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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-14, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468905

ABSTRACT

Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


O crescimento populacional está aumentando rapidamente em todo o mundo, e para combater suas consequências precisamos produzir mais alimentos para suprir a demanda do aumento populacional. O mundo está enfrentando o aquecimento global devido à urbanização e industrialização e, nesse caso, plantas expostas continuamente a estresses abióticos, que é uma das principais causas do martelamento das safras todos os anos. Estresses abióticos consistem em seca, sal, calor, frio, oxidação e toxicidade de metais que prejudicam o rendimento da colheita continuamente. A seca e o estresse salino são afetados de maneira diversa pela planta e são a principal causa de redução da produtividade das culturas. As plantas respondem a vários estímulos sob condições de estresse abiótico ou biótico e expressam certos genes estruturais ou regulatórios que mantêm a integridade da planta. Os genes reguladores são principalmente os fatores de transcrição que exercem sua atividade ligando-se a certos elementos cis do DNA e, consequentemente, são regulados para cima ou para baixo para a expressão alvo. Esses fatores de transcrição são conhecidos como reguladores mestres porque sua única transcrição regula mais de um gene; nesse contexto, a palavra regulon é mais fascinante no âmbito dos fatores de transcrição. Progresso foi feito para entender melhor sobre o efeito dos regulons (AREB / ABF, DREB, MYB e NAC) sob estresses abióticos e uma série de regulons relatados como responsivos ao estresse e usados como uma melhor ferramenta transgênica de Arabidopsis e Rice.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Stress, Physiological , Salt Stress , Genes, Regulator , Regulon , Droughts
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2600-2611, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981218

ABSTRACT

High salt content in soils severely hampers plant growth and crop yields. Many transcription factors in plants play important roles in responding to various stresses, but their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants that are involved in and influence many aspects of plant growth and development. They play important roles in responding to salt stress. The regulation of gene expression by WRKY proteins is mainly achieved by binding to the DNA's specific cis-regulatory elements, the W-box elements (TTGACC). In recent years, there have been many studies revealing the roles and mechanisms of WRKY family members, from model plant Arabidopsis to agricultural crops. This paper reviews the latest research progress on WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress and discusses the current challenges and future perspectives of WRKY transcription factor research.


Subject(s)
Transcription Factors/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Salt Stress/genetics , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38062, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396658

ABSTRACT

Salinity is one of the most limiting abiotic stresses in the global agricultural sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation water salinity on the initial development of P. edulis Sims. seedlings propagated by seeds, grafting and cuttings. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, corresponding to 5 levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity (0.3 - control, 1.8, 3.3, 4.8, and 6.3 dS m-1) and 3 propagation methods (seeds, cuttings and grafting), with four replicates and one plant per plot. Fifty days after the imposition of treatments with saline water, plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, relative leaf water content, total water consumption, dry matter of root, shoot and total, root length and root volume were evaluated. The increase in water salinity affected with greater intensity the growth and development variables (height, total dry matter and root volume of the plant) and the physiological characteristics (stomatal conductance) of the species Passiflora edulis, regardless of the method of propagation. Seedlings propagated by grafting showed better development compared to the other propagation methods (seeds and cuttings). The interaction between the propagation methods and water salinity affected seedlings propagated by seeds and cuttings with greater intensity.


Subject(s)
Passiflora , Seedlings/growth & development , Salt Stress
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233567, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249220

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out aiming at evaluating the effects of nitrate and ammonium ions on nutrient accumulation, biochemical components and yield of Italian zucchini (cv. Caserta) grown in a hydroponic system under salt stress conditions. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse utilizing an experimental design in randomized blocks, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of two forms of nitrogen (nitrate - NO3 - and ammonium - NH4 + ) and 5 electrical conductivity levels of irrigation water (ECw) (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1). The analysis of the results indicated that supply of N exclusively in NH4 + form promotes greater damage to the leaf membrane and reduction in accumulation of macronutrients and higher Na+ /K+ , Na+ /Ca++ and Na+ /Mg++ ratios in the shoots of zucchini plants. Electrical conductivity of irrigation water above 2.0 dS m-1 reduces the accumulation of nutrients in shoot and yield of Italian zucchini plant. The toxicity of NH4 + under Italian zucchini plants overlap the toxicity of the salinity, since its fertilization exclusively with this form of nitrogen inhibits its production, being the NO3 - form the most suitable for the cultivation of the species.


Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos íons nitrato e amônio sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes e produção da abobrinha italiana (cv. Caserta) cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob estrese salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de duas formas de nitrogênio (nitrato - NO3 - e amônio - NH4 + ) e cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa ) (0,5; 2,0; 3,5; 5,0 e 6,5 dS m-1). As análises dos resultados indicaram que suprimento de N exclusivamente em forma de NH4 + promove maiores danos na membrana foliar e redução no acúmulo de macronutrientes e maiores relações Na+ /K+ , Na+ /Ca++ e Na+ /Mg++ na parte aérea das plantas de abobrinha. A irrigação com água a cima de 2,0 dS m-1 reduz o acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e a produção de abobrinha. A toxicidade do NH4 + sob abobrinha italiana sobrepõe-se à toxicidade da salinidade, pois a fertilização exclusiva com esta forma de nitrogênio inibe sua produção, sendo a forma NO3 - a mais adequada para o cultivo da espécie.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Nitrogen , Plant Roots/chemistry , Salt Stress , Homeostasis , Italy , Nitrates
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237214, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249258

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium L. is an important herb that is widely cultivated in different parts of the world for its medicinal properties. The present study evaluated the effects of four concentrations of nanoparticles treatment (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-1) and NaCl salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and their interactions with respect to the expression of two key genes, i.e. DBR2 and ADS, in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin in A. absinthium. Total RNA was extracted and a relative gene expression analysis was carried out using Real-Time PCR. The amount of artemisinin was also determined by HPLC. All the experiments were performed as factorial in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results revealed that salinity stress and nanoparticles treatment and their interaction affected the expressions of these genes significantly. The highest levels of ADS gene expression were observed in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants in the presence of 150 mM salinity stress and the lowest levels in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants under 50 mM salinity stress. The maximum DBR2 gene expression was recorded in the 10 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants in the absence of salinity stress and the minimum expression in the 100 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles treatment. Moreover, the smallest amounts of artemisinin were observed in the 150 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles and the highest amounts in the 30 mg L-1 nanoparticles­treated plants. The maximum amounts of artemisinin and ADS gene expression were reported from the plants in the same nanoparticles treatment and salinity stress conditions. In this regard, the amount of artemisinin was decreased by half in the plants containing the highest DBR2 gene expression. Meanwhile, no significant correlation was observed between these gene expressions and the artemisinin amount in the other nanoparticles­treated plants under different levels of salinity stress. The biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites appears to be very complex and dose not directly dependent on these gene expressions.


Artemisia absinthium L. é uma erva importante que é amplamente cultivada em diferentes partes do mundo por suas propriedades medicinais. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro concentrações de tratamento com nanopartículas (0, 10, 20 e 30 mg L-1) e estresse de salinidade com NaCl (0, 50, 100 e 150 mM NaCl) e suas interações com relação à expressão de dois genes-chave, isto é, DBR2 e ADS, na via de biossíntese da artemisinina em A. absinthium. O RNA total foi extraído, e uma análise de expressão gênica relativa foi realizada usando PCR em tempo real. A quantidade de artemisinina também foi determinada por HPLC. Todos os experimentos foram realizados como fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três repetições. Os resultados revelaram que o estresse por salinidade e o tratamento com nanopartículas e sua interação afetaram significativamente as expressões desses genes. Os níveis mais altos de expressão do gene ADS foram observados nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1 na presença de estresse de salinidade de 150 mM, e os níveis mais baixos, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 com estresse de salinidade de 50 mM. A expressão máxima do gene DBR2 foi registrada nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-1 na ausência de estresse de salinidade, e a expressão mínima, nas plantas estressadas com salinidade de 100 mM na ausência de tratamento com nanopartículas. Além disso, as menores quantidades de artemisinina foram observadas nas plantas com estresse de salinidade de 150 mM na ausência de nanopartículas, e as maiores quantidades, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-1. As quantidades máximas de expressão de genes de artemisinina e ADS foram relatadas a partir das plantas no mesmo tratamento com nanopartículas e condições de estresse de salinidade. A esse respeito, a quantidade de artemisinina diminuiu pela metade nas plantas que contêm a expressão gênica DBR2 mais alta. Enquanto isso, nenhuma correlação significativa foi observada entre essas expressões gênicas e a quantidade de artemisinina nas outras plantas tratadas com nanopartículas sob diferentes níveis de estresse de salinidade. A via biossintética dos metabólitos secundários parece ser muito complexa e não depende diretamente dessas expressões gênicas.


Subject(s)
Artemisia absinthium/genetics , Artemisia annua , Artemisinins , Nanoparticles , Plant Proteins , Titanium , Salt Stress
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256502, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364493

ABSTRACT

Tagetes genus of Composite family consider one of the most favorite floriculture plants. Therefore, of particular interest examine the salt tolerance of this bedding and coloring agent plant. In this research, was report the role of glycinebetaine (GB) in attenuating the adverse impacts of salt stress in African marigold plant, along with their anti-oxidative capacities and biochemical attributes. The salt stressed African marigold (100 and 150 mM NaCl) was treated with GB at 200 mM, beside untreated control plants. According to the obtained results, the growth characters were negatively in salt stressed plants but a mitigate impact of GB were observed in this respect. Obviously, the morphological as well as some physiological characters were reduced with salinity treatments while GB treatment reverses these effects. Overall, the alleviate impact of GB on the negative impact of salt stress was enhanced through improving total phenolic and antioxidant enzyme activity. Further, it is concluded that GB concentration induces the activities of antioxidative enzymes which scavenged ROS increased under saline conditions.


O Tagetes, da família Composite, é um dos gêneros mais apreciados de plantas de floricultura. Portanto, é de particular interesse examinar a tolerância ao sal desta planta de substrato e corante. Nesta pesquisa, foi relatado o papel da glicinebetaína (GB) na atenuação dos impactos adversos do estresse salino na calêndula africana, juntamente com suas capacidades antioxidantes e atributos bioquímicos. A calêndula africana estressada com sal (NaCl 100 e 150 mM) foi tratada com GB a 200 mM, ao lado de plantas de controle não tratadas. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os caracteres de crescimento foram negativos em plantas estressadas por sal, mas um impacto mitigado de GB foi observado neste aspecto. Obviamente, os caracteres morfológicos e fisiológicos foram reduzidos com os tratamentos de salinidade, enquanto o tratamento com GB reverteu esses efeitos. No geral, o impacto de alívio do GB no impacto negativo do estresse salino foi aprimorado através da melhoria da atividade das enzimas fenólicas e antioxidantes totais. Além disso, conclui-se que a concentração de GB induz as atividades de enzimas antioxidantes que sequestraram ROS aumentadas em condições salinas.


Subject(s)
Calendula/growth & development , Salinity , Salt Tolerance , Salt Stress , Antioxidants
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4536-4552, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970330

ABSTRACT

Heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD) bacteria are aerobic microorganisms that can remove nitrogen under high-salt conditions, but their performance in practical applications are not satisfactory. As a compatible solute, trehalose helps microorganisms to cope with high salt stress by participating in the regulation of cellular osmotic pressure, and plays an important role in promoting the nitrogen removal efficiency of microbial populations in the high-salt environment. We investigated the mechanism of exogenous-trehalose-enhanced metabolism of HN-AD community under high-salt stress by starting up a membrane aerobic biofilm reactor (MABR) to enrich HN-AD bacteria, and designed a C150 experimental group with 150 μmol/L trehalose addition and a C0 control group without trehalose. The reactor performance and the community structure showed that NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were increased by 29.7%, 28.0% and 29.1%, respectively. The total relative abundance of salt-tolerant HN-AD bacteria (with Acinetobacter and Pseudofulvimonas as the dominant genus) in the C150 group reached 66.8%, an 18.2% increase compared with that of the C0 group. This demonstrated that trehalose addition promoted the enrichment of salt-tolerant HN-AD bacteria in the high-salt environment to enhance the nitrogen removal performance of the system. In-depth metabolomics analysis showed that the exogenous trehalose was utilized by microorganisms to improve proline synthesis to increase resistance to high-salt stress. By regulating the activity of cell proliferation signaling pathways (cGMP-PKG, PI3K-Akt), phospholipid metabolism pathway and aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis pathway, the abundances of phosphoethanolamine, which was one of the glycerophospholipid metabolites, and purine and pyrimidine were up-regulated to stimulate bacterial aggregation and cell proliferation to promote the growth of HN-AD bacteria in the high-salt environment. Meanwhile, the addition of trehalose accelerated the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which might provide more electron donors and energy to the carbon and nitrogen metabolisms of HN-AD bacteria and promote the nitrogen removal performance of the system. These results may facilitate using HN-AD bacteria in the treatment of high-salt and high-nitrogen wastewater.


