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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e702, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280188

ABSTRACT

The SES-Hospital Universitario de Caldas takes care of approximately 210 deliveries per month, with an overall cesarean section rate of 32 %, of which 72 % were conducted with, or had an epidural catheter, as an extension of the analgesia delivered during labor and were therefore excluded from the trial. This may address some of the concerns expressed by Sotelo 1 It is important to consider the observational character of the study discussed; in the discussion paragraph, mention is made of a potential selection bias, based on the convenience sampling and the non-randomized approach which are typical of the design used


el SES-Hospital Universitario de Caldas atiende aproximadamente 210 partos por mes, con una tasa global de cesáreas del 32%, de las cuales el 72% se realizaron con o tenían un catéter epidural, como una extensión de la analgesia administrada durante el trabajo de parto y por lo tanto, fueron excluidos del ensayo. Esto puede abordar algunas de las preocupaciones expresadas por Sotelo 1 Es importante considerar el carácter observacional del estudio discutido; En el párrafo de discusión, se menciona un posible sesgo de selección, basado en el muestreo de conveniencia y el enfoque no aleatorio que son típicos del diseño utilizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Labor, Obstetric , Cesarean Section , Character , Selection Bias , Sampling Studies , Catheters , Analgesia
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 101-108, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178954

ABSTRACT

La litiasis vesicular sintomática puede presentarse asociada a litiasis de la vía biliar principal, siendo necesaria la utilización de medios diagnósticos adecuados para su posterior tratamiento. En este trabajo, se sugiere la evaluación mediante las guías de la Sociedad Americana para Endoscopia Gastrointestinal (American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ASGE), usando factores como la edad, pruebas hepáticas y hallazgos ecográficos, categorizando a los pacientes en baja, intermedia y alta probabilidad de coledocolitiasis. Estudio de diseño retrospectivo, observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, con un muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos, sobre pacientes con diagnóstico de litiasis vesicular sintomática y sospecha de litiasis de la via biliar principal internados en la II Cátedra de Clínica Quirúrgica, del Hospital de Clínicas de San Lorenzo, entre los años 2017 a 2019. Con los siguientes resultados, de un total de 339 pacientes con diagnóstico de litiasis vesicular sintomática, el 6,64% tuvo el diagnóstico de coledocolitiasis asociada. En cuanto a los predictores muy fuertes de coledocolitiasis el más frecuentemente (68,6%,) encontrado fue el nivel de la bilirrubina total ≥ 4mg/dl; de los predictores fuertes el 70,6% presentaba la vía biliar principal dilatada; de los predictores moderados, el 84,3% presentó las enzimas hepáticas alteradas. En conclusión, se pudo identificar que la mayoría de los pacientes presentó alta probabilidad de coledocolitiasis y la conducta tomada fue realizar en primer lugar una colangiografía retrógrada endoscópica, con fines terapéuticos y luego colecistectomía, correspondiente al manejo correcto establecido por las guías actuales internacionales.


Symptomatic gallstones can occur associated with lithiasis of the main bile duct, requiring the use of adequate diagnostic tools for subsequent treatment. In this paper, we suggest using the guidelines of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), that uses factors such as age, liver tests, and ultrasound findings, categorizing patients as those with low, intermediate, and high probability. of choledocholithiasis. A Retrospective, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional design study, with a non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases, on patients with a diagnosis of symptomatic gallstones and suspected stones of the main bile duct admitted to the the 2nd Surgical Department and Service of Clinica´s Hospital of San Lorenzo, between the years 2017 to 2019. With the following results; of a total of 339 patients with the diagnosis of symptomatic gallstones, 6.64% had associated choledocholithiasis. Regarding the very strong predictors of choledocholithiasis, the most frequent (68.6%) was the total bilirubin level ≥ 4mg / dl; 70.6% had a dilated main bile duct as a strong predictor; as a moderate predictor, 84.3% had altered liver enzymes. In conclusion, it was possible to identify that most of the patients presented a high probability of choledocholithiasis and the action taken was to first perform an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, for therapeutic purposes, and then cholecystectomy, corresponding to the correct management established by current international guidelines.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Bilirubin , Cholangiography , Cholecystectomy , Gallstones , Lithiasis , Liver , Sampling Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Endoscopy
4.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 25: e221423, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1287665

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir e interpretar las TS de la convivencia escolar, de un grupo de padres y madres de una escuela de educación primaria chilena. Se utilizó un muestreo teórico y se aplicaron grupos de discusión y entrevistas episódicas a 16 padres y madres de una escuela de educación primaria. Los datos se analizaron mediante la técnica de la teoría fundamentada, encontrando (a) teorías subjetivas simples, pero que disponen a los padres a educar a sus hijos en convivencia; (b) factores asociados a la CE y propuestas para su mejora, (c) además de un rol parental educativo que se organiza en tres niveles para enseñar a sus hijos a convivir en la escuela. En la discusión se analiza la implicancia de estas teorías subjetivas en la convivencia escolar y el rol parental.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever e interpretar as teorias subjetivas (TS) da convivência escolar (CE), de um grupo de pais e mães de uma escola de educação primária chilena. Uma amostragem teórica foi utilizada e se aplicaram grupos de discussão e entrevistas episódicas em 16 pais e mães de uma escola de educação primária. Os dados foram analisados através da técnica da teoria fundamentada (Grounded Theory), encontrando: (a) teorias subjetivas simples, mas que proporcionam aos pais educar seus filhos na convivência; (b) fatores associados à CE e propostas de melhoria; (c) além de um papel educativo dos pais que se organiza em três níveis para ensinar seus filhos a conviver na escola. Na discussão é analisada a implicação das teorias subjetivas na convivência escolar e no papel parental.


