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1.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 360-368, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395352

ABSTRACT

La Ingeniería Sanitaria surge como una rama de la ingeniería que involucra tanto materias propias de la ingeniería tales como: matemáticas, física, química hidráulica o mecánica, como aquellas relacionada con la medicina y la higiene, tales como la microbiología y conservación. Tiene como función principal crear y fomentar condiciones de salubridad en las poblaciones siendo vigilante de las aguas, el aire y la tierra, evitando que la contaminación alcance a los seres humanos. En Perú, la ingeniería sanitaria se creó como un apéndice de la ingeniería civil, pero pronto tomó el lugar merecido, declarándose una carrera de ingeniería independiente. Actualmente, la Ingeniería sanitaria es la encargada de llevar agua potabilizada a la población, y tratar las aguas servidas. Por otra parte, con la llegada del SARS-CoV-2, el mundo fue sacudido, y una situación de pandemia emergió, lo que hizo que los diferentes países tomasen las acciones necesarias, tal como sucedió con el Perú. Allí, la Ingeniería Sanitaria, accionó sus funciones, buscando la potabilización del agua de consumo. En estos tiempos de pandemia, también determinaron el resguardo de la población, lo que fomentó la educación remota. En el caso de la Ingeniería Sanitaria, los laboratorios presenciales y convencionales fueron sustituidos por laboratorios virtuales y remotos, lo cual permitió que la educación continuase sin contratiempos(AU)


Sanitary Engineering emerges as a branch of engineering that involves both engineering subjects such as: mathematics, physics, hydraulic or mechanical chemistry, as well as those related to medicine and hygiene, such as microbiology and conservation. Its main function is to create and promote healthy conditions in the populations, being vigilant of the waters, the air and the land, preventing contamination from reaching human beings. In Peru, sanitary engineering was created as an appendix to civil engineering, but it soon took its deserved place, declaring itself an independent engineering career. Currently, Sanitary Engineering is in charge of bringing drinking water to the population, and treating wastewater. On the other hand, with the arrival of SARS-CoV-2, the world was shaken, and a pandemic situation emerged, which made the different countries take the necessary actions, as happened with Peru. Over there, the Sanitary Engineering, activated its functions, seeking the potabilization of drinking water. In these times of pandemic, they also determined the protection of the population, which promoted remote education. In the case of Sanitary Engineering, face-to-face and conventional laboratories were replaced by virtual and remote laboratories, which allowed education to continue without setbacks(AU)


Subject(s)
Sanitary Engineering , Education, Distance , COVID-19 , Sanitation , Water Purification , Environmental Pollution , Pandemics , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
2.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 259-267, set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041835

ABSTRACT

Las micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT) no solo se estudian por su importancia como patógenos oportunistas, sino también por sus aplicaciones en biotecnología y biorremediación. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la presencia de micobacterias en los distintos hábitats acuáticos de la ciudad de General Pico (provincia de La Pampa), así como su diversidad. Los porcentajes de muestras positivas a micobacterias fueron los siguientes: 37,5% en el sistema de distribución de agua de red, 32,6% en el acuífero que abastece dicho sistema, 36,8% en el agua proveniente de las precipitaciones, 53,1% en los humedales del área de influencia, 80% en los natatorios cubiertos y 33,3% en las fuentes decorativas ubicadas en plazas públicas. De los 90 aislamientos de MNT obtenidos el 8,9% no logró ser identificado a nivel de especie con los métodos utilizados, que incluyeron pruebas fenotípicas y métodos moleculares. Las especies más frecuentemente aisladas fueron Mycobacterium fortuitum y Mycobacterium gordonae. Algunas especies identificadas han sido reportadas en casos de micobacteriosis en nuestro país, entre ellas M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare, M. vaccae, M. lentiflavum y M. nonchromogenicum. No se aislaron MNT en muestras de agua de red con concentraciones de cloro activo residual mayores de 0,8mg/l, mientras que en los natatorios la presencia de hasta 1,5mg/l de cloro activo residual no fue una limitante para la proliferación de estos microorganismos. Se puede considerar que la incidencia de micobacterias en los ambientes acuáticos de General Pico es cercana al 35%, y que la presencia de estos microorganismos y su diversidad se ve afectada por el contacto con el hombre y sus actividades, como así también por la existencia de vida animal.


Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are studied not only for their importance as emerging opportunistic pathogens but also for their applications in biotechnology and bioremediation. Our aim was to determine the occurrence and diversity of mycobacteria in different aquatic habitats of General Pico city, Province of La Pampa. The percentage of samples with positive cultures for mycobacteria were the following: 37.5% recovered from the water supply distribution system; 32.6% from the aquifer that supplies water to the distribution system; 36.8% from rain water; 53.1% from the two wetlands in the area of influence; 80% from indoor swimming pools; and 33.3% from water fountains in downtown public squares. Of the 90 NTM isolates, 8.9% could not be identified at the species level with any of the used methods, phenotypic tests and molecular methods. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium gordonae were the most frequently isolated species. Some of the identified species such as, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare, M. vaccae, M. lentiflavum and M. nonchromogenicum, have been reported in cases of mycobacteriosis in Argentina. Mycobacteria with values higher than 0.8mg/ml of residual active chlorine were not recovered from the drinking water supply network, whereas in the swimming pools the presence of up to 1.5 mg/l was not a constraint. Based on our results, the presence of mycobacteria in aquatic environments is close to 35% and their occurrence and diversity is affected both by contact with man and his activities as well as by the existence of animal life.


Subject(s)
Water Microbiology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina , Rain/microbiology , Species Specificity , Swimming Pools , Water Supply , Groundwater/microbiology , Sanitary Engineering , Urban Health , Cities , Biofilms , Biodiversity , Wetlands , Halogenation , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/classification
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742453

ABSTRACT

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms that are generally found not only in the natural environment but also in the human engineered environment, including water, soil, and dust. These organisms can form biofilms and can be readily aerosolized because they are hydrophobic owing to the presence of the lipid-rich outer membrane. Aerosolization and subsequent inhalation were the major route of NTM lung disease. Water distribution systems and household plumbing are ideal habit for NTM and the main transmission route from natural water to household. NTM have been isolated from drinking water, faucets, pipelines, and water tanks. Studies that used genotyping have shown that NTM isolates from patients are identical to those in the environment, that is, from shower water, showerheads, tap water, and gardening soil. Humans are likely to be exposed to NTM in their homes through simple and daily activities, such as drinking, showering, or gardening. In addition to environmental factors, host factors play an important role in the development of NTM lung disease. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide, and this disease is rapidly becoming a major public health problem. NTM lung disease is associated with substantially impaired quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality, and high medical costs. A more comprehensive understanding of the infection source and epidemiology of NTM is essential for the development of new strategies that can prevent and control NTM infection.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Biofilms , Drinking , Drinking Water , Dust , Epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Gardening , Humans , Incidence , Inhalation , Lung Diseases , Lung , Membranes , Mortality , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prevalence , Public Health , Quality of Life , Sanitary Engineering , Soil , Water
4.
Rev. Hosp. El Cruce ; (22): 9-13, 20180613.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-913981

ABSTRACT

Para la mayoría de las mesas quirúrgicas del hospital, el proveedor ya no comercializa controles remotos compatibles, lo cual implicaría un gasto importante para su actualización o renovación. Para evitar dicho gasto, se diseñó un control inalámbrico para manejar los movimientos de las mesas quirúrgicas a través de un dispositivo móvil.


The provider no longer provides compatible remote controls for most of operating tables at the hospital, which would imply an important expense for their upgrading or renewal. In order to avoid that expenditure, a wireless control was designed to improve operating table movements from a mobile device.


Subject(s)
Computers, Handheld , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital , Hospitals, Public , Mobile Applications , Operating Tables , Sanitary Engineering , Technological Development , Argentina
6.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(1): 245-259, jan.-mar. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-892585

ABSTRACT

Resumo Apresenta pesquisa acerca da atuação de Szachna Eliasz Cynamon no Programa Vale do Rio Doce (1952-1960). Privilegiamos como fonte de consulta os acervos dos departamentos de Arquivo e Documentação e de Saneamento e Saúde Ambiental, na Fiocruz, e o ainda pertencente à família. Na época, a região contava com altos índices de malária. Cynamon, nascido na Polônia e imigrado ainda criança nos anos 1930 para o Brasil, onde se graduaria em engenharia sanitária, foi contratado para atuar em Colatina (ES) e em Governador Valadares (MG), entre 1952 e 1960. Nessas localidades, dedicou-se ao tratamento e abastecimento de água e esgoto sanitário, além de realizar cursos de educação sanitária para a população local, como parte de acordo de cooperação Brasil-EUA.


Abstract Research into the work of Szachna Eliasz Cynamon in the Rio Doce Valley Program (1952-1960) is presented. The key sources are from the Department of Archives and Documentation and the Department of Sanitation and Environmental Health at Fiocruz, as well as the family's own archive. At the time, the rates of malaria in the region were high. Born in Poland, Cynamon migrated to Brazil in the 1930s while still a child, where he graduated in sanitary engineering. He was hired to work in Colatina (Espírito Santo) and Governador Valadares (Minas Gerais) between 1952 and 1960, focusing on sewage and water treatment and supply, while also holding sanitation education courses for the local people as part of a Brazil-USA cooperation agreement.


Subject(s)
Sanitary Engineering/history , Poland , Brazil , Sanitation/history , Health Education/history
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714191

ABSTRACT

We examined community-level characteristics associated with free drinking water access policies in U.S. municipalities using data from a nationally representative survey of city managers/officials from 2,029 local governments in 2014. Outcomes were 4 free drinking water access policies. Explanatory measures were population size, rural/urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education, and racial/ethnic composition. We used multivariable logistic regression to test differences and presented only significant findings. Many (56.3%) local governments had at least one community plan with a written objective to provide free drinking water in outdoor areas; municipalities in the Northeast and South regions and municipalities with ≤ 50% of non-Hispanic whites were less likely and municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have a plan. About 59% had polices/budget provisions for free drinking water in parks/outdoor recreation areas; municipalities in the Northeast and South regions were less likely and municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have it. Only 9.3% provided development incentives for placing drinking fountains in outdoor, publicly accessible areas; municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have it. Only 7.7% had a municipal plumbing code with a drinking fountain standard that differed from the statewide plumbing code; municipalities with a lower proportion of non-Hispanic whites were more likely to have it. In conclusion, over half of municipalities had written plans or a provision for providing free drinking water in parks, but providing development incentives or having a local plumbing code provision were rare.


Subject(s)
Censuses , Drinking Water , Drinking , Education , Logistic Models , Motivation , Population Density , Poverty , Prevalence , Recreation , Sanitary Engineering
8.
Brasília; FUNASA; 2018. 256 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008527

ABSTRACT

O Caderno apresenta os resumos executivos de sete pesquisas financiadas pela Funasa, resultantes dos Editais 01/2007 e 01/2011 do Programa de Pesquisa em Saúde e Saneamento. As pesquisas são nas áreas de gestão em engenharia de saúde pública, resíduos sólidos urbanos e abastecimento de água, temas relevantes para o desenvolvimento do saneamento básico no País, contribuindo para a missão da Funasa de "promover a saúde pública e a inclusão social por meio de ações de saneamento e saúde ambiental". Na área de gestão em engenharia de saúde pública, foram desenvolvidas quatro pesquisas: Gestão de serviços de abastecimento de água e esgotamento sanitário: a participação social em três modelos institucionais no Espírito Santo; Metodologias para fortalecimento do controle social na gestão em saneamento; Análise do Serviço Integrado de Saneamento Rural ­ SISAR, do Ceará, em sua dimensão político-institucional ; e Instrumentos metodológicos para estimular a formação de consórcios públicos voltados para gestão integrada dos serviços de saneamento. Na área de resíduos sólidos urbanos, foi desenvolvida a pesquisa: Coleta seletiva: modelos de gestão com e sem inclusão de catadores, vantagens e desvantagens na perspectiva da sustentabilidade. Na área de abastecimento de água, foram desenvolvidas duas pesquisas: Tratamento de águas com excesso de ânions fluoreto e nitrato utilizando HDLS, argilas e zeólitas como adsorventes maiores; e Sistemas de tratamento para desfluoretação parcial de águas subterrâneas com presença de flúor superior à estabelecida na Portaria MS nº 2.914/2011.


Subject(s)
Sanitary Engineering , Basic Sanitation , Water Supply , Brazil , Waste Management
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76769

ABSTRACT

In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Archaeology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Ovum/classification , Parasitology , Republic of Korea , Sanitary Engineering , Soil/parasitology
10.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 34(2): 78-85, jun. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-680915

ABSTRACT

Considerando a importância das mãos na cadeia de transmissão de microrganismos, esta pesquisa observacional investigou a infraestrutura material e a adesão à higienização das mãos em unidade de terapia intensiva do sul do Brasil, em 2010. Os dados foram coletados por observação direta não participante e emprego de instrumento autoaplicável a 39 profissionais, analisados com auxílio de Teste do χ², estatística descritiva e análise de discurso quantitativa. Embora os profissionais superestimem a adesão, reconheçam a prática como relevante para a prevenção de infecções e refiram não haver fatores de impedimento, entre 1277 oportunidades observadas, a adesão foi de 28,6%, e significativamente menor antes do contato e dos procedimentos assépticos do que após o contato com o paciente. A infraestrutura apresentou-se deficiente em funcionalidade. Os resultados implicam risco para a segurança dos pacientes, sendo relevante o planejamento de ações corretivas e que promovam essa prática.


Considering the importance of hands in the chain of transmission of microorganisms, this observational research investigated the material infrastructure and compliance of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit in the south of Brazil, in 2010. The data was collected by direct non-participant observation and through the use of self-administered questionnaires to be completed by the 39 participants, which was analyzed with the assistance of the χ² Test, descriptive statistics and quantitative discourse analysis. Although health professionals overestimate compliance rates, recognize the practice as relevant to the prevention of infection and refer there are no impeding factors, of the 1,277 opportunities observed, compliance was 26% and significantly lower before patient contact and the use of aseptic procedures than after patient contact: infrastructure was shown to be deficient. The results indicate risk to patient safety, and, thus, the planning of corrective actions to promote hand washing is relevant.


Con base en la importancia de las manos en la cadena de transmisión de microorganismos, esta investigación observacional tuvo el objetivo de observar la infraestructura material y la adhesión a la higienización de las manos en unidad de terapia intensiva del sur de Brasil, en 2010. Los datos fueron recogidos por la observación directa no participante y empleo de instrumento autoaplicable a 39 participantes, analizados con ayuda del Test de χ², estadística descriptiva y análisis de discurso cuantitativo. A pesar de que los profesionales sobrestimen la adhesión, reconocen la práctica como relevante para la prevención de infecciones y refieren no haber factores de impedimento. Entre 1277 oportunidades observadas, la adhesión fue del 28,6% y significativamente menor antes del contacto y procedimientos asépticos que después del contacto con el paciente; la infraestructura se ha presentado deficiente en funcionalidad. Los resultados revelan riesgo para la seguridad de los pacientes siendo relevante el planeamiento de acciones correctivas y que promuevan esa práctica.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Guideline Adherence , Hand Hygiene , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/supply & distribution , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Habits , Hand Disinfection/instrumentation , Hand Disinfection/standards , Hand Hygiene/standards , Health Care Surveys , Intensive Care Units , Nursing Assistants/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sanitary Engineering/instrumentation , Sanitary Engineering/statistics & numerical data , Self Report , Soaps/supply & distribution , Toilet Facilities/statistics & numerical data
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(1): 43-48, July 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact and sustainability of health, water, and sanitation interventions in Bolivia six years post-project. METHODS: A mixed-method (qualitative-quantitative) study was conducted in 14 rural intervention and control communities in Bolivia in November 2008, six years after the completion of interventions designed to improve knowledge and practices related to maternal and child health and nutrition, community water systems, and household water and sanitation facilities. The degree to which participants had sustained the community and household practices promoted by the interventions was a particular focus. Community site visits were made to evaluate the status (functional condition) and sustainability (state of maintenance and repair) of community and household water and sanitation infrastructure. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to assess knowledge and practices, and perceptions about the value of the interventions to the community. RESULTS: Six years post-project, participants remained committed to sustaining the practices promoted in the interventions. The average rating for the functional condition of community water systems was 42% higher than the average rating in control communities. In addition, more than two-thirds of households continued to practice selected maternal and child health behaviors promoted by the interventions (compared to less than half of the households in the control communities). Communities that received integrated investments (development and health) seemed to sustain the practices promoted in the interventions better than communities that received assistance in only one of the two sectors. CONCLUSIONS: Infrastructure for community water systems and household water and sanitation facilities was better built and maintained, and selected maternal and child health behaviors practiced more frequently, in intervention communities versus control communities.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar la repercusión y la sostenibilidad de las intervenciones relacionadas con la salud, el abastecimiento de agua y el saneamiento en Bolivia seis años después de la realización del proyecto. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de metodología mixta (cualitativa y cuantitativa) en 12 comunidades rurales donde se efectuó la intervención y 2 de control en Bolivia en noviembre del 2008, seis años después de la finalización de las intervenciones enfocadas a mejorar el conocimiento y las prácticas relacionadas con la salud y la nutrición maternoinfantil, los sistemas de abastecimiento de agua comunitarios y las instalaciones de abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento domiciliarias. Se estudió, en particular, el grado en el cual los participantes continuaban realizando las prácticas domiciliarias y comunitarias promovidas por las intervenciones. Se efectuaron visitas a sitios de la comunidad para evaluar el estado (condición funcional) y la sostenibilidad (estado de mantenimiento y reparación) de la infraestructura de abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento domiciliaria y comunitaria. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas a informantes clave y análisis basados en grupos de discusión para evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las percepciones acerca del valor de las intervenciones comunitarias. RESULTADOS: Seis años después del proyecto, los participantes continuaban llevando a cabo las prácticas promovidas en las intervenciones. La calificación promedio para la condición funcional de los sistemas de abastecimiento de agua comunitarios fue 42% más alta que la calificación promedio en las comunidades de control. Además, en más de dos terceras partes de los hogares se seguían poniendo en práctica ciertos hábitos relacionados con la salud maternoinfantil promovidos en las intervenciones (en comparación con menos de la mitad de los hogares en las comunidades de control). Las comunidades que recibieron inversiones integradas (desarrollo y salud) parecían conservar las prácticas promovidas en las intervenciones en mayor medida que las comunidades que recibieron ayuda solo en uno de los dos sectores. CONCLUSIONES: La infraestructura de los sistemas de abastecimiento de agua comunitarios y las instalaciones domiciliarias de abastecimiento de agua y saneamiento estaban mejor construidas y mantenidas, y ciertos hábitos de salud maternoinfantil se ponían en práctica con mayor frecuencia, en las comunidades de la intervención en comparación con las comunidades de control.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Sanitation , Social Change , Water Supply , Bolivia , Child Welfare , Developing Countries , Family Health , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Housing , Hygiene , International Agencies , International Cooperation , Maternal Welfare , Nutrition Policy , Program Evaluation , Retrospective Studies , Rural Health , Sanitary Engineering , United States , Water Supply/standards
14.
Rio de Janeiro; ENSP; 2012. 151 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705532

ABSTRACT

Conta a trajetória marcante de Szachana Eliasz Cynamon, que dedicou sua vida à saúde pública e ao saneamento ambiental. Foi um dos fundadores da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca (ENSP), e como tal, foi responsável pela formação de inúmeros profissionais no campo da engenharia sanitária ao longo do território brasileiro, deixando importantes contribuições em tecnologia para o saneamento ambiental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sanitary Engineering/history , Sanitation/history , Public Health/history
15.
Rio de Janeiro; ENSP; 2012. 151 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-939360

