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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921813

ABSTRACT

To reveal the rationality of compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(SMRR) and Puerariae Lobatae Radix(PLR) from the perspective of pharmacokinetics, this study established a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of PLR flavonoids(3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, puerarin 6″-O-xyloside, 3'-methoxy puerarin, puerarin apioside) and salvianolic acids and tanshinones(salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone Ⅱ_A) in plasma of rats. Rats were given SMRR extract, PLR extract, and SMRR-PLR extract by gavage and then plasma was collected at different time. UPLC separation was performed under the following conditions: Eclipse C_(18) column(2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.8 μm), 0.1% formic acid in water(A)-0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile(B) as mobile phase for gradient elution. Conditions for MS are as below: multiple reaction monitoring(MRM), ESI~(+/-). Comprehensive validation of the UPLC-MS/MS method(specifically, from the aspects of calibration curve, precision, accuracy, repeatability, stability, matrix effect, extract recovery) was performed and the result demonstrated that it complied with quantitative analysis requirements for biological samples. Compared with SMRR extract alone or PLR extract alone, SMRR-PLR extract significantly increased the AUC and C_(max) of PLR flavonoids and tanshinones in rat plasma, suggesting that the combination of SMRR and PLR promoted the absorption of the above components. The underlying mechanism needs to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Plant Roots/chemistry , Pueraria/chemistry , Rats , Rhizome/chemistry , Salvia miltiorrhiza/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921732

ABSTRACT

Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is a Chinese herbal medicine that promotes blood circulation to remove blood stasis, nourishes blood to tranquilize the mind, and cools blood to disperse carbuncles. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma has microcirculation-improving, blood vessel-dilating, atherosclerosis-preventing, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and blood pressure-and blood lipid-lowering activities. As research progresses, the chemical composition, pharmacological effect, and clinical application of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma have attracted much attention. We reviewed the research progress in this field. Based on the concept of quality marker(Q-marker) in traditional Chinese medicine, the Q-markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were predicted and analyzed from the aspects of quality transfer, traceability, ingredient specificity, association between ingredients and pharmacological effects, ingredient predictability, and compounding environment. This review provides a scientific basis for the quality control of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its preparations.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888172

ABSTRACT

China has a long history of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma processing with multiple methods available. The pre-sent study collated and summarized the Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma processing methods recorded in 23 related herbal medicine books, all editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the 1988 edition of National Regulations for Processing of Chinese Medicine, and 20 current local processing specifications and standards. The results demonstrated various processing methods of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, such as removing residual part of stem, plantlet, or soil, smashing, filing, cutting, decocting, washing with wine, soaking in wine, and stir-frying with wine or blood from pig heart, while raw and wine-processed products are mainly used in modern times. Due to the lack of unified standards, the phenomena of multiple methods adopted in one place and different methods in different places have led to uneven quality of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma pieces, even affecting the safety and effectiveness of its clinical medication. This study is expected to provide a reference for the development of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma processing and its rational medication.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Swine
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888025

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the methodological quality of systematic reviews of Shuxuening Injection and evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of Shuxuening Injection in the treatment of different diseases,in order to provide supportive evidence for clinical practice. Three Chinese databases and three English databases were retrieved to identify systematic reviews and Meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of Shuxuening Injection in the treatment of diseases. The AMSTAR 2( a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews 2) tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews,and tables were created to present the results of Meta-analyses. Twenty-four systematic reviews were included,all with very low methodological quality. Among the 16 AMSTAR-2 items,only 5 items had a compliance rate greater than 60. 0%,and 8 items had a compliance rate less than 50. 0%. For patients with cerebral infarction,Shuxuening Injection combined with conventional treatment was more effective than conventional treatment alone in terms of clinical efficiency and neurological deficit improvement. For patients with angina pectoris,Shuxuening Injection was superior to Danshen/Compound Danshen Injection in terms of the total effective rate of angina pectoris and total effective rate of ECG. The efficacy of Shuxuening Injection combined with conventional treatment is significantly better than conventional treatment.Shuxuening Injection( alone or combined with conventional treatments) was better than conventional treatments for cerebral hemorrhage,ischemic cerebrovascular disease,chronic pulmonary heart disease,vertigo and sudden deafness. Shuxuening Injection had better efficacy and lower incidence of adverse reactions,but the methodological quality of included systematic reviews was low. The results of this study still need to be verified by high-quality systematic reviews.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Injections , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887953

