates to one or two classes. Typhimurium was the most frequent serotype in all samples (48.4%), mainly among the hospitalized patients (55.6%), and presented the highest rates of multidrug resistance (59.3% of the isolates of this serotype). Further, the prevalence of this serotype increased along the years of the study in comparison to other nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes. Conclusion: Greater public health attention should be given to prevent salmonellosis in the community and in hospital settings to reduce the rates of Typhimurium strains with multidrug resistance.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Salmonella enteritidis/isolation & purification , Salmonella enteritidis/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Serotyping , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serogroup , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology