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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 89-99, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Koelreuteria henryi Dummer is an indigenous plant in Taiwan. The species has been used in traditional folk medicine for the promotion of liver functions and for treating malaria and urethritis. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of the flower extract of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. The extraction conditions were optimized by the contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity assays. Moreover, an in vitro study for investigating antioxidant activity of K. henryi flower extract was demonstrated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. RESULTS: K. henryi flower extracted for 150 min showed high contents of total phenolic acids and total flavonoids. In an in vitro model, L929 cells were pretreated with K. henryi flower extract, and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative damage. Results demonstrated that H2O2-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the treatment of 200 µg/ml K. henryi flower extract through the mitochondria-mediated pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The caspase 8/9 activity and expression of p-p38 and pERK were repressed by K. henryi flower extract. In addition, the prevention of H2O2-induced apoptosis by K. henryi flower extract activated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) stress response pathway to transcript heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Also, K. henryi flower extract prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis through HO-1 production, as evident by the use of HO-1 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that K. henryi flower extract could inhibit the H2O2-induced apoptosis in L929 cells through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Flavonoids/analysis , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis , Flowers/chemistry , Heme Oxygenase-1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Caspase 8 , Hydrogen Peroxide
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 577-589, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated in relation to their utility in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly (p < 0.05) more efficient at O2 •- scavenging (IC50 = 27.44 ± 0.09) than those of litchi and rambutan (IC50 = 29.57 ± 0.30 and 39.49 ± 0.52 μg/ml, respectively) and the quercetin standard (IC50 = 31.88 ± 0.15 μg/ml). Litchi extract proved significantly (p < 0.05) more effective for elastase and collagenase inhibition (88.29 ± 0.25% and 79.46 ± 0.92%, respectively) than tamarind (35.43 ± 0.68% and 57.69 ± 5.97%) or rambutan (31.08 ± 0.38% and 53.99 ± 6.18%). All extracts were safe to human skin fibroblasts and inhibit MMP-2, with litchi extract showing significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced inhibition over the standard, vitamin C (23.75 ± 2.74% and 10.42 ± 5.91% at 0.05 mg/ml, respectively). Extracts suppress melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells through inhibition of tyrosinase and TRP-2, with litchi extract being the most potent, even more so than kojic acid (standard). These results highlight the potential for adding value to agro-industrial waste, as the basis for the sustainable production of innovative, safe, anti-aging cosmetic products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Skin Aging/drug effects , Tamarindus/chemistry , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Litchi/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Administration, Cutaneous , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Cosmetics , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(6): 364-372, nov. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907553

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Sapindus saponaria L., (Sapindaceae), was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 5 percent hexane extract of the seeds, whereas triacylglycerols (TAG) accounted for 90 percent. The oil contains type III cyanolipids (CL) 1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-1-en-3-ol-diesters. Structural investigation of the oil components was accomplished by chemical, chromatographic (TLC, CC, GC-MS), and spectroscopic (IR, NMR) means. GC-MS analysis showed that fatty acids were dominant in the CL components of the oil from S. saponaria L., with cis-11-eicosenoic acid, cis-11-octadecenoic acid and eicosanoic acid as the only esterified fatty acyl chains respectively. This being the first report of this kind of natural products (CL), located in the seeds of this plant.


La composición química del aceite de las semillas de Sapindus saponaria L., (Sapindaceae), fue investigada. Cianolípidos (CL) constituyen el 5 por ciento del extracto hexanico de las semillas, mientras que los triacilgliceroles (TAG) representaron el 90 por ciento. La fracción cianolipídica estaba compuesta por el CL tipo III, el diester de 1-ciano-2-hidroximetilprop-3-en-1-ol. La investigación estructural de los componentes del aceite se logró mediante técnicas cromatografícas, (CCF, CC, GC-MS), y espectroscópicas (IR, RMN). El análisis por GC-MS mostró que los ácidos grasos tales como: ácidos cis-11-eicosenoico, cis-11-octadecanoico y eicosanoico fueron los únicos ácidos grasos esterificados ubicados en el extracto rico en CL tipo III. Siendo este el primer reporte de esta clase de productos naturales (CL) ubicados en las semilla de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids/analysis , Oils , Sapindus/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Lipids/analysis , Seeds , Spectrum Analysis , Sapindaceae/chemistry
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 989-995
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153793

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Male , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(2): 198-204, mar. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767363

ABSTRACT

Allophylus cominia (L) Sw (Sapindaceae), is one of the most popular medicinal plant in Cuba. It is traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of A cominia leaves aqueous extract in a type 2 diabetes model induced by streptozotocin treatment in neonatal rats. Two experiments was executed: at 6 weeks old rats, before starting the plant evaluation, and at 11 weeks old rats, after the oral administration daily of three doses 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of A cominia aqueous extract during 3 weeks and plasma blood glucose level was evaluated. At 6 weeks old rats, the group of diabetic animals showed significant f diabetic animals treated w0.05). Only the groups treated with 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of A cominia extract showed a recovery of normal glycaemic values. Hence, it can be concluded that aqueous extract from A cominia leaves has antidiabetic properties and may be effective in the type 2 diabetes treatment.