ABSTRACT

The plant root-associated microbiomes include root microbiome and rhizosphere microbiome, which are closely related to plant life activities. Nearly 30% of photosynthesis products of plants are used to synthesize root compounds, there is evidence that root compounds regulate and significantly affect the root microbiome Tanshinones are the main hydrophobic components in Salvia miltiorrhiza. In order to study whether these compounds can regulate the root-associated microbiomes of S. miltiorrhiza, our study first identified a white root S. miltiorrhiza(BG) which contains little tanshinones. Retain of the fifth intron of tanshinones synthesis key enzyme gene SmCPS1 leading to the early termination of the SmCPS1 gene, and a stable white root phenotype. Further, wild type(WT) and BG were planted in greenhouse with nutrient soil(Pindstrup, Denmark) and Shandong soil(collected from the S. miltiorrhiza base in Weifang, Shandong), then high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the root-associated microbiomes. The results showed that the tanshinones significantly affected the root-associated microbiomes of S. miltiorrhiza, and the impact on root microbiomes was more significant. There are significant differences between WT and BG root microbiomes in species richness, dominant strains and co-occurrence network. Tanshinones have a certain repelling effect on Bacilli which belongs to Gram-positive, while specifically attract some Gram-negative bacteria such as Betaproteobacteria and some specific genus of Alphaproteobacteria. This study determined the important role of tanshinones in regulating the structure of root-associated microbiomes from multiple angles, and shed a light for further improving the quality and yield of S. miltiorrhiza through microenvironment regulation.


Subject(s)
Abietanes , Microbiota , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879111

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed through field experiments to study the effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza, provide ideas for reducing fertilization while increasing the efficiency as well as improving the quality of produces. The experiment included 6 treatments viz., no fertilization(CK), full application of chemical fertilizer(F), 25% orga-nic fertilizer with 75% chemical fertilizer(M25), 50% organic fertilizer with 50% chemical fertilizer(M50), 75% organic fertilizer with 25% chemical fertilizer(M75), and fully apply organic fertilizer(M100). The results showed that:(1)from the perspective of yield and economic benefits, M75 was the best and M100 second;(2)for effective components, the combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers increased the content of main water-soluble components and the total content of effective components, among which M25 and M50 were better.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Nitrogen , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Soil
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879040

ABSTRACT

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Symbiosis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879033

ABSTRACT

Zaoren Anshen prescription preparations(ZRASs), which are prepared from three traditional Chinese herb medicines, namely fried Zizyphi Spinosae Semen, Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and vinegar-processed Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, are a series of proprietary Chinese medicines for the treatment of insomnia, amnesia and dizzy in clinic. In recent years, pharmacodynamic effect, chemical constituents and quality control of ZRASs had been extensively studied for the purpose of ensuring their safety, efficacy and stability, and a great progress had been made. However, there is no review of the research advance of ZRASs up to date. The present review summarized the research advance of ZRASs in quality control standards, chemical constituents, pharmacodynamic effects, and chemical analysis for the first time, with the aim to provide a reference for further studies on the effective constituents and quality control of ZRASs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879016

ABSTRACT

There is no consensus on the content, accumulation, transformation and content determination methods of phenolic acids in fresh Salvia miltiorrhiza. In order to find out the true content of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza, a variety of treatment me-thods were used in this study to prepare sample solution. The content changes of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza samples with different dehydration rates were investigated during drying and shade drying processes. Polyphenol oxidase(PPO) of S. miltiorrhiza was extracted and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis to investigate the enzymatic properties. The content of rosmarinic acid, lithosperic acid and S. nolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza was determined by UPLC. The results showed that the content of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza was highest when it was homogenized with 1 mol·L~(-1) HCl solution or 1 mol·L~(-1) HCl methanol solution. There was no significant difference in the content of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza with different dehydration rates, indicating that there was no correlation between phenolic acid content and dehydration rate. The optimum pH of S. miltiorrhiza PPO was 7.6 and the optimum temperature was 40 ℃. With catechol as substrate, S. miltiorrhiza PPO had the enzymatic browning reaction which was in compliance with Michaelis equation, with Michaelis constant K_m of 0.12 mol·L~(-1) and V_(max) of 588.23 U·min~(-1). The inhibitory effect of citric acid, disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate, ascorbic acid and sodium sulfite on S. miltiorrhiza PPO increased with the increase of inhibitor concentration, and sodium sulfite showed the strongest inhibitory effect. The present study proved that there were a large number of phenolic acids in fresh S. miltiorrhiza, which were the secondary metabolite of primitive accumulation during the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, rather than the induced product of postharvest drying and dehydration stress. This study has reference value and significance for the cultivation, harvest and processing of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Catechol Oxidase , Desiccation , Hydroxybenzoates , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878994