The aim of this work was to describe and to interpret subjective theories about school coexistence in a group of parents from a Chilean primary school. A theoretical sample was used, group discussions and episodic interviews were conducted to 16 parents from a primary school. Data was analyzed through grounded theory, finding (a) simple subjective theories lead parents to raise their children on an environment-based approach; (b) associated factors with school coexistence environment and emerging proposals to improve them; (c) as well as a schooling parental role that it organizes around three levels of climate schooling teaching. In the discussion section, we analyze implications of these subjective theories into schooling environment and parental role.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parents , Sampling Studies , Education, Primary and Secondary , Mothers
5.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(2): 103-110, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281100

ABSTRACT

Las úlceras o escaras por presión son regiones de daño localizado en la piel y tejidos subyacentes que generalmente se desarrollan por presión constante sobre huesos o prominencias. Las úlceras por presión están asociadas a prolongadas y más costosas estadías hospitalarias, con mayores tasas de mortalidad. El presente trabajo es de diseño retrospectivo, observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, con un muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Se analizaron los datos de 178 pacientes. La patología de base predominante (24%) fue el accidente cerebrovascular. Localización más frecuente fue la escara sacra (58%). Existió una relación estadísticamente significativa entre los diagnósticos que implicaban un encamamiento crónico y la aparición de úlceras profundas grado IV, así como la progresión al grado IV en las localizaciones tanto sacras como en su aparición en múltiples localizaciones simultaneas. El tratamiento de elección en el Grado I (70 %) fue la curación, en el Grado III (14%) fue escarectomía y en el Grado IV (46%) un desbridamiento quirúrgico. Las úlceras por presión constituyen un problema de salud con importantes repercusiones en el estado de salud y la calidad de vida, con un gran impacto socio-económico y es por esto que la evaluación integral del paciente, permite la prevención de las mismas identificando los factores predisponentes a desarrollarlas.


Pressure ulcers or sores are regions of localized damage to the skin and underlying tissues that generally develop from constant pressure on bones or body prominences. Pressure ulcers are associated with longer and more expensive hospital stays, with higher mortality rates. The present work is of a retrospective, observational, analytical, cross-sectional design, with a non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. Data from 178 patients were analyzed. The predominant underlying pathology (24%) was cerebrovascular accident or stroke. The most frequent location was the sacral eschar (58%). There was a statistically significant relationship between diagnoses that implied chronic bedriddening and the appearance of deep grade IV ulcers, as well as progression to grade IV in both sacral locations and their appearance in multiple simultaneous locations. The treatment of choice in grade I (70%) was wound dressing, in Grade III (14%) it was scarectomy and in grade IV (46%) a surgical debridement. Pressure ulcers constitute a health problem with significant repercussions on the state of health and quality of life, with a great socio-economic impact and that is why the comprehensive evaluation of the patient allows their prevention by identifying the factors predisposing to develop them.


Subject(s)
Ulcer , Stroke , Pressure Ulcer , Wounds and Injuries , Sampling Studies , Mortality , Diagnosis
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 575-580, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134541

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La higiene oral en pacientes con ortodoncia fija se encuentra comprometida y las nuevas tecnologías de información podrían convertirse en una herramienta valiosa de educación en salud oral. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de una intervención educativa vía whatsapp en la higiene oral de pacientes con aparatología de ortodoncia fija. La muestra del estudio estuvo conformada por 46 pacientes (18.65 ± 3.21 años de edad) que iniciaron tratamiento de ortodoncia fija. Se realizó el índice de placa de O´Leary y se aplicó un cuestionario para medir el nivel de conocimiento en higiene oral. Los participantes se dividieron en un grupo experimental y control, mediante asignación aleatoria. Al grupo experimental se le envió una intervención educativa elaborada mediante la herramienta Play Ground Versión 2.0, vía la aplicación para mensajería instantánea WhatsApp Messenger Versión 2.19.153 y al grupo control se brindó las instrucciones de rutina sobre higiene oral. Después de 6 semanas, se evaluó el índice y cuestionario. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el Coeficiente de Correlación de Concordancia, la prueba de Shapiro Wilk y la prueba T de Student para muestras relacionadas e independientes. Los pacientes del grupo experimental tuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el control de placa (p = 0.001) y nivel de conocimiento después de la intervención educativa (p = 0.016), a comparación del grupo control. La intervención educativa vía WhatsApp tuvo un efecto positivo en la higiene oral, con respecto al control de placa y al nivel de conocimientos de pacientes con ortodoncia fija.


ABSTRACT: Oral hygiene in patients with fixed orthodontics is compromised and new information technologies could become a valuable tool for oral health education. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention via WhatsApp on the oral hygiene of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study sample consisted of 46 patients (18.65 ± 3.21 years old) who started fixed orthodontic treatment. The O'Leary plaque index was performed and a questionnaire was applied to measure the level of knowledge in oral hygiene. Participants were divided into an experimental and control group, by randomization. The experimental group was sent an educational intervention prepared using the Play Ground Version 2.0 tool, via the WhatsApp Messenger versión 2.19.153 instant messaging application, and the control group was given routine instructions on oral hygiene. After 6 weeks, the index and questionnaire were evaluated. For data analysis, the concordance correlation coefficient, the Shapiro Wilk test and the Student's T test for related and independent samples were used. The patients in the experimental group had statistically significant differences in plaque control (p = 0.001) and level of knowledge after the educational intervention (p = 0.016), compared to the control group. The educational intervention via WhatsApp had a positive effect on oral hygiene, with respect to plaque control and the level of knowledge of patients with fixed orthodontics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Oral Hygiene/education , Orthodontics , Mobile Applications/trends , Peru , Statistical Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sampling Studies , Ethics Committees , Education/methods , Smartphone/trends
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 41-52, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177483