Subject(s)
Nitrification , Denitrification , Trehalose , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Heterotrophic Processes , Salt Stress , Nitrogen/metabolism , Aerobiosis , Bioreactors/microbiology
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 50-65, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927692

ABSTRACT

Salt stress may cause primary osmotic stress and ion toxicity, as well as secondary oxidative stress and nutritional stress in plants, which hampers the agricultural production. Salt stress-responsive transcription factors can mitigate the damage of salt stress to plants through regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Based on the soil salinization and its damage to plants, and the central regulatory role of transcription factors in the plant salt stress-responsive signal transduction network, this review summarized the salt stress-responsive signal transduction pathways that the transcription factors are involved, and the application of salt stress-responsive transcription factors to enhance the salt tolerance of plants. We also reviewed the transcription factors-regulated complex downstream gene network which is formed by forming homo- or heterodimers between transcription factors and by forming complexes with regulatory proteins. This paper provides a theoretical basis for understanding the role of salt stress-responsive transcription factors in the salt stress regulatory network, which may facilitate the molecular breeding for improved stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Osmotic Pressure , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Salt Stress , Salt Tolerance , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-10, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468479

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out aiming at evaluating the effects of nitrate and ammonium ions on nutrient accumulation, biochemical components and yield of Italian zucchini (cv. Caserta) grown in a hydroponic system under salt stress conditions. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse utilizing an experimental design in randomized blocks, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of two forms of nitrogen (nitrate - NO3- and ammonium - NH4+) and 5 electrical conductivity levels of irrigation water (ECw) (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1). The analysis of the results indicated that supply of N exclusively in NH4+ form promotes greater damage to the leaf membrane and reduction in accumulation of macronutrients and higher Na+/K+, Na+/Ca++ and Na+/Mg++ ratios in the shoots of zucchini plants. Electrical conductivity of irrigation water above 2.0 dS m-¹ reduces the accumulation of nutrients in shoot and yield of Italian zucchini plant. The toxicity of NH4+ under Italian zucchini plants overlap the toxicity of the salinity, since its fertilization exclusively with this form of nitrogen inhibits its production, being the NO3- form the most suitable for the cultivation of the species.


Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos íons nitrato e amônio sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes e produção da abobrinha italiana (cv. Caserta) cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob estrese salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de duas formas de nitrogênio (nitrato - NO3- e amônio - NH4+) e cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,5; 2,0; 3,5; 5,0 e 6,5 dS m-¹). As análises dos resultados indicaram que suprimento de N exclusivamente em forma de NH4+ promove maiores danos na membrana foliar e redução no acúmulo de macronutrientes e maiores relações Na+/K+, Na+/Ca++ e Na+/Mg++ na parte aérea das plantas de abobrinha. A irrigação com água a cima de 2,0 dS m-¹ reduz o acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e a produção de abobrinha. A toxicidade do NH4+ sob abobrinha italiana sobrepõe-se à toxicidade da salinidade, pois a fertilização exclusiva com esta forma de nitrogênio inibe sua produção, sendo a forma NO3- a mais adequada para o cultivo da espécie.


Subject(s)
Cucurbita pepo , Salt Stress , Hydroponics , Ammonium Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Ammonium Hydroxide/adverse effects , Ammonium Hydroxide/toxicity , Homeostasis , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Nitrogen/adverse effects
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-10, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468490

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium L. is an important herb that is widely cultivated in different parts of the world for its medicinal properties. The present study evaluated the effects of four concentrations of nanoparticles treatment (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg L-¹) and NaCl salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) and their interactions with respect to the expression of two key genes, i.e. DBR2 and ADS, in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin in A. absinthium. Total RNA was extracted and a relative gene expression analysis was carried out using Real-Time PCR. The amount of artemisinin was also determined by HPLC. All the experiments were performed as factorial in a completely randomized design in three replications. The results revealed that salinity stress and nanoparticles treatment and their interaction affected the expressions of these genes significantly. The highest levels of ADS gene expression were observed in the 30 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants in the presence of 150 mM salinity stress and the lowest levels in the 10 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants under 50 mM salinity stress. The maximum DBR2 gene expression was recorded in the 10 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants in the absence of salinity stress and the minimum expression in the 100 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles treatment. Moreover, the smallest amounts of artemisinin were observed in the 150 mM salinity-stressed plants in the absence of nanoparticles and the highest amounts in the 30 mg L-¹ nanoparticles–treated plants. The maximum amounts of artemisinin and ADS gene expression were reported from the plants in the same nanoparticles treatment and salinity stress [...].