ABSTRACT

In this study, Honghua Injection, Danshen Injection, Shenkang Injection, Shuxuetong Injection, Lulutong Injection, Shenxiong Glucose Injection and Chuanxiong Injection were compared for their clinical efficacy on chronic renal insufficiency by using the method of network Meta-analysis, with Western medicine as the common reference. The randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Hong-hua Injection, Danshen Injection, Shenkang Injection, Shuxuetong Injection, Lulutong Injection, Shenxiong Glucose Injection and Chuanxiong Injection for the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency were obtained by computer-based retrieval. The literature quality was evaluated by using the method in Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook 5.1 after independent screening of the included literature by two reviewers. The RJAGS package and GEMTC package of RevMan 5.3, GEMTC software, R software were used for statistical analysis to compare and sort the different injections in terms of efficacy. A total of 6 197 patients with chronic renal failure were included in 79 RCTs, involving 8 treatment measures. The effective rates of conventional treatment combined with Shenxiong Injection(OR=3.55, 95%CI[1.98, 6.37], P<0.000 1), Honghua Injection(OR=3.77, 95%CI[2.45, 5.81], P<0.000 01), Shuxuetong Injection(OR=6.71, 95%CI[3.30, 13.65], P<0.000 01) and Shenkang Injection(OR=4.14, 95%CI[3.42, 5.03], P<0.000 01) were all better than that in control group, and the effective rate of Honghua Injection combined with conventional treatment(OR=3.89, 95%CI[1.73, 8.74], P=0.001) was better than that in Danshen Injection combined with conventional treatment, all with statistically significant differences. By comprehensive comparison, Shuxuetong Injection, Honghua Injection and Shenkang Injection combined with Western medicine had good clinical effect on the effective rate, serum creatinine reduction and urea nitrogen reduction in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. However, due to the relatively low quality of the included literature, the conclusion has yet to be verified clinically.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Meta-Analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Salvia miltiorrhiza
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves on the diversity of intestinal microflora in rats with diabetic kidney injury. Diabetic rats model was established by feeding high glucose and high fat diet and 5% glucose solution with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg·kg~(-1) streptozocin(STZ). The rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, irbesartan control group, Huangkui Capsules control group, as well as low, middle and high dose groups of Sal-viae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves. After administration for 2 weeks, 16 S rRNA technique was used to analyze the diversity of intestinal microflora in the feces of each group. The results showed rats in the model group developed renal tubular epithelial vacuole degeneration and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration in the renal interstitium. A small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in each administration group. The kidney structure of rats in irbesartan group, Huangkui Capsules group, high-dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem water extract, as well as high dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem ethnol extract group was close to the normal group. The diversity and structure of intestinal flora in the model group were significantly different from those in the normal group. Each administration group improved the fecal flora diversity in rats with diabetic kidney injury to a certain extent, especially the high dose of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stems water extract. Different flora were found in feces of diabetic nephropathy model rats on class, order, family and genus levels. On families and genera levels, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Turicibacter, Peptostreptococcaceae, Desulfovibrio, and SMB53 showed an upward trend in model group, but that of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Rikenella, Rumen fungi showed a downward trend. The administration groups can improve the relative abundance of the above intestinal flora in the model rats to a normal-like level. The results of this study provide a reference for resource utilization and further development of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Rats , Salvia miltiorrhiza
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878935

