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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828378

ABSTRACT

We used exogenous GA_3 to break the seed dormancy of Thesium chinense. We used high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of dormant seed embryos and dormancy breaking seed embryos of Th. chinense, and the data was analyzed bioinformatically and systematically. The results showed that exogenous GA_3 could effectively break the seed dormancy of Th. chinense; 73 794 up-regulated genes and 42 776 down regulated genes were obtained by transcriptome sequencing; 116 570 diffe-rential genes were annotated by GO function to GO items such as metabolism process, cell process, cell, cell component, binding and catalytic activity. A total of 133 metabolic pathways were found by Pathway analysis of 26 508 differentially expressed genes. In the process of dormancy release, DEGs were mainly enriched in translation, carbohydrate metabolism, folding, classification, degradation and amino acid metabolism. Based on the annotation results in KEGG database, 20 metabolic pathways related to dormancy release were found. Dormancy release of Th. chinense seeds is a complex biological process, including cell morphology construction, secondary metabolite synthesis, sugar metabolism and plant signal transduction, among which plant hormone signal transduction is one of the key factors to regulate dormancy release. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the sequencing results were consistent with the actual results.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Dormancy , Plant Growth Regulators , Santalaceae , Seeds , Transcriptome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250449

ABSTRACT

In order to explore reasonable artificial cultivation pattern of Thesium chinense, the biological characteristics and nutrients change in the process of winter dormancy of T. chinense was studied. The phenological period of T. chinense was observed by using fixed-point notation and the starch grains changes were determined dynamically by PAS-vanadium iron hematoxylin staixjing method. Soluble sugar and starch content were measured by anthrone-sulfuric acid method and amylase activity was determined by DN'S method. The results showed that the normal life cycle of T. chinense was two years. T. chinense was growing by seed in the first year, but growing by the root neck bud in the second year. During the process of dormancy, starch and soluble sugar could mutual transformation in different periods. T. chinense had sufficient carbohydrate to maintain growth and also a lot of small molecules to improve their ability to fight against adversity.


Subject(s)
Plant Dormancy , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Metabolism , Santalaceae , Chemistry , Metabolism , Seasons , Starch , Metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356018

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the influence of host species on growth and development and active component content of Thesium chinense.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Plant morphology and active component content of T. chinense grown with different hosts were measured. The hosts were evaluated by using index-sum method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Hosts significantly promoted the growth of T. chinense by increasing height, per plant weight, stem diameter, leaf area, the number of seed and haustorium,and decreased RW/SW ratio compared to without host treatment. Considerable differences existed among the effect of different host species treatments. Synthetical evaluation score of Gnaphlium affine was the highest (37), followed by Imperata cylindrical and Prunella vulgaris (36). It is suggested that they were superior hosts for T. chinense. But the scores of Triticum aestivum (25) and Eremochloa ophiuroides (17) were lower, so they were unsuited hosts for T. chinense.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Hosts significantly promoted the growth of T. chinense. Considerable differences existed among the growth and development of T. chinense grown with different hosts, as well as active component content. Gnaphlium affine, Imperata cylindrical and Prunella vulgaris were superior hosts for T. chinense. While Triticum aestivum and Eremochloa ophiuroides were unsuited hosts for T. chinense.</p>


Subject(s)
Host-Parasite Interactions , Poaceae , Parasitology , Prunella , Parasitology , Santalaceae , Physiology , Triticum , Parasitology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288677

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the biological and growth characteristics of Thesium chinense.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The wild population was observed in certain sites, pot and indoor experiments were applied for cultivated plant.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>T. chinense is an obligate root hemiparasite and perennial herb, stem and leaf were green, there were haustoriums on its root, can only achieve its whole life process when parasitized to host. T. chinense grows mostly in the humid wasteland and herbaceous community where water is generally abundant. T. chinense likes light, warm climate and acidic to neuter soil. The seeds of T. chinense have dormancy characteristics. The life history of T. chinense can divide into 5 stages: seedling, ramify, florescence, fructification and withering periods.</p>


Subject(s)
Flowers , Plant Leaves , Plant Roots , Plant Stems , Plants, Medicinal , Santalaceae , Seasons , Seedlings , Seeds
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288653

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the hemiparasitic mechanism of Thesium chinense.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The anatomical structure of T. chinense was studied by using paraffin slice and electron microscope slice. Chlorophyll content was measured by UV spectrometry. Foliar photosynthesis (P(n)) and gas exchange were measured by using a LI-6400 photosynthesis system.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Chloroplast possesses intact granal thylakoid system, lamella was strong. Vascular tissue of T. chinense was strong. Vessel aperture and its transport power were strong both in root and stem. There were many global haustoriums on lateral roots. Vascular tissues were strong inside haustorium, haustorial stylet penetrated epidermis and cortex of host root, and reached pith place, haustorial vessel was integrated with host root vessel. The maximum of P(n) of T. chinense reached 7.06 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), its water use efficiency was lower, about 0.735 mmol x mol(-1), its transpiration varied notable in daytime and was relatively invariant at nighttime, and the value of daytime was greatly exceed that of nighttime.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>T. chinense despoils water and nutrition from its host by haustorium. T. chinense can mostly be independent as for C supply by photosynthesis.</p>