ABSTRACT

Existen varios trastornos mentales que se relacionan con el consumo del alcohol y otras drogas, cierto número de personas desarrollan un patrón evolutivo al abuso, sea este persistente o esporádico, produce perturbaciones o limitaciones clínicamente significativas con variadas manifestaciones en el hogar, la escuela y el trabajo. Se determinó la frecuencia y asociación entre trastornos psiquiátricos, patrones de consumo de sustancias y variables sociodemográficas en estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción. El diseño de estudio fue observacional, analítico, corte transversal, La población estuvo constituida por 626 estudiantes de la carrera de medicina del primero al quinto curso, que fueron seleccionados por un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se aplicaron 3 cuestionarios que abarcaban tres aspectos: datos sociodemográficos, abuso de drogas y diagnóstico psiquiátrico. Los datos fueron analizados mediante GNU Perfect Statistics Professionally Presented y Epi Info. Se concluyó que el trastorno más frecuente fue el Trastorno por Abuso de drogas, seguido del Trastorno Obsesivo-Compulsivo y el Trastorno Depresivo Mayor. La sustancia más consumida fue el alcohol, seguido del tabaco y la marihuana. Esta última fue la única que se asoció con todas las sustancias. El consumo de alcohol presentó asociación con TOC, Fobia Social y Ansiedad; los consumidores de benzodiacepinas presentaron mayor riesgo de Trastorno Depresivo, Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático, Bulimia, Pánico, Agorafobia, Ansiedad y Trastorno de Somatización. Se recomienda la implementación de políticas de educación preventiva, así como estudios prospectivos para evaluar relaciones de causalidad en las asociaciones encontradas.


There are several mental disorders that are related to the consumption of alcohol and other drugs, a number of people develop an evolutionary pattern of abuse, whether it is persistent or sporadic, it produces clinically significant disturbances or limitations with various manifestations at home, school and the job. The frequency and association between psychiatric disorders, patterns of substance use and socio-demographic variables in medical students of the National University of Asunción was determined. The study design was observational, analytical, cross-sectional. The population consisted of 626 medical students from the first to the fifth year, who were selected by a non-probabilistic convenience sampling. 3 questionnaires were applied that covered three aspects: sociodemographic data, drug abuse and psychiatric diagnosis. The data was analyzed using GNU Perfect Statistics Professionally Presented and Epi Info. It was concluded that the most frequent disorder was Drug Abuse Disorder, followed by Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. The most used substance was alcohol, followed by tobacco and marijuana. The latter was the only one that was associated with all substances. Alcohol consumption was associated with OCD, Social Phobia and Anxiety; Benzodiazepine users had a higher risk of Depressive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia, Panic, Agoraphobia, Anxiety and Somatization Disorder. The implementation of preventive education policies is recommended, as well as prospective studies to evaluate causal relationships in the associations found.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Cannabis , Depressive Disorder, Major , Ethanol , Mental Disorders , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Students , Causality , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sampling Studies
8.
Psico USF ; 25(4): 763-775, out.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1155092

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de validar para o contexto brasileiro o Attitudes to Moral Decision-making Young Sport Questionnarie (AMDYSQ) por meio de dois estudos: No Estudo 1, contando com a participação de 181 jovens atletas, foi realizada uma análise fatorial exploratória, com a qual identificou-se três fatores condizentes com o estudo original. Os índices de consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach) foram aceitáveis para dois fatores (Trapaça: α = 0,72; Antidesportivismo: α = 0,74), no fator Vitória Justa esse índice ficou abaixo do aceitável (α = 0,55). No Estudo 2, buscou-se comprovar a estrutura fatorial contando com uma nova amostra de 242 jovens atletas. Foi realizada uma análise fatorial confirmatória, onde os resultados demonstraram indicadores de ajuste ao modelo de acordo com o recomendado pela literatura: χ2(62) = 99,820, p < 0,005, χ2/gl = 1,61, GFI = 0,94, AGFI = 0,91, TLI = 0,96; CFI = 0,97 e RMSEA = 0,05 (IC 90% = 0,03 - 0,06). Dessa forma, o AMDYSQ apresentou evidências de validade para o contexto brasileiro, porém novas pesquisas de validade deverão ser realizadas com esse instrumento. (AU)


This research aimed to validate the Attitudes to Moral Decision-making in Youth Sport Questionnaire (AMDYSQ) for the Brazilian context using 2 studies. In Study 1, whose participants included 181 young athletes; an Exploratory Factor Analysis identified 3 factors consistent with the original study. Internal consistency indexes (Cronbach's alpha) were acceptable for 2 factors (Cheating: α = 0.72; Unsportsmanlike conduct: α = 0.74), in the Fair victory factor this index was slightly below the acceptable (α =0.55). In Study 2, we sought to prove the factorial structure of AMDYSQ, with a new sample of 242 young athletes. We performed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis, where the results showed indicators of fit of the model according to the recommended in the literature: χ2 (62) = 99.820, p < 0.005, χ2/gl = 1.61, GFI = 0.94, AGFI = 0.91, TLI = 0.96; CFI = 0.97 and RMSEA = 0.05 (90% CI, 0.03 - 0.06). Thus, the study showed evidence of validity for the AMDYSQ for the Brazilian context; however, new validity studies should be performed with this instrument. (AU)


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo principal validar, para el contexto brasileño, Attitudes to Moral Decision-Making Young Sport Questionnaire (AMDYSQ) por medio de dos estudios. En el Estudio 1, contando con la participación de 181 jóvenes atletas, se realizó un Análisis Factorial Exploratorio, con que se identificaron tres factores condecentes con el estudio original. Los índices de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) fueron aceptables para dos factores (Fraude: α = 0,72; Anti deportismo: α = 0,74), para el factor Victoria Justa, este índice fue debajo de lo aceptable α = 0,55). En el Estudio 2, se buscó comprobar la estructura factorial del AMDYSQ, contando con una nueva muestra de 242 jóvenes deportistas. Se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio, donde los resultados mostraron indicadores de ajuste del modelo de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la literatura: χ2 (62) = 99,820, p < 0,005, χ2 /gl = 1,61, GFI =0,94, AGFI = 0,91, TLI = 0,96; CFI = 0,97 y RMSEA = 0,05 (IC 90% = 0,03 - 0,06). De esta forma, el estudio presentó evidencias de validez del AMDYSQ para el contexto brasileño, pero nuevas investigaciones deben ser hechas con este instrumento. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Decision Making , Athletes/psychology , Morals , Psychometrics , Translating , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Reproducibility of Results , Sampling Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical
9.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 25: 1-8, set. 2020. quad, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148239