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Compound Danshen Injection combined with Western medicine in the treatment of vascular dementia. Databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, Wanfang Data were electronically retrieved for collecting randomized controlled trial(RCT)about vascular dementia treated with Western medicine alone or combined with Compound Danshen Injection from the year of database establishment to January 2020. Two researchers independently screened out li-teratures, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias for inclusion in the study. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 5 RCTs were included, involving 588 patients, with 299 in treatment group and 289 in control group. Meta-analysis results showed that compared with Western medicine alone, Compound Danshen Injection combined with Western medicine was better in the effective rate(RR=1.23,95%CI[1.14,1.33],P<0.000 01), MMSE score(MD=3.54,95%CI[3.01,4.06],P<0.000 01), ADL score(MD=11.49,95%CI[8.05,14.93],P<0.000 01), the level of CRP(MD=-0.72,95%CI[-1.25,-0.20],P=0.007) and the level of IL-6(MD=-7.64,95%CI[-9.65,-5.63],P<0.000 01). Adverse reactions mainly included rash and skin prick, which did not affect the treatment effect. Based on the findings, the combination of Compound Danshen Injection in the treatment of vascular dementia could improve the effective rates, relieve the mental state damage and improve the daily living ability, with mild adverse reactions and a low incidence. However, due to the low quality of the included literatures, high-quality and large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Dementia, Vascular/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Injections , Medicine , Salvia miltiorrhiza
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878885

ABSTRACT

In this study, Fick's first law and partition equilibrium were used to represent the internal and external mass transfer processes of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma at the macroscopic level, and a mass transfer model was established. The specific surface area was integrated into the mass transfer resistance, which effectively avoided the irregular shape of medicinal materials and expanded the application scope of the model. Meanwhile, the mass transfer model was further combined with the kinetic model of salvia-nolic acid degradation to establish the extraction kinetic models of salvianolic acid B, lithospermic acid and Danshensu. The model was applied to study the extraction process of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. According to the sensitivity analysis results, the relative error of the model prediction was within 5% near the maximum extraction rate(320 min), and the prediction performance of the model was good. According to the investigation results of different process parameters, stirring could significantly accelerate the mass transfer rate of salvianolic acid B, while the mass transfer resistance and degradation rate constant were not affected by solvent-to-solid ratio. The linear relationship between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of mass transfer resistance was good(R~2=0.996), indicating that the temperature and mass transfer resistance conformed to Arrhenius formula. In addition, we also found that the concentration changes of lithospermic acid and Danshensu were weakly affected by mass transferwhen the extraction temperature was higher than 358 K. This study has provided the basis for the process optimization and quality control of traditional Chinese medicine extraction.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Kinetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811199

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: C-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1) is a transcriptional co-repressor that is overexpressed in many cancers. CtBP1 transcriptionally represses a broad array of tumor suppressors, which promotes cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and resistance to apoptosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that CtBP1 is a potential target for cancer therapy. This study was designed to screen for compounds that potentially target CtBP1.METHODS: Using a structure-based virtual screening for CtBP1 inhibitors, we found protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), a natural compound found in the root of a traditional Chinese herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, that directly binds to CtBP1. Microscale thermophoresis assay was performed to determine whether PA and CtBP1 directly bind to each other. Further, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated Cas9 nuclease-mediated CtBP1 knockout in breast cancer cells was used to validate the CtBP1 targeting specificity of PA.RESULTS: Functional studies showed that PA repressed the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, PA elevated the expression of the downstream targets of CtBP1, p21 and E-cadherin, and decreased CtBP1 binding affinity for the promoter regions of p21 and E-cadherin in breast cancer cells. However, PA did not affect the expression of p21 and E-cadherin in the CtBP1 knockout breast cancer cells. In addition, the CtBP1 knockout breast cancer cells showed resistance to PA-induced repression of proliferation and migration.CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that PA directly bound to CtBP1 and inhibited the growth and migration of breast cancer cells through CtBP1 inhibition. Structural modifications of PA are further required to enhance its binding affinity and selectivity for CtBP1.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cadherins , Carrier Proteins , Cell Proliferation , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Mass Screening , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Repression, Psychology , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828450

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to establish efficacy systems of tanshinones and salvianolic acids, two representative substances in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by using literature mining and biological network construction, based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine theory. The systematic study on the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine was carried out from the basic unit, the structure and relationship between the basic units, the boundary of the research object and the function of the system, so as to explain the overall efficacy of the two kinds of components at the molecular level. Firstly, we collected the elements of the efficacy systems of these two kinds of components by literature mining, and defined their boundaries based on biological processes. After that, the structure of the efficacy systems was clarified according to the relationship in the KEGG database. Finally, the function of the efficacy systems was analyzed from the level of pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy, revealing the scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine efficacy system. The results showed that there were 201 targets(elements), 12 target sets(boundary), and 12 pathway networks(structure) in salvianolic acids' efficacy system. Meanwhile, there were 189 targets(elements), 11 target sets(boundary), and 11 pathway networks(structure) in tanshinones' efficacy system. The results suggested that the functions of salvia-nolic acids' and tanshinones' efficacy systems were different in pharmacology and pharmacodynamics from aspects of elements, boundary, relationship and structure, but they were same in functional level as both of them could promote blood circulation, remove blood stasis, clear away heart-fire, relieve restlessness, and soothe the nerves. Based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine, we constructed the efficacy system of two representative components in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in this paper, elucidated the overall efficacy and builded the bridge between reductionism and holism in traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Acids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828449