Subject(s)
Carotenoids , Metabolism , Cell Respiration , Chlorophyll , Metabolism , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Plant Stems , Metabolism , Santalaceae , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Thylakoids , Metabolism , Water , Metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289387

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study species diversity and the host of Thesium chinense community.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The investigation on phytocoenology was carried out on the T. chinense community in 7 areas of Anhui Province and Jiangsu Province. The correlation between species diversity of community and T. chinense abundance was analyzed regarding to the abundance of species, the abundant index of species, species diversity index and community even index.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>The results showed that T. chinense liked light, warm climate, liked acidic to neuter soil. The majority of T. chinense distributed in the humid wasteland and herbaceous community. There was a positive correlation between the abundance of T. chinense and the unity numbers of community, and a negative correlation between the abundance of T. chinense and the abundance, coverage, diversity index, Pielou even index of community. T. chinense host species was various. This investigation found 28 host species belong to 11 Families, among them 5 Families and 18 species were found for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Ecosystem , Santalaceae , Classification , Physiology , Soil
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283261

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the quality of medicinal material of Thesium chinense.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The active ingredients of total flavonoids, kaempferol, mannitol, polysaccharides were selected as the evaluative indicators to comprehensively evaluate the quality of medicinal material of T. chinense.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The total flavone 3.38%, kaempferol 0.984 7 mg x g(-1), mannitol 6.12%, polysaccharides 14.08% and water soluble extract 30.28% were measured in the sample of T. chinense. There was a certain correlation among these selected active ingredients. The compositions of most biological activities component in T. chinense of different populations were similar, but the contents were different significantly. The content of activities component in T. chinense showed a general tendency of declining during growth period and with the increase time of storage.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Flavone, kaempferol, mannitol, polysaccharides should be selected as the indicators to evaluate the quality of medicinal material of T. chinense.</p>


Subject(s)
Flavones , Mannitol , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Santalaceae , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285369

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the concentration of mineral elements and analyze the principal components in Thesium chinense.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Mineral elements were determined by ICP-DES. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used toanalyze and evaluate the characteristic elements.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>T. chinense contained more than 17 mineral elements, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, B, Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu were abundance in T. chinense. The concentration of Mn and Zn were about 100 microg x g(-1), Mg was from 1 898.0 to 3 137.73 micro x g(-1), Fe > 500 microg x g(-1). PCA concluded that four factors (F1, F2, F3, F4 ) could be used to evaluate the quality of T. chinense. The function is following: F = 0.444 77F1 + 0.237 71F2 + 0.167 28F3 + 0.150 24F4. The scores of different populations of T. chinens were from 0.627 to 0.189. Zn,Cu,Mg,P, K, Al, Fe, Cr, Na, Co, Pb, Mn, B and Ca were the characteristic elements of T. chinense.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>T. chinense contain more than 17 mineral elements. Zn, Cu, Mg, P, K, Al, Fe, Cr, Na, Co, Pb, Mn, B and Ca were the characteristic elements of T. chinense.</p>


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Principal Component Analysis , Santalaceae , Chemistry , Trace Elements
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(1/2): 283-292, March-June 2009. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637718

ABSTRACT

Pollen dispersion and reproductive success of four tree species of a xerophytic forest from Argentina. The "talares" in eastern Buenos Aires province, Argentina, are coastal xerophitic forests structured by few arboreal species surrounded by a lower and moister soil matrix. We studied the reproductive parameters of the most representative arboreal species (Celtis tala, Scutia buxifolia, Jodina rhombifolia,and Schinus longifolia). Pollen dispersion was studied through floral visitor traps (biotic dispersion) and using gravimetric pollen collectors (abiotic dispersion). The reproductive success (fruit formation rate) of the focal species was studied by enclosing flowers with different mesh bags. The reproductive system varied among the different species. C. tala was anemophilous and selfcompatible. S. buxifolia was entomophilous and floral visitors dependant. J. rhombifolia was entomophylous, although spontaneous autogamy could favor reproduction in the absence of pollinators. Lastly, S. longifolia could be an ambophilous species (pollinated by insects and by the wind). This dual system may be the result of system flexibility mechanism or an evolutionary transition. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2): 283-292. Epub 2009 June 30.