Artemisia absinthium L. é uma erva importante que é amplamente cultivada em diferentes partes do mundo por suas propriedades medicinais. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro concentrações de tratamento com nanopartículas (0, 10, 20 e 30 mg L-¹) e estresse de salinidade com NaCl (0, 50, 100 e 150 mM NaCl) e suas interações com relação à expressão de dois genes-chave, isto é, DBR2 e ADS, na via de biossíntese da artemisinina em A. absinthium. O RNA total foi extraído, e uma análise de expressão gênica relativa foi realizada usando PCR em tempo real. A quantidade de artemisinina também foi determinada por HPLC. Todos os experimentos foram realizados como fatorial, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três repetições. Os resultados revelaram que o estresse por salinidade e o tratamento com nanopartículas e sua interação afetaram significativamente as expressões desses genes. Os níveis mais altos de expressão do gene ADS foram observados nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-¹ na presença de estresse de salinidade de 150 mM, e os níveis mais baixos, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-¹ com estresse de salinidade de 50 mM. A expressão máxima do gene DBR2 foi registrada nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 10 mg L-¹ na ausência de estresse de salinidade, e a expressão mínima, nas plantas estressadas com salinidade de 100 mM na ausência de tratamento com nanopartículas. Além disso, as menores quantidades de artemisinina foram observadas nas plantas com estresse de salinidade de 150 mM na ausência de nanopartículas, e as maiores quantidades, nas plantas tratadas com nanopartículas de 30 mg L-¹. As quantidades máximas de expressão de genes de artemisinina e ADS foram relatadas a partir das plantas no mesmo tratamento com nanopartículas e condições de estresse de salinidade. A esse respeito, a quantidade de artemisinina diminuiu pela metade nas [...],


Subject(s)
Artemisia/enzymology , Artemisia/genetics , Artemisinins , Salt Stress , Nanoparticles/analysis
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37082, Jan.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359267

ABSTRACT

Physalis peruviana L. is a solanacea that has been gaining prominence due to its fruits presenting good acceptance in the national and international market. However, several abiotic factors, such as salinity, can cause physiological disturbances in plants, and these changes may be of greater or lesser intent according to species. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the physiological behavior of P. peruviana submitted to different fluxes of photosynthetically active photons (PPFD) and saline stress. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three saline levels (ECw) (0.5, 2.75 and 5.00 dS m-1) with four replications. Gas exchange measurements were performed with a portable infrared gas analyzer. Liquid CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency were measured. Data were subjected to analysis of variance by F test and in cases of significance applied to regression analysis. The increase in PPFD provided reductions in stomatal conductance up to the density of approximately 400 µmol m-2s-1, being more pronounced in ECw of 2.75 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maximum CO2 assimilation rates in the three salinities are different according to the PPFD. The salinity of irrigation water reduced the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in P. peruviana plants.


Subject(s)
Photosynthesis , Photons , Physalis/physiology , Salinity , Salt Stress
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 1-9, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) bypasses the TCA cycle via GABA shunt, suggesting a relationship with respiration. However, little is known about its role in seed germination under salt conditions. RESULTS: In this study, exogenous GABA was shown to have almost no influence on mungbean seed germination, except 0.1 mM at 10 h, while it completely alleviated the inhibition of germination by salt treatment. Seed respiration was significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 0.5 mM GABA, but was evidently enhanced under salt treatment, whereas both were promoted by 1 mM GABA alone or with salt treatment. Mitochondrial respiration also showed a similar trend at 0.1 mM GABA. Moreover, proteomic analysis further showed that 43 annotated proteins were affected by exogenous GABA, even 0.1 mM under salt treatment, including complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence that GABA may act as a signal molecule in regulating respiration of mungbean seed germination in response to salt stress.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Vigna , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Respiration , Stress, Physiological , Proteins , Germination , Proteomics , Salt Tolerance , Salt Stress
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 731-742, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146749