ABSTRACT

Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar o processo de contratransferência de política envolvendo o Programa Academia da Cidade do Recife. Estudo com abordagem qualitativa. Foi realizada análise documental a partir de relatórios, avaliações, Portarias e Resoluções, Notas Técnicas, Diários Oficiais do Município, Estado e da União, como também os Planos Municipais de Saúde do município de Recife. Para a definição da quantidade final dos participantes da pesquisa foi utilizado o critério de amostra por saturação. Todos os participantes concordaram e contribuíram na pesquisa. Não houveram desistências durante o processo da pesquisa. Participaram da pesquisa seis importantes sujeitos-chave, dentre eles, gestores, coordenadores, formuladores e profissionais envolvidos no Programa Academia da Cidade do Recife e em programas congêneres. Os dados foram analisados com base no modelo de condensação de significados. A contratransferência é identificada posteriormente ao processo de transferência e está relacionada a uma retroalimentação que pode ser percebida a partir da identificação do recebimento de recursos para além do âmbito financeiro. Foi identificada a contratransferência de política envolvendo o PAC e o Programa Estadual Academias das Cidades do Governo do Estado de Pernambuco e o Programa Federal Academia da Saúde. Podemos considerar que o PAC Recife, devido a sua formulação e implantação exitosa, foi alvo do processo de transferência e de contratransferência de política


To analyze the policy countertransference process involving the Academia da Cidade do Recife Program. Study with a qualitative approach. Documentary analysis was performed from reports, evaluations, Ordinances and Resolutions, Technical Notes, Official Diaries of the Municipality, State and Union, as well as the Municipal Health Plans of the municipality of Recife. For the definition of the final quantity of the research participants, the criterion of sample by saturation was used. Six important key subjects participated in the research, among them, managers, coordinators, formulators and professionals involved in the Academia da Cidade Program in Recife and similar programs. The data were analyzed based on the condensation of meanings model. The countertransference is identified after the transfer process and is related to feedback, which can be perceived from the identification of the receipt of funds beyond the financial scope. The policy countertransference involving the PAC and the State Academies of Cities Program of the Government of the State of Pernambuco and the Federal Health Academy Program were identified. PAC Recife, due to its successful formulation and implementation, was the target of the policy transfer and countertransference process


Subject(s)
Health Programs and Plans , Sampling Studies , Qualitative Research , Health Policy , Motor Activity
10.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 24: 1-7, out. 2019. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121565

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as mudanças na atividade física e aptidão física após aulas de Educação Física escolar fundamentadas no ensino por resolução de problemas. Participaram da pesquisa, dois grupos (G1 n = 33 e G2 n=35) compostos por jovens com 17 anos de idade. Os integrantes do G1 e do G2 participaram de aulas sobre conteúdo da aptidão física, por meio da metodologia baseada na resolução de problemas, durante 20 aulas. Os integrantes do G1 tiveram as aulas predominantemente teóricas; para o G2, as aulas foram predominantemente práticas. A bateria de testes de aptidão física da PROESP-BR e o International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-versão curta) foram utilizados antes e após a intervenção. A quantidade de participantes muito ativos aumentou 21,2% no G1 e não sofreu alterações no G2 (31,4%). Houve diferença significante (p < 0,05) entre momentos (pré vs pós) no G1, na flexibilidade e força abdominal, e efeito pequeno para a flexibilidade, velocidade e força abdominal. No G2 observou-se diferença significante e efeito pequeno para flexibilidade, resistência e velocidade. Concluiu-se que as duas intervenções didáticas promoveram alteração no nível de atividade física, mas o efeito foi maior nos escolares do G1. O nível de aptidão física foi maior após as intervenções no G1 e no G2. O estudo revelou a importância de se promover a disseminação dos saberes e valores sobre a vida fisicamente ativa


The aim of the study was to analyze changes in physical activities and physical fitness after school Physical Education classes based on the methodology based on teaching by problem solving. Participated in the study, 2 groups (G1 n = 33 and G2 n = 35) composed of students aged 17 years old. The members of G1 and G2 participated in classes on physical fitness content, through a methodology based on problem solving, during 20 classes. The members of G1 had classes that were predominantly theoretical; for G2, the classes were predominantly practical. PROESP-BR's battery of physical fitness tests and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short version) were used before and after the intervention. The number of very active participants increased 21.2% in G1 and did not change in G2 (31.4%). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between moments (pre vs post) in G1, in flexibility and abdominal strength, and small effect for flexibility, speed and abdominal strength. In G2 there was a significant difference and small effect for flexibility, resistance and speed. It was concluded that the two didactic interventions promoted changes in the level of physical activity, but the effect was greater in the students of G1. The level of physical fitness was higher after interventions in G1 and G2. The study revealed the importance of promoting the dissemination of knowledge and values about physically active life


Subject(s)
Problem Solving , Teaching , Exercise , Physical Fitness , Sampling Studies , Sedentary Behavior
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 343-354, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012341

ABSTRACT

Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is an important prognostic marker and its classification helps the cardiologist in the therapeutic decision-making process. The most commonly used cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification has not been validated for the Brazilian population. Objective: To elaborate a CRF classification using a Brazilian sample and to compare it with the American Heart Association (AHA), Cooper and UNIFESP classifications. Methods: A total of 6,568 healthy subjects were analyzed through cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). They were distributed by sex and the following age groups (years): 7-12, 13-19, 20-79 (per decades) and > 80 years. After measurement of the VO2peak, participants were distributed into quintiles of CRF in very poor, poor, moderate, high and very high (AEMA Table). The CRF classifications by AEMA, AHA, Cooper, and UNIFESP were compared using the Wilcoxon, Kappa and concordance percentages. Results: VO2peak presented an inverse and moderate correlation with age considering both sexes (R = -0.488, p < 0.001). All paired comparisons between CRF classification systems showed differences (p < 0.001) and disagreement percentage - AEMA versus AHA (k = 0.291, 56.7%), AEMA versus Cooper (k = 0.220, 62.4%) and AEMA versus UNIFESP (k = 0.201, 63.9 %). Conclusion: The AEMA table showed important discrepancies in the classification of CRF when compared to other tables widely used in our setting. Because it was obtained from a large sample of the Brazilian population, the AEMA table should be preferred over other classification systems in our population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brazil , Sampling Studies , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Oxygen Consumption , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Exercise , Sex Factors , Statistical Analysis , Age Factors , Electrocardiography/methods , Exercise Test/methods , Population Health
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 83-93, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041896