Los "talares" del E de la provincia de Buenos Aires son bosques xerófitos costeros estructurados por pocas especies arbóreas rodeados de una matriz de suelos más bajos y húmedos. Estudiamos los parámetros reproductivos de las especies arbóreas más representativas (Celtis tala, Scutia buxifolia, Jodina rhombifolia y Schinus longifolia). La dispersión polínica fue estudiada a través de trampas para visitantes florales (dispersión biótica) y utilizando recolectores gravimétricos de polen (dispersión abiótica). El éxito reproductivo (tasa de formación de frutos) de las especies focales fue estudiado a través de embolsado de flores con bolsas de distintos tipos de malla. El sistema reproductivo varió entre las especies. C. tala resultó anemófila y autocompatible, S. buxifolia fue entomófila y dependiente de los visitantes florales. J. rhombifolia fue una especie entomófila, aunque la autogamia espontánea podría favorecer al aseguramiento reproductivo en caso de falta de polinizadores. Finalmente, S. longifolia podría ser una especie ambófila (polinizada por insectos y por el viento). Este sistema dual podría ser el resultado de un mecanismo de flexibilidad del sistema de polinización o una transición evolutiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fruit/growth & development , Pollen/growth & development , Pollination/physiology , Trees/physiology , Argentina , Anacardiaceae/classification , Anacardiaceae/growth & development , Anacardiaceae/physiology , Ecosystem , Insecta/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Rhamnaceae/classification , Rhamnaceae/growth & development , Rhamnaceae/physiology , Santalaceae/classification , Santalaceae/growth & development , Santalaceae/physiology , Trees/classification , Trees/growth & development , Ulmaceae/classification , Ulmaceae/growth & development , Ulmaceae/physiology
10.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 9(1): 36-39, ene.-jun. 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-676654

ABSTRACT

La peroxidación lipídica es un mecanismo deletéreo para las células, causada por los radicales libres presentes en el envejecimiento celular. Existen plantas con metabolitos secundarios con capacidad antioxidante. Quinchamalium procumbens es una hierba perenne de 15 a 25 centímetros de inflorescencia, de color amarillo, con 12 especies sudamericanas y nativa del Perú, distribuida en la cordillera de los Andes entre los 3500 a 4000 msnm. Estudios previos mostraron la presencia de moléculas antioxidantes como los flavonoides. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la capacidad antioxidante de los metabolitos de Quinchamalium procumbens e identificar los posibles agentes antioxidantes. Materiales y métodos: Se midió el efecto del potencial reductor del extracto etanólico de Quinchamalium procumbens por la reacción colorimétrica entre el malondialdeído y el ácido tiobarbitúrico 535 nm. Los metabolitos secundarios fueron identificados por cromatografía en capa fina, usando reactivos para revelaciones generales, terpenoides, esteroides y fenolitos. Resultados: Se obtuvo un 50% de inhibición de radicales libres. Los principales agentes reductores identificados por cromatografía fueron los flavonoides. Discusión y conclusión: El 50% de inhibición de radicales libres en neuroblastos, frente a un antioxidante de referencia como el alfa tocoferol, con un valor de 54.2% de inhibición, posiblemente debido a los flavonoides, muestra un gran poder reductor del extracto etanólico total de la planta estudiada, siendo este un estudio previo a los futuros donde se evalúe la mayor concentración de metabolitos reductores por partes de la planta.


Lipidical oxidation is a deleterious mechanism against cells caused by free radicals in cellÆs age. Quinchamalium procumbens is a plant with 15 to 25 cm of size, yellow flowers, 12 species in South America and it is original from Peru. Previous studies showed the presence of reductors molecules. The objective of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and identify the possible antioxidant metabolites. Material and methods: The potential redactor effect of Quinchamalium procumbens was measured using a colorimetric method to identify the reaction between malondialdeido and tiobarbituric acid. The secundary metabolites were identified by cromatography. Results: The inhibition of free radicals was 50%. The principal reductor agent identified were flavonoides. Discussion and conclusion: The 50% of inhibition obtained and compared with a referencial antioxidante alfa tocoferol with a value of 54.2% showed an important reductor power in ethanolic extract in the studied plant.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Flavonoids , Santalaceae
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287908

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the activity and the location of the endogenesis inhibitory substances in seed of of Thesium chinense.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The rough extracts from different concentrations, places and extracting times of T. chinense seeds were prepared and determined by its effect on wheat and Brassica sp seed.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>The extract dramatically inhibited the germentation and the growth of wheat and Brassica sp seed and the inhibitory activity was positively related to the concentration of the extracts. When the concentration reached 0. 32 g mL(-1), wheat seed did not germentate. With increasing the extracting times, the inhibitory activity first decreased, then increased. The capsule and kernel both had inhibitory substances and the latter was stronger than the former. Highly active inhibitory substances were found first time in the seed of T. chinense.</p>


Subject(s)
Brassica , Germination , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Santalaceae , Chemistry , Seeds , Chemistry , Triticum
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315964

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a determination method of astragulin in Thesium chinese.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>RP-HPLC analytical method was established using a Polaris C18 column and acetonitrile-water (23:77) as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 10 mL x min(-1), detected at 346 nm. The method of sample is refluxing exation by 50% alcohol for 2 times.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The content of astragulin was from 0. 120% to 0. 155%, in different groups of T. chinese collected from the same location.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method was validated to show convenient and reliable.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Flavonoids , Glucosides , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Santalaceae , Chemistry
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