ABSTRACT

Conta a trajetória marcante de Szachana Eliasz Cynamon, que dedicou sua vida à saúde pública e ao saneamento ambiental. Foi um dos fundadores da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca (ENSP), e como tal, foi responsável pela formação de inúmeros profissionais no campo da engenharia sanitária ao longo do território brasileiro, deixando importantes contribuições em tecnologia para o saneamento ambiental.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Public Health/history , Sanitary Engineering/history , Sanitation/history
16.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(1): 32-40, ene. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-576229

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Identificar dimensiones residenciales que caractericen el ambiente físico y social en los campamentos de Chile y construir tipologías que permitan elaborar perfiles con esos atributos residenciales distintivos. MÉTODOS: Se estudió el universo de campamentos (n = 122) de la Región Metropolitana (Chile) a partir del Catastro Nacional de Campamentos realizado por la fundación "Un Techo para Chile" en 2007. Se recolectó información proveniente de informantes clave sobre las comunidades y los lugares de emplazamiento, variables que fueron modeladas empleando un análisis factorial para identificar dimensiones residenciales, las que a su vez fueron refinadas con la técnica de agrupamientos de k-medias. RESULTADOS: El análisis factorial destacó tres dimensiones subyacentes: respuesta social local, ambiente extracomunitario y servicios básicos. Las variables centrales en la formación de esas categorías fueron la existencia de proyectos habitacionales, el área urbana y el acceso a electricidad, respectivamente. El análisis de agrupamientos generó cuatro perfiles que combinaron las tres dimensiones: perfil urbano con baja precariedad de servicios básicos (n = 30), perfil urbano-rural con alto potencial de respuesta social local (n = 32), perfil urbano con alta amenaza ambiental (n = 43) y perfil rural con bajo potencial de respuesta social local (n = 17). CONCLUSIONES: Las dimensiones residenciales formadas son consistentes con el modelo teórico revisado y sugieren indicadores relevantes para el seguimiento de estas comunidades. La identificación de perfiles permite dimensionar la heterogeneidad de realidades residenciales contribuyendo a la priorización de dominios de déficit o riesgos que pueden estar presentes en cada grupo, para con ello profundizar en su investigación y oportunidades de acción.


OBJECTIVE: To identify residential parameters that characterize the physical and social environment in Chile's irregular settlements, and to construct typologies that will allow to develop profiles with those distinctive residential attributes. METHODS: The study examined the universe of irregular settlements (n = 122) in Chile's Metropolitan Region, based on the 2007 national inventory of irregular settlements conducted by the "Un Techo para Chile" foundation. Information about the communities and their locations was obtained from key informants, and these variables were modeled using factor analysis to identify residential parameters, which were then refined by k-means clustering. RESULTS: The factor analysis pointed to three underlying parameters: local social response, the environment beyond the community, and basic services. The key variables shaping these categories were the existence of housing projects, the urban area involved, and access to electricity. The cluster analysis generated four profiles that combined the three parameters: an urban profile with relatively reliable basic services (n = 30), an urban-rural profile with high potential for local social response (n = 32), an urban profile with a high level of environmental threat (n = 43), and a rural profile with low potential for local social response (n = 17). CONCLUSIONS: The residential parameters formed are consistent with the revised theoretical model and suggest relevant indicators for monitoring these communities. Definition of the profiles facilitates assessment of the heterogeneity of residential situations, which helps in the prioritization of areas with deficits or risks that may be present in each cluster. This, in turn, opens the door to further investigation and to exploring opportunities for action.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Health , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Poverty Areas , Residence Characteristics , Chile , Cluster Analysis , Electrical Equipment and Supplies/statistics & numerical data , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Health Priorities , Ownership/statistics & numerical data , Prejudice , Public Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/classification , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Sanitary Engineering/statistics & numerical data , Social Conditions/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
17.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 18-23, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-631833