Allophylus cominia (L) Sw (Sapindaceae), es una de las plantas medicinales más populares en Cuba habiendo sido empleada tradicionalmente en el tratamiento de la diabetes. es una de las plantas medicinales Cubanas más populares. Esta ha sido empleada tradicionalmente en el tratamiento de la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto del extracto acuoso de hojas de A cominia en un modelo de diabetes tipo 2 inducida por tratamiento con estreptozotocina en ratas neonatales. Se realizaron dos experimentos: a las 6 semanas de vida de las ratas, antes de comenzar la evaluación de la planta, y a las 11 semanas de vida de las ratas, después de la administración oral diaria de tres dosis de 0.25, 0.5 y 1.0 g/kg del extracto de A cominia durante 3 semanas y se evaluó la concentración de glucosa en sangre. A las 6 semanas de vida de las ratas, el grupo de animales diabéticos mostró un decrecimiento significativo en los valores de glucosa en sangre y el peso corporal comparado con el grupo control (p < 0.05). A las 11 semanas de vida de las ratas, los grupos de animales diabéticos tratados con el extracto acuoso de A cominia decrecieron significativamente las concentraciones de glucosa en sangre comparado con el grupo diabético no tratado (p < 0.05). Solamente los grupos tratados con 0.5 y 1.0 g/kg del extracto de A cominia mostraron una recuperación de los valores glicémicos normales. Por tanto, se puede concluir que el extracto acuoso de hojas de A cominia tiene propiedades antidiabéticas y puede ser eficaz en el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , /drug therapy , Body Weight , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(2): 150-153, mar. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-722787

ABSTRACT

Allophylus cominia (L) Sw (Sapindaceae), is one of the most popular Cuban medicinal plant. The aimed of this study was to explore, if the antidiabetic organic extract has also anti-inflammatory effect, considering that inflammation is correlationated with diabetes. It was evaluated in vitro inhibitory activity of chloroform extract of leaves on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA-2), which are important cellular mediators in the signaling cascade of the inflammatory process. The extract studied shown inhibitory activity on COX-2, while not shown on FLA-2s. This study provides direct evidence of the activity of A. cominia on mechanisms related to anti-inflammatory effects involving the eicosanoid cascade.


Allophylus cominia (L) Sw (Sapindáceas) es una de las plantas medicinales más afamadas de la medicina tradicional en Cuba. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar si el extracto orgánico con actividad antidiabética tenía también efecto de tipo antiinflamatorio, considerando que la inflamación es un evento relacionado con la diabetes. En tal sentido se evaluó in vitro la actividad inhibitoria del extracto clorofórmico de las hojas de Allophylus cominia (L) Sw sobre cicloxigenasa-2 (COX-2) y fosofolipasa A2 secretada (FLA-2s), las cuales constituyen importantes mediadores celulares en la cascada de señalización del proceso inflamatorio. El extracto estudiado exhibió actividad inhibitoria sobre COX-2, mientras que no la mostró sobre FLA-2s. Este trabajo brinda evidencias directas de la actividad de A. cominia sobre mecanismos vinculados al efecto antinflamatorio que involucran la cascada de eicosanoides.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Cuba , Plants, Medicinal
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(2): 194-200, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17)-13-dien-15-óico) e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3 por cento e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.


INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1 percent uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3 percent uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/drug effects , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Insecticides , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Tannins/pharmacology , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/ultrastructure , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines , Larva/drug effects , Larva/ultrastructure , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Tannins/isolation & purification
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 37(5): 396-399, set.-out. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-365847

ABSTRACT

Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, o estudo fitoquímico das frações larvicidas, isoladas da Magonia pubescens, monitorado pelo estudo de eficácia sobre larvas de 3° estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito e obtenção de estruturas químicas passíveis de aprimoramento da atividade pela via sintética de outros derivados. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, utilizando como revelador uma solução ácida de vanilina, e analisadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios com as frações foram realizados em quintuplicata, à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5 por cento de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12 horas. As concentrações letais encontradas da fração MP-9, que apresentou o maior potencial larvicida, CL50 e CL90, foram de 3,1 e 36,6ppm, respectivamente. Todos os experimentos foram acompanhados por uma série controle, contendo o mesmo número de larvas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticides , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Tannins , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Insecticides/isolation & purification , Lethal Dose 50 , Larva/drug effects , Mass Spectrometry , Tannins/isolation & purification
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