ABSTRACT

Abstract The solubility equilibrium of calcite is influenced by physicochemical, climatic and biological factors. Annual cycles of exceptionally prolonged drought, in conjunction with naturally occurring diffuse organic pollution, generate the unique conditions for the precipitation of lithified carbonate structures (microbialites). The aim of this article is to analyze the possible implications of calcite precipitation produced in mats of Cladophora sp. in an Andean subtropical basin, considering it is the first time this phenomenon is described for the region. We collected samples from selected sites at the Lules River Basin, in four sampling dates between the years 2003 and 2004, within a monitoring work of 15 years. Samples were analyzed using an electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. We found that Gomphonema sp. attached to Cladophora sp. contributes to precipitation of calcite and formation of microbialite like structures, in the studied area. This work presents an initial discussion of the discovery of microbialites-like structures attached to Cladophora sp. mats in a subtropical Andean stream and the environmental conditions that lead to their production, as well as the possible ecological implications of these microbialites.(AU)


Resumen La fase sólida de las sales de los cuerpos de agua juega un papel importante en la concentración de los elementos mayoritarios. El equilibrio de solubilidad de la calcita está influenciado por factores fisicoquímicos, climáticos y biológicos. Los ciclos anuales de sequía excepcionalmente prolongada, junto con la contaminación orgánica difusa de origen natural, generan condiciones únicas para la precipitación de estructuras de carbonato litificado (microbialitos). El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las posibles implicaciones de la precipitación de calcita producida en Cladophora sp. en una cuenca subtropical andina, considerando que es la primera vez que se describe este fenómeno para la región. Recolectamos muestras en sitios seleccionados en la Cuenca del Río Lules, en cuatro fechas de muestreo entre 2003 y 2004, en el marco de un trabajo de monitoreo de quince años. Usamos red Surber para realizar los muestreos. Las muestras de algas, una vez libres de macroinvertebrados, se secaron y pesaron. Analizamos utilizando microscopía electrónica y difracción de rayos X. Encontramos que Gomphonema sp. unido a Cladophora contribuye a la precipitación de calcita y la formación de estructuras similares a microbialitos, en el área estudiada. Este trabajo presenta una discusión inicial sobre el descubrimiento de estructuras similares a microbialitos unidas a filamentos de Cladophora sp. en una cuenca andina subtropical y las condiciones ambientales que conducen a su producción, así como las posibles implicaciones ecológicas de lo mencionado anteriormente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Lithium Carbonate/analysis , Diatoms/chemistry , Environmental Pollution , Droughts , Argentina , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron/instrumentation , Sampling Studies
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 47-60, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041893

ABSTRACT

Abstract Domestic animals are involved in a large number of traffic accidents and they represent danger to humans due to their size. Despite this, few studies consider domestic animals. That is why we evaluate mammals' roadkill aggregations in order to locate them and to determine if wild and domestic mammals' roadkills overlap. In addition, we investigate the influence of the landscape on the location of the aggregations. This study was carried out on the BR-050 highway, an area of Cerrado biome, in Southeastern Brazil. The monitoring was executed from April 2012 to March 2013, by car, at an average speed of 60 km/h, with two observers looking for roadkills on the highway. We found 482 mammals' roadkills, including 260 (54 %) wild mammals, 164 (34 %) domestic and 58 (12.0 %) undetermined specimens. Of the 21 recorded mammal species, five were domestic. The wild mammals' roadkill rate was 0.03 (± 0.02) individuals/km/day and the domestic roadkill rate was 0.02 (± 0.01). We detected roadkill aggregations for wild and domestic mammals. Roadkill hotspots of domestic mammals and wild mammals did not overlap. The variables that had the highest influence on wild mammals' roadkill probability were: agriculture and silviculture cover as positive effects and distance to the nearest river, to the urban perimeter and to a natural fragment as negative effects. For domestic mammals these variables were: area of the smallest fragment and distance to a natural fragment as positive effects and silviculture cover as a negative effect. The explanation for the wild and domestic mammals' roadkill hotspot non overlapping seems to be the effect of each variable in determining the roadkill hotspot since their effect is different for wild and domestic mammals. On the other hand, this non overlapping can be a result of domestic mammals' scavenging habits. We propose different kinds of mitigation measures in order to reduce domestic and wild mammals' roadkill.(AU)