ABSTRACT

The production of grafted passion fruit is an alternative for plant adaptation to saline environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salt stress on physiology, biometry and fruit quality of P. edulis grafted on Passiflora spp. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to three species of Passiflora (P. edulis, P. gibertii and P. cincinnata) with P. edulis scion and two levels of irrigation water salinity (0.5 - control and 4.5 dS m-1), with four repetitions. Water salinity compromises gas exchanges (CO2 assimilation raste and transpiration) and physiological variables (total chlorophyll and total water consumption) in grafted P. edulis. The interaction between the factors (water salinity x species) compromised only the growth in plant height and number of leaves. In relation to the species, auto-grafted P. edulis stood out from the other species, with higher internal CO2 concentration, number of leaves, stem dry mass, peel thickness, total soluble solids (TSS) of the pulp and TSS/TA ratio (titratable acidity). Auto-grafted P. edulis under saline conditions develops vital mechanisms (TSS and TSS/TA), which attenuates the effects of salt stress on the physico-chemical quality of the fruits.


A produção de maracujazeiro enxertado é uma alternativa para adaptação das plantas a ambientes salinos. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do estresse salino na fisiologia, biometria e qualidade de frutos de P. edulis enxertado em espécies de Passiflora spp. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três espécies de Passiflora (P. edulis, P. gibertii e P. cincinnata) tendo como copa P. edulis e dois níveis de salinidade de água de irrigação (0,5 ­ testemunha e 4,5 dS m-1), com quatro repetições. A salinidade da água compromete as trocas gasosas (taxa de assimilação de CO2 e transpiração) e variáveis fisiológicas (clorofila total e consumo hídrico total) em P. edulis enxertado. A interação entre os fatores (salinidade da água x espécie) compromete apenas o crescimento em altura de plantas e número de folhas. Em relação às espécies, o P. edulis auto enxertado se destaca em relação as demais espécies apresentando maior concentração interna de CO2, número de folhas, massa seca de caule, espessura da casca do fruto, sólidos solúveis totais (SST) da polpa e razão sólidos solúveis totais por acidez titulável (SST/AT). O P. edulis auto enxertado sob condições de salinidade, desenvolve mecanismos vitais (SST e SST/AT), que atenuam os efeitos do estresse salino na qualidade físico-química dos frutos.


Subject(s)
Passiflora , Salt Stress , Physiology , Saltpetre Soils , Biometry , Salinity , Agricultural Irrigation
16.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e47430, fev. 2020. ilus, map, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460931

ABSTRACT

The crab Ucides cordatus is an important feature of mangroves in the North and Northeast of Brazil. In 2002 a large mortality was reported on this species in the Jaguaribe River Estuary. In order to investigate the possible causes specimens were collected monthly between May 2002 and December 2003 at five sites: Fortim (E1), Fortim (E2), Cumbe (E3) Aracati (E4) and Guajiru (E5). The mangrove structure and environmental parameters (salinity, pH, temperature and DO) were also evaluated. Water was collected for suspended solids analysis, BOD and nutrient levels. Salinity decreased in the rainy season, with no significant variation of pH and temperature. Dissolved oxygen levels had a mean of 5.7 mg L-1. Suspended solids increased at site E4, with BOD varying at E1 and E2 during the dry season. The same was observed at sites E1, E2 and E3 during the rainy season. Ammonia levels at E1 and E2 and phosphorus in all seasons, increased with rain events. Four lines of investigation were adopted: biometry, histology, hematology, and bioassay. There was no significant difference between animals in biometrics and histology showed no cellular alterations. However, hematology showed a significant difference between the E1 and E3 sites due to depletion in the number of hemocytes in E1, probably in response to environmental impacts. This can lead to poor immunity, leading to opportunistic pathogen infections such as viruses, bacteria and fungi. The bioassay showing no abnormal behavior or mortality. The structure the of mangrove was developed in all areas, except in E5 which served as a control site, with significant environmental stress with high levels of herbivorous growth (> 50%) and a salinity of around 50 ‰. It is believed that the mortality of the crabs was an occasional occurrence, probably due to toxin production by some fungal organism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brachyura/anatomy & histology , Brachyura/chemistry , Saline Waters/analysis , Saline Waters/chemistry , Salt Stress
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200072, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142498