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis has been widely used in clinical practice. However, due to the diversity of the composition of traditional Chinese medicine and the complexity of its interaction with human body, it is difficult to apply traditional quality control ingredients to characterize its overall efficacy. Systematic traditional Chinese medicine is an effective method for studying the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, embodying the dialectical unity of holism and reductionism. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is a common traditional Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. In this study, we constructed a multi-dimensional network of "efficacy-pharmacological efficacy-targets-components" based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine, and discussed the discovery of the efficacy markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Firstly, based on the Chinese medicine efficacy-pharmacology database, the most relevant pharmacological actions(boundary) for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis(function) were obtained, and the target sets(structure) of the corresponding pharmacological action were obtained by the DrugBank database. Then, STRING database was used to construct protein-protein interaction network(relationship) of targets related to promoting blood circulation and removing stasis, and key targets(elements) in the network were selected by evaluating topological parameters of targets. Finally, the potential efficacy markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were predicted by molecular docking based on the key targets of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. The results demonstrated that salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, tanshinone Ⅱ_A and tanshinone Ⅰ were the potential markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, tanshinone Ⅱ_A had been reported to have anti-platelet aggregation, anti-thrombotic, cardiovascular protection and some other pharmacological functions. Based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine, we have preliminarily predicted the efficacy markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in this study, providing a research method for the discovery of efficacy markers and a reference for the overall quality control of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828443

ABSTRACT

In this study, the clinical characteristics and drug combination rules of Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection in the treatment of patients with cerebral infarction were analyzed. The inpatient information of 2 857 patients of cerebral infarction treated with Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection in HIS database of 20 grade Ⅲ class A hospitals in China was collected, and a model was established by description analysis and Apriori algorithm, in order to explore the clinical characteristics and drug combination rules of Danshen Chuan-xiongqin Injection in the treatment of cerebral infarction. The results showed that among patients of cerebral infarction treated with Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection, 1 727 patients were older than 65 years old, accounting for 69.61%, and 1 610 were males, accounting for 63.59%. Commonly used drugs included lipid-lowering agents, anticoagulant thrombolytic agents, antiplatelet agents, stimulants of brain metabolism, vasodilators and other Western drugs, as well as traditional Chinese medicines, such as blood-activating agents, heat-clearing agents and expectorant agents. The Western medicine with the highest use frequency in combination with Danshen Chuan-xiongqin Injection was aspirin enteric-coated tablets(1 528 cases, 53.48%). The traditional Chinese medicine with the highest use frequency in combination with Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection was Xingnaojing Injection, with a total of 378 cases, accounting for 13.23%. Among them, the most commonly used Western drugs combined with Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection were anticoagulant thrombolytic and antiplatelet drugs, with a usage rate as high as 83.48%. In order to further explore the drug combination rules of Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection, the association analysis of drug combination in patients of cerebral infarction treated with Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection was carried out. In clinical combination of two Western drugs, Atorvastatin Calcium Capsules+Cerebral Proteolytic Injection were the most common combination, with a support of 27.10%. In clinical combination with 3 Western drugs, Clopidogrel Bisulfate Tablets+Atorvastatin Calcium Capsules+Cerebral Proteolytic Injection were most commonly used, with a support of 15.90%. The results showed that the patients of cerebral infarction treated with Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection were mainly elderly males, and often complicated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes and other basic diseases. The clinical application of Danshen Chuanxiongqin Injection was principally in line with the guidelines. In the treatment of cerebral infarction, it was often combined with Western medicine anticoagulant thrombolysis, antiplatelet drugs, traditional Chinese medicine blood-activating and stasis-dissolving prescription and other drugs with similar pharmacological effects, with an auxiliary therapeutic effect on patients of cerebral infarction complicated with other diseases, and can provide guidance for clinical medication.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aspirin , Cerebral Infarction , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Salvia miltiorrhiza
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828052