Resumen Los animales domésticos están involucrados en una gran cantidad de accidentes de tránsito y representan un peligro para los humanos debido a su tamaño. A pesar de esto, pocos estudios consideran a los animales domésticos. Es por eso que evaluamos agregaciones de atropellos de mamíferos, con el fin de ubicarlas y determinar si los atropellos de los mamíferos silvestres y domésticos se traslapan. Además, investigamos la influencia del paisaje en la ubicación de las agregaciones. Este estudio se realizó en la carretera BR-050, un área del bioma Cerrado, en el sureste de Brasil. El muestreo se ejecutó entre abril 2012 y marzo 2013, en automóvil, a una velocidad promedio de 60 km/h, y dos observadores buscaron animales atropellados en la carretera. Encontramos 482 mamíferos atropellados, incluidos 260 (54 %) mamíferos silvestres, 164 (34 %) ejemplares domésticos y 58 (12 %) especímenes indeterminados. De las 21 especies de mamíferos registradas, cinco fueron de origen doméstico. La tasa de mortalidad de mamíferos silvestres fue de 0.033 (± 0.018) individuos/km/día y la de domésticos de 0.020 (± 0.008). Detectamos agregaciones de atropellos para mamíferos silvestres y domésticos. Los "hotspots" de atropellos de mamíferos domésticos y silvestres no se traslapan. Las variables que tuvieron la mayor influencia positiva en la probabilidad de atropello de mamíferos silvestres fueron: cobertura de la agricultura y la silvicultura; mientras que distancia al río más cercano, al perímetro urbano y al fragmento natural tuvieron un efecto negativo. Para los mamíferos domésticos estas variables con un efecto positivo fueron: área del fragmento más pequeño y distancia al fragmento natural; en tanto que la cobertura de silvicultura tuvo un efecto negativo. El que no haya un traslape de los atropellos de mamíferos silvestres y domésticos se podría explicar por el efecto de cada variable en la determinación de los "hotspots" de atropellos, ya que su efecto es diferente para los mamíferos silvestres y domésticos. Por otro lado, el no traslape puede ser el resultado de los hábitos carroñeros de los mamíferos domésticos. Proponemos diferentes tipos de medidas de mitigación con el fin de reducir los atropellos de los mamíferos domésticos y salvajes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Roads , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Brazil , Sampling Studies , Spatial Analysis
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 243-253, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Euphausiids migrate vertically in the water column as part of their diel cycle. These migrations make them a key element in the biological pump of the pelagic environment. In order to evaluate the vertical distribution of euphausiids around Malpelo Island (3.8 - 4.2 N & 81.4 - 81.8 W), we took stratified zooplankton samples (0-50, 50-100, and 100-150 m) during the Pacífico-ERFEN campaign in September 2012. A total of 10 species belonging to four genera were identified. Euphausia diomedeae was the most abundant species in the 0-50 and 100-150 m layers, whereas E. distinguenda was the most abundant species in the 50-100 m layer. Based on quasi-Poisson generalized linear distribution models we found that abundance in the 50-100 m layer was significantly higher than in the 100-150 m layer (t= 3.05, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences associated with sampling hour (diurnal/nocturnal) (t= 0.07, p = 0.94). We calculated a vertical distribution index (VDI) based on abundance, showed that euphausiid species were concentrated in the 50-100 m layer during day and night. Calyptopis larvae dominated in abundance at all depth layers, followed by furcilia larvae, juveniles, and adults. The abundance of the latter increased gradually from the most superficial layer to the deepest layer, whereas juveniles showed the opposite pattern. This is the first study to describe the taxonomic composition, and vertical and spatial distribution of euphausiids associated with Malpelo Island, Colombian Pacific.(AU)


Resumen Los eufáusidos son organismos que realizan migraciones verticales en la columna de agua como parte de un ciclo nictemeral, estas migraciones los convierten en un elemento clave del ambiente pelágico. Con el propósito de evaluar la distribución vertical de los eufáusidos alrededor de la isla Malpelo (3.8-4.2 N & 81.4-81.8 W), se tomaron muestras estratificadas (0-50, 50-100 y 100-150 m) de zooplancton durante la campaña Pacífico-ERFEN de septiembre 2012. Se identificaron un total de 10 especies pertenecientes a cuatro géneros, siendo Euphausia diomedeae la especie más abundante en los estratos 0-50 y 100-150 m, mientras que E. distinguenda fue la especie más abundante en el estrato de 50-100 m. Con base en modelos lineales generalizados con distribución quasipoisson se encontró que la abundancia del estrato de 50-100 m fue significativamente mayor que la del estrato de 100-150 m (t= 3.05, p < 0.05), sin embargo no se detectaron diferencias significativas asociadas con la hora del muestreo (diurna/nocturna) (t= 0.07, p= 0.94). Con base en la abundancia se construyó un índice de distribución vertical (IDV) encontrando que las especies de eufáusidos estuvieron concentradas en el estrato de 50-100 m durante el día y durante la noche. En los tres estratos de profundidad dominaron en abundancia las larvas calyptopis, seguido de las larvas furcilias, los juveniles y los adultos. Estos últimos incrementaron su abundancia gradualmente desde el estrato más superficial hasta el más profundo mientras que los juveniles tuvieron un patrón opuesto. Este es el primer trabajo que describe la composición taxonómica y distribución vertical y espacial de los eufáusidos asociados a la isla Malpelo, Pacífico colombiano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Residence Characteristics , Animal Migration , Euphausiacea , Sampling Studies , Colombia
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(1): 46-53, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043357

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Determine the effect of Seguro Popular (SP) on preventive care utilization among low-income SP beneficiaries and uninsured elders in Mexico. Materials and methods: Fixed-effects instrumental-variable (FE-IV) pseudo-panel estimation from three rounds of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2000, 2006 and 2012). Results: Our findings suggest that SP has no significant effect on the use of preventive services, including screening for diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer and cervical cancer, by adults aged 50 to 75 years. Conclusions: Despite the evidence that suggests that SP has increased access to health insurance for the poor, inequalities in healthcare access and utilization still exist in Mexico. The Mexican government must keep working on extending health insurance coverage to vulnerable adults. Additional efforts to increase health care coverage and to support preventive care are needed to reduce persistent disparities in healthcare utilization.


Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) en la utilización de la atención preventiva entre beneficiarios de SP de bajos ingresos y ancianos sin seguro en México. Material y métodos: Estimación de pseudopanel de variables instrumentales de efectos fijos (FE-IV) en tres rondas de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de México (2000, 2006 y 2012). Resultados: El SP no tiene un efecto significativo en el uso de los servicios preventivos, incluida la detección de diabetes, hipertensión, cáncer de mama y cáncer de cuello uterino en adultos de 50 años o más. Conclusiones: Aún existen desigualdades en el acceso a la asistencia médica en México. El gobierno mexicano debe seguir trabajando para extender la cobertura del seguro de salud a la población más vulnerable. Se necesitan esfuerzos adicionales para aumentar la cobertura de atención médica y apoyar la atención preventiva para reducir las disparidades persistentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Sampling Studies , Health Surveys , Cost Savings , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e00108618, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001692

ABSTRACT

O Estudo Educatel 2015/2016 foi delineado para avaliar a saúde e as condições do trabalho realizado nas escolas, de uma amostra representativa dos 2.220.000 professores que atuavam na Educação Básica no Brasil. O objetivo do artigo foi descrever as bases e o delineamento da pesquisa telefônica, que utilizou questionário composto por 54 perguntas curtas e simples, a maioria composta de respostas preestabelecidas (questões fechadas), versando sobre morbidades, acidentes, absenteísmo, frequência dos comportamentos saudáveis, ambiente físico e psicossocial, e características do emprego. Na etapa piloto, o questionário multitemático foi avaliado a fim de verificar os efeitos da terminologia usada, o formato das questões e das alternativas de resposta, a organização interna das perguntas, a produção das respostas e a duração da entrevista. O treinamento dos entrevistadores, o acompanhamento e a escuta das chamadas em tempo real buscaram identificar problemas de comunicação. Os professores foram entrevistados na escola, após contato prévio com o assistente escolar para agendamento. Para interpretar os resultados, alerta-se sobre as vantagens e riscos de vieses relacionados à modalidade de entrevista por telefone. Os resultados sobre o perfil dos professores, adoecimento e ambiente escolar fornecerão insumos para a elaboração de ações intersetoriais para melhorar a saúde do grupo alvo que, de acordo com as concepções que foram aqui apresentadas, estaria relacionada aos indicadores educacionais brasileiros.


El Estudio Educatel 2015/2016 fue diseñado para evaluar la salud y las condiciones del trabajo realizado en las escuelas, de una muestra representativa de los 2.220.000 profesores que actuaban en la Educación Básica en Brasil. El objetivo del artículo fue describir las bases y el lineamiento de la encuesta telefónica, que utilizó un cuestionario compuesto por 54 preguntas cortas y simples, la mayoría compuesta de respuestas preestablecidas (cuestiones cerradas), que versaban sobre morbilidades, accidentes, absentismo, frecuencia de comportamientos saludables, ambiente físico y psicosocial, y características del empleo. En la etapa piloto, el cuestionario multitemático se evaluó a fin de verificar los efectos de la terminología usada, el formato de las cuestiones y de las alternativas de respuesta, la organización interna de las preguntas, la producción de las respuestas y la duración de la entrevista. El entrenamiento de los entrevistadores, el seguimiento y la escucha de las llamadas en tiempo real procuraron identificar problemas de comunicación. Los profesores fueron entrevistados en la escuela, tras un contacto previo con el asistente escolar para fijar citas. Con el fin de interpretar los resultados, se alerta sobre las ventajas y riesgos de sesgos relacionados con la modalidad de entrevista por teléfono. Los resultados sobre el perfil de los profesores, enfermedad y ambiente escolar proporcionarán insumos para la elaboración de acciones intersectoriales, con el objeto de mejorar la salud del grupo objetivo que, de acuerdo con las concepciones que fueron aquí presentadas, estaría relacionada con los indicadores educacionales brasileños.


The Educatel Study 2015/2016 was designed to evaluate health and work conditions in a representative sample of the 2,220,000 schoolteachers working in Basic Education in Brazil. The article aimed to describe the telephone survey's basis and design, using a questionnaire consisting of 54 short, simple questions, most of which with multiple-choice answers (closed questions) addressing diseases, accidents, absenteeism, frequency of healthy behaviors, physical and psychosocial environment, and employment characteristics. In the pilot stage, the multi-theme questionnaire was assessed in order to verify the effects of the terminology, the format of the questions and the multiple-choice answers, the questionnaire's internal organization, production of the answers, and duration of the interview. The interviewers' training and follow-up and listening of the calls in real time aimed to identify communications problems. The teachers were interviewed at school after prior contact with the school assistant to set appointments. The advantages and risks of biases related to the telephone interview modality should be considered to interpret the results. The results on the teachers' profile, illnesses, and school environment will provide inputs for elaborating inter-sector measures to improve the target group's health, which is related to Brazil's school system indicators based on the concepts presented here.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Interviews as Topic , Occupational Health , School Teachers , Health Promotion/methods , Schools , Brazil , Accidents , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sampling Studies , Workplace , Absenteeism , Healthy Lifestyle
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(6): e00099518, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001677

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Analisou-se a autoavaliação da saúde bucal da população adulta brasileira segundo a posição socioeconômica (região de residência, escolaridade, renda e classe social), explorando as variáveis com maior sensibilidade para medir tal associação. Estudaram-se 59.758 indivíduos com 18 anos ou mais de idade, que participaram da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013, um inquérito domiciliar de base populacional. A autoavaliação da saúde bucal (dentes e gengivas) foi analisada como positiva, regular e negativa. Com base na regressão logística multinomial, estimaram-se odds ratio (OR) brutos e ajustados e os respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%). Foram calculados os percentuais de concordância e o valor de kappa para comparar os valores obtidos pelos modelos de regressão e os valores esperados. A prevalência da autoavaliação da saúde bucal positiva foi 67,4%, 26,7% para regular e 5,9% para negativa. Após ajuste, a chance de autoavaliar a saúde bucal como negativa foi significativamente mais elevada entre os indivíduos com renda domiciliar per capita de até um salário mínimo (OR = 4,71; IC95%: 2,84-7,83), sem nível de escolaridade completo (OR = 3,28; IC95%: 2,34-4,61), da classe social destituídos de ativos (OR = 3,03; IC95%: 2,12-4,32) e residentes na Região Nordeste (OR = 1,50; IC95%: 1,19-1,89). Diversos indicadores de posição socioeconômica influenciam a percepção sobre a saúde bucal, mas a renda domiciliar per capita, a escolaridade e a classe social foram as responsáveis pelo maior gradiente na autoavaliação da saúde bucal de adultos no Brasil em 2013.