ABSTRACT

Objectives. This study aimed to describe baseline and follow-up prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, nutritional status and school performance of school-age children in Cebu City. By measuring these parameters, it also aimed to monitor the progress of a local government unit-led, school-based, schoolteacher-assisted deworming initiative. Methods. Grade three and grade four pupils from two selected school districts in Cebu City were chosen as participants. Kato-Katz technique was used to assess helminth infections. All positive slides and 10% of all negative slides were re-examined blindly by a reference microscopist for quality control. Secondary anthropometric and school performance data were also obtained from the Department of Education. Results. Baseline results showed cumulative prevalence and prevalence of heavy intensity infection of 73.1% and 44.3%, respectively, which were significantly lower during follow-up at 56.5% (p < 0.0001) and 26.5% (p < 0.0001), respectively. School performance improved in District B, with an 8.8% increase in mean percentage score from baseline to follow-up. There was no marked difference between baseline and follow-up proportions of pupils with below normal weight-for-age and height-for-age. Conclusions. The positive results merit continuation of the school-based STH control initiative in Cebu City. Improvements in water supply and sanitation, promotion of good hygiene and health education are important in minimizing risks of infection and re-infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Environment and Public Health , Public Health , Sanitation , Sanitary Engineering , Water Supply
19.
Ubá; s.n; 2011. 42 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-937919
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 28(2): 114-120, Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-561449

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar y evaluar las asociaciones entre las variables que reflejan las condiciones del agua y el saneamiento ambiental y la mortalidad en niños menores de 5 años por un grupo de enfermedades de transmisión hídrica. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio ecológico y exploratorio a partir de datos obtenidos del Censo Demográfico Nacional de 2000 y del Sistema Único de Salud para las 558 micro-regiones de Brasil. El modelo aplicó la técnica de regresión lineal múltiple y consideró como variable de respuesta la mortalidad por enfermedades de transmisión hídrica en menores de 5 años y, como variables explicativas, las condiciones del agua y el saneamiento y el nivel de escolaridad. RESULTADOS: Se observó una relación directa entre saneamiento inadecuado en la vivienda -incluidos desagües por canaletas y fosas rudimentarias, y disposición de la basura en terrenos baldíos o áreas públicas- y mortalidad en menores de 5 años por enfermedades de transmisión hídrica. También se encontró una relación inversa entre el nivel de escolaridad y la mortalidad de esos menores por dichas causas. CONCLUSIONES: Los mayores riesgos para la salud derivados del saneamiento inapropiado se registraron en las micro-regiones con gran concentración de poblaciones que, además de su condición económica humilde, tenían bajo nivel de escolaridad. Se destacan, como determinantes de la mortalidad, las condiciones generales de saneamiento y también otros factores asociados a la calidad y la infraestructura de las viviendas. La cobertura de abastecimiento de agua -que en Brasil alcanza a 90 por ciento de los hogares- no se mostró por sí sola como factor importante en la reducción de la mortalidad estudiada.


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Determine and evaluate the relationship between the variables for water conditions, environmental sanitation, and mortality in children under 5 years of age associated with a group of waterborne diseases. METHODS: An exploratory ecological study was conducted based on data obtained from the 2000 national demographic census and the Unified Health System for the 558 microregions of Brazil. The model used multiple linear regression analysis. Mortality associated with waterborne diseases in children under 5 years of age was considered to be the response variable. Water conditions, sanitation, and level of education were considered to be explanatory variables. RESULTS: A direct relationship was observed between inadequate sanitation in the dwelling (e.g., sewerage disposal via rudimentary gutters and pits, the disposal of waste in uncultivated land or public areas) and mortality in children under 5 years of age associated with waterborne diseases. An inverse relationship was found between level of education and mortality associated with waterborne diseases in these children. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest health hazards related to poor sanitation were found in the microregions with a high concentration of low-income population with limited education. The general sanitation conditions and other factors related to dwelling quality and infrastructure are major determinants of mortality. Coverage of the water services, which reach 90 percent of households in Brazil, was not in itself found to be an important factor in the reduction of the mortality studied.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Child Mortality , Disease Reservoirs , Infant Mortality , Sanitation/statistics & numerical data , Water Microbiology , Water Pollution , Brazil/epidemiology , Educational Status , Housing , Hygiene , Poverty , Sanitary Engineering/methods , Sanitary Engineering/statistics & numerical data , Water Supply/standards , Water Supply/statistics & numerical data
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