ABSTRACT

Salvia miltiorrhiza(Sm) and Salvia castanea f. tomentosa(Sc) hairy roots were used as experimental materials to study the effects of six different carbon sources, galactose, fructose, lactose, glucose, arabinose and sucrose(control), on fresh weight, dry weight, contents and yields of salvianolic acids and tanshinones. The results showed that galactose was most beneficial to the growth of two kinds of hairy roots, while lactose and arabinose were not conducive to their growth. As for Sm hairy roots, fructose significantly promoted the accumulation of salvianolic acid B, and the content increased by 5.801 times and 10.151 times compared with the control group, respectively. Glucose significantly promoted the accumulation of salvianolic acids. The content and yield of rosmarinic acid were 7.674 times and 9.260 times of that of the control group, and the content and yield of salvianolic acid B were 5.532 times and 6.675 times of the control group. For the hairy roots of Sc, galactose significantly increased the content and yield of rosmarinic acid, reaching 7.820 times and 9.944 times of the control group, respectively. Fructose promoted the increase of the content and yield of cryptotanshinone, reaching 9.242 times and 6.609 times of the control group, respectively. The study confirmed the optimal carbon source for the hairy root culture of Sm and Sc, and provided theoretical guidance for large-scale production of Sm drug-derived components and the utilization of Sc.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Plant Roots , Salvia , Salvia miltiorrhiza
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828050

ABSTRACT

Polyphenol oxidase(PPO) is an important antioxidant enzyme in plants. It has the functions of scavenging active oxygen and synthesizing phenols, lignin, and plant protection factors, and can enhance the plant's resistance to stress and resistance to pests and diseases. Our previous research found that Salvia miltiorrhiza PPO gene can positively regulate salvianolic acid B synthesis. In order to further explore the mechanism, a pGBKT7-PPO bait vector was constructed using the cloned S. miltiorrhiza polyphenol oxidase gene(SmPPO, GenBank accession number: KF712274.1), and verified that it had no self-activation and no toxicity. The titer of S. miltiorrhiza cDNA library constructed by our laboratory was 4.75 × 107 cfu·mL~(-1), which met the requirements for library construction. Through yeast two-hybrid test, 22 proteins that could interact with SmPPO were screened. Only yeast PAL1 and TAT interacted with SmPPO through yeast co-transformation verification. Further verification was performed by bimolecular fluorescence complementary detection(BiFC). Only TAT and SmPPO interacted, so it meant that TAT and SmPPO interacted. TAT and SmPPO were truncated according to the domain, respectively. The first 126 amino acids of SmPPO and tyrosine amino transferase(TAT) were obtained to interact on the cell membrane and chloroplast. SmPPO was obtained by subcellular localization test, which was mainly loca-lized on the nucleus and cell membrane; TAT was localized on the cell membrane. Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the SmPPO gene was mainly expressed in roots and stems; the TAT gene was expressed in roots, and the expression level in stems and flowers was low. This article lays a solid foundation for the in-depth study of the molecular mechanism of the interaction of S. miltiorrhiza SmPPO and TAT to regulate the synthesis of phenolic substances.


Subject(s)
Catechol Oxidase , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gene Library , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828040

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease(DKD) has become a primary cause of end-stage kidney disease, without any effective treatment available. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of Guanxin Danshen Formulation(GXDSF) on diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice. The db/m and db/db mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, model group, metformin group, and GXDSF group. After 8 weeks' treatment with GXDSF, metformin or normal saline, the mice were sacrificed, and the blood and kidney tissues were collected for the further analysis. Compared with the model group, TG, TCH and LDL levels significantly decreased in the GXDSF group. The results from HE and PAS staining showed that db/db mice exhibited abnormal kidney tissues with increased glomerular volume, basement-membrane thickening and mesangial cell proliferation, which could be significantly alleviated by GXDSF treatment. GXDSF treatment also reduced serum creatinine and BUN. Meanwhile, GXDSF treatment markedly elevated GSH-PX levels, while reduced LDH and MDA levels in the kidney tissues. Western blot assay showed that GXDSF evidently up-regulated protein levels of ERα and p-Akt, and subsequently promoted HO-1 expression mediated by Nrf2. These data collectively indicated that GXDSF protects db/db mice against DN by regulating ERα and Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Kidney , Kidney Glomerulus , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Salvia miltiorrhiza
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