ABSTRACT

Abstract The response of two local maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes designated as Sahwal-2002 (salt-tolerant) and Sadaf (salt-sensitive) to salt stress was investigated under controlled growth conditions. The role of phenylalanine and seed priming under salt stress in maize with different morphological parameters were studied. The genotype Sadaf, being salt-tolerant, experienced more oxidative damage than the Sahiwall-2002 genotype under salt stress. The salinity affected both growth and physiological attributes of the maize species whereas the phenylalanine successfully increased the salinity tolerance in maize species at the seedling stage.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Zea mays/growth & development , Salinity , Salt Stress , Phenylalanine/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Zea mays/genetics , Genotype
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180513, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132208

ABSTRACT

Abstract Silicon accumulation is known to improve tolerance of plants under both biotic and abiotic stress. Salinity stress is an inevitable crisis causing wide spread damage to rice leading to food insecurity. The influence of Si (1mM) on two rice cultivars cv. Ghanteswari (high accumulator) and cv.Badami (low accumulator) which differs in Si uptake potential under saline (10ds/m EC) and non- saline conditions were studied in nutrient culture. The Si transporter genes were isolated and characterized to determine their function in salinity tolerance. Under stress, there was an increase in Si accumulation, Na+/K+ ratio, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities. On addition of silicon, the K+ uptake increased, membrane damage reduced and osmolytes balance improve under salinity. But, the level of resurgence was varied in both cultivars, due to their differential Si-accumulation. Molecular characterizations of Lsi1 protein revealed its involvement in the movement of ion and water and therefore prevent osmotic stress. The Lsi2 is responsible for removal of Na+, reducing salt toxicity. Silicon accumulation is responsible for maintenance of cell water status, osmotic balance and Na+ ion exclusion during high salinity. The variable relative expression of Lsi2 provides a possible explanation for differential genotypic uptake of silicon.


Subject(s)
Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Oryza/genetics , Silicon/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Salinity , Salt Stress , Genotype
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1531-1536, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774525

ABSTRACT

Exogenous calcium can enhance the resistance of certain plants to abiotic stress. However,the role of calcium insaltstressed honeysuckle is unclear. The study is aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on the biomass,chlorophyll content,gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of honeysuckle under salt stress. The results showed that the calcium-treated honeysuckle had better photochemical properties than the salt-stressed honeysuckle,such as PIABS,PItotal,which represents the overall activity of photosystemⅡ(PSⅡ),and related parameters for characterizing electron transport efficiency φP0,ψE0,φE0,σR,and φR are significantly improved. At the same time,the gas exchange parameters Gs,Ci,Trare also maintained at a high level. In summary,exogenous calcium protects the activity of PSⅡ,promotes the transmission of photosynthetic electrons,and maintains a high Ci,therefore enhances the resistance of honeysuckle under salt stress.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Pharmacology , Chlorophyll , Lonicera , Physiology , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Salt Stress
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2444-2451, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773241

ABSTRACT

We studied the seed germination of Astragalus membranaceus under PEG and Na Cl osmotic stress gradients( 0,-0. 1,-0. 3,-0. 5,-0. 7 MPa) respectively applied with light( continuous light,light 12 h/dark 12 h circulation and continuous dark) and temperature( constant 15 ℃,15 ℃ 12 h/30 ℃ 12 h circulation and constant 30 ℃) treatments. The results showed as following: ① Under the light and temperature interactive treatments,total germination percentage( TGP) was restrained by high temperature and continuous light also decreased TGP under high temperature. Mean germination time( MGT) was not changed by light mode. Root development was enhanced by dark and low temperature. Shoot development was enhanced by light and high temperature. Hypocotyl length was enhanced by dark and high temperature. ② Under the light and temperature interactive treatments combined respectively with PEG and NaCl stress conditions,although the inhibitions of seed germination and growth were gradually strengthened with the increases of osmotic stresses,slight osmotic stress can promote seed germination. Under the same osmotic potential,the effects of PEG on TGPs and MGTs were stronger than that of NaCl. As the temperature increase,the seeds may change from photo-neutrality to photo-phobia. Decreased TGP under drought and continuous light interactive treatment is an adaptation strategy to avoiding drought. Hypocotyl growth accelerated under continuous dark treatment is an ecological trait which could increase dry matter input in stem and height for more light. Seed development under high concentration of NaCl treatment is better than that of PEG treatment due to low water potential caused by Na~+,which can enter into seed coat and promote water absorption.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Droughts , Germination , Light , Salt Stress , Seeds , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Temperature
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