Abstract: The study analyzed self-rated oral health in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic status (region of residence, schooling, income, and social class), exploring the variables with the greatest sensitivity to measure the association. The study sample included 59,758 individuals 18 years or older who participated in the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013, a population-based household survey. Self-rated oral health (teeth and gums) was analyzed as positive, fair, or negative. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Percentage of agreement and kappa values were calculated to compare the values obtained with the regression models and the expected values. Self-rated oral health was positive in 67.4%, fair in 26.7%, and negative in 5.9%. After adjustment, the odds of negative self-rated health were significantly higher in individuals with per capita household income up to one minimum wage, or approximately USD 270/month (OR = 4.71; 95%CI: 2.84-7.83), without complete primary schooling (OR = 3.28; 95%CI: 2.34-4.61), in the social class devoid of assets (OR = 3.03; 95%CI: 2.12-4.32) and residents of Northeast Brazil (OR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.19-1.89). Various indicators of socioeconomic status influence self-rated oral health, but per capita household income, schooling, and social class accounted for the largest gradient in self-rated oral health in Brazilian adults in 2013.


Resumen: Se analizó la autoevaluación de salud bucal de la población adulta brasileña según la posición socioeconómica (región de residencia, escolaridad, renta y clase social), explorando las variables con mayor sensibilidad para medir tal asociación. Se han estudiado 59.758 individuos con 18 años o más de edad, que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2013, una encuesta domiciliar de base poblacional. La autoevaluación de la salud bucal (dientes y encías) fue analizada como positiva, regular y negativa. Através de la regresión logística multinomial, se estimaron odds ratio (OR) brutos y ajustados y los respectivos intervalos con 95% de confianza (IC95%). Se calcularon los porcentajes de concordancia y el valor de kappa para comparar los valores obtenidos por los modelos de regresión y los valores esperados. La prevalencia de la autoevaluación de salud bucal positiva fue 67,4%, 26,7% para regular y 5,9% para negativa. Después del ajuste, la posibilidad de autoevaluar la salud bucal como negativa fue significativamente más elevada entre los individuos con ingresos domiciliarios per cápita de hasta un salario mínimo (OR = 4,71, IC95%: 2,84-7,83), sin niveles de escolaridad completa (OR = 3,28; IC95%: 2,34-4,61), de la clase social desposeídos de activos (OR = 3,03; IC95%: 2,12-4,32) y residentes de la región Nordeste (OR = 1,50; IC95%: 1,19-1,89). Diversos indicadores de posición socioeconómica influencian la percepción sobre la salud bucal, pero la renta domiciliar per cápita, la escolaridad y la clase social fueron los responsables del mayor gradiente en la autoevaluación de salud bucal de adultos en Brasil en 2013.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Income/statistics & numerical data , Self Concept , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Sampling Studies , Health Surveys , Qualitative Research , Educational Status , Health Status Disparities
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180141, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039126

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper describes a methodology to evaluate Alphitobius diaperinus (Darkling beetle) population in order to estimate the effectiveness of control methods, consisting of direct sample collections from the poultry litter in 18 points, counting of adults and larvae, and subsequent comparison of the values obtained before and after of control strategies. It allows estimating the total population, population in a known area, as well to analyze the variations in different points all over the aviary. The method has shown to be very versatile, being indicated for population studies and efficacy evaluations, once it has already been validated in different experimental conditions.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Chickens , Sampling Studies , Population Forecast/methods
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.1): e190002, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042210

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) has been used in surveys with key populations at risk of HIV infection, such as female sex workers (FSW). This article describes the application of the RDS method among FSW in 12 Brazilian cities, during a survey carried out in 2016. Methodology: A biological and behavioral surveillance study carried out in 12 Brazilian cities, with a minimum sample of 350 FSW in each city. Tests were performed for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infections. A social-behavioral questionnaire was also applied. Results: The sample was comprised of 4,328 FSW. For data analysis, the sample was weighted according to each participant's network size (due consideration to the implications of RDS complex design and to the effects of homophilia are recommended). Discussion: Although RDS methods for obtaining a statistical sample are based on strong statistical assumptions, allowing for an estimation of statistical parameters, with each new application the method has been rethought. In the analysis of whole-sample data, estimators were robust and compatible with those found in 2009. However, there were significant variations according to each city. Conclusion: The achieved sample size was of great relevance for assessing progress and identifying problems regarding the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. New RDS studies with more time and operational resources should be envisaged. This could further network development.


RESUMO Introdução: O método de amostragem Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) tem sido utilizado em inquéritos com populações-chave sob maior risco de infecção pelo HIV, como as mulheres trabalhadoras do sexo (MTS). Este artigo tem o objetivo de descrever a implementação do RDS entre MTS em 12 cidades brasileiras em 2016. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo de vigilância biológica e comportamental realizado em 12 cidades brasileiras, com amostra mínima de 350 MTS em cada cidade. Foram realizados testes para infecções por HIV, sífilis, hepatites B e C, e aplicou-se questionário sociocomportamental. Resultados: Participaram 4.328 MTS. Para a análise dos dados, foi elaborada uma ponderação amostral considerando o tamanho da rede de cada participante; recomenda-se que o desenho complexo de amostragem por RDS e o efeito de homofilia sejam considerados. Discussão: Apesar de o RDS ser fundamentado em pressupostos estatísticos para obtenção de uma amostra probabilística e possibilitar estimação de parâmetros estatísticos, ele vem sendo repensado a cada nova aplicação. Na análise dos dados na totalidade da amostra, os estimadores mostraram-se robustos e coerentes aos encontrados em 2009. Entretanto, constataram-se grandes variações por cidade. Conclusão: O tamanho amostral alcançado foi de grande relevância para avaliar avanços e identificar problemas a respeito da prevenção e assistência às infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. Ressalta-se a necessidade de pensar estudos RDS com maior tempo e recursos para implementação, o que poderia permitir um melhor desenvolvimento das redes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Health Surveys/methods , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sampling Studies , Cities , Sample Size
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