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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 131-155, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393364

ABSTRACT

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieri in the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieri using Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieri improves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnieri have been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.


Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), también conocida como Brahmi, se ha utilizado para mejorar los procesos cognitivos y las funciones intelectuales que están relacionadas con la preservación de la memoria. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar las aplicaciones etnobotánicas, composición fitoquímica, toxicidad y actividad de B. monnieri en el sistema nervioso central. Se revisaron artículos sobre B. monnieri utilizando Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline y PubMed. Las saponinas son los principales compuestos de los extractos de B. monnieri. Los estudios farmacológicos mostraron que B. monnieri mejora el aprendizaje y la memoria y presenta efectos biológicos contra la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la epilepsia y la esquizofrenia. No se informó toxicidad aguda preclínica. Sin embargo, se informaron efectos secundarios gastrointestinales en algunos ancianos sanos. La mayoría de los estudios con B. monnieri han sido evaluaciones preclínicas de los mecanismos celulares en el sistema nervioso central y es necesario realizar más investigaciones clínicas traslacionales para evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de la planta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Bacopa/chemistry , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Saponins/analysis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triterpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Phytochemicals
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Pai-Neng-Da Capsule (, panaxadiol saponins component, PNDC) in combination with the cyclosporine and androgen for patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA).@*METHODS@#A total of 79 CAA patients was randomly divided into 2 groups by a random number table, including PCA group [43 cases, orally PNDC 320 mg/d plus cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 80 mg/d] and CA group [36 cases, orally cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 160 mg/d]. All patients were treated and followed-up for 6 treatment courses over 24 weeks. The complete blood counts, score of Chinese medical (CM) symptoms were assessed and urine routine, electrocardiogram, hepatic and renal function were observed for safety evaluation. Female masculinization rating scale was established according to the actual clinical manifestations to evaluate the accurate degree of masculinization in female CAA patients treated by andriol.@*RESULTS@#The effective rates were 88.1% (37/42) in the PCA group and 77.8% (28/36) in the CA group based on the standard for the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of hematopathy. There was no significant difference in the white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin concentration of peripheral blood between two groups after 6 months treatment. The masculinization score of female patient in the PCA group was significantly lower than the CA group (P<0.05). The mild abdominal distention was observed in 1 cases in the PCA group. In CA group, the abnormalities in the hepatic function developed in 2 cases and the renal disfunction was found in 1 case.@*CONCLUSION@#The PNDC possesses certain curative effects in the treatment of CAA without obvious side-effects and can partially replace andriol thereby to reduce the degree of masculinization [Registried at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChicTR1900028153)].


Subject(s)
Androgens , Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , China , Female , Humans , Nonprescription Drugs , Saponins/therapeutic use
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928129

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins(GPs) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet in rats and reveal the underlying mechanism. The NAFLD model rats were prepared with high-fat diet. Forty male Sprague Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned into the control group, model group, and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GPs(50, 100, and 150 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) groups. After intragastric administration for 8 continuous weeks, we determined the body weight, liver weight, the levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in serum, and the levels of TC, TG, malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and interleukin 6(IL-6) in the liver. Furthermore, we observed the pathological changes of liver tissue by oil red O staining and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, sequenced the 16 S rRNA of the intestinal flora in rat feces, and determined the content of short-chain fatty acids in rat feces. The results showed that GPs inhibited the excessive weight gain of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats, reduced the liver weight, lowered the TC, TG, LDL-c, AST, and ALT levels in serum(P<0.05), and rose the HDL-c level in serum(P<0.01). GPs relieved the liver damage caused by high-fat diet, mainly manifested by the lowered levels of TC, TG, MDA, and IL-6 in the liver(P<0.01) and elevated levels of CAT and SOD in the liver. Furthermore, GPs reversed the intestinal flora disorder caused by high-fat diet, restored the diversity of intestinal flora, increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides, and reduced the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides. Moreover, GPs promoted the proliferation of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides, and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria such as Desulfovibrio, Escherichia-Shigella, and Helicobacter. GPs increased the content of short-chain fatty acids(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid)(P<0.01). These findings indicate that GPs can alleviate the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats via regulating the intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Cholesterol, LDL/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gynostemma , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liver , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928046

ABSTRACT

In this study, a method was established for in-situ visualization of metabolite distribution in the rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. To be specific, through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging(MALDI-MSI), the spatial locations of steroidal saponins, amino acids, organic acids, phytosterols, phytoecdysones, nucleosides, and esters in rhizome of the medicinal plant were directly analyzed, and six unknown compounds with differential distribution in rhizome tissues were identified. The specific procedure is as follows: preparation of rhizome tissue section, matrix screening and optimization, and MALDI-MSI analysis. The results showed that the steroidal saponins were mainly distributed in the central, amino acids in epidermis and cortex, low-molecular-weight organic acids in central epidermis, phytosterols in the epidermis and lateral cortex, the phytoecdysones in epidermis and cortex, nucleosides(uneven distribution) in epidermis and cortex, growth hormones around the epidermis and cortex, particularly outside the cortex, and esters in cortex with unobvious difference among different tissues. In this study, the spatial distribution of meta-bolites in the rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was characterized for the first time. The result can serve as a reference for identifying and extracting endogenous metabolites of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, exploring the synthesis and metabolism mechanisms of the metabolites, and evaluating the quality of medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Liliaceae/chemistry , Melanthiaceae , Rhizome/chemistry , Saponins/analysis , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927994

ABSTRACT

This study explores the regulatory effect of astragaloside Ⅳ on miR-17-5 p and its downstream proprotein convertase subtillisin/kexin type 9(PCSK9)/very low density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR) signal pathway, aiming at elucidating the mechanism of astragaloside Ⅳ against atherosclerosis(AS). In cell experiment, oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) was used for endothelial cell injury modeling with vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs). Then cells were classified into the model group, miR-17-5 p inhibitor group, blank serum group, and astragaloside Ⅳ-containing serum group based on the invention. Afterward, cell viability and the expression of miR-17-5 p, VLDLR, and PCSK9 mRNA and protein in cells in each group were detected. In animal experiment, 15 C57 BL/6 mice were used as the control group, and 45 ApoE~(-/-) mice were classified into the model group, miR-17-5 p inhibitor group, and astragaloside Ⅳ group, with 15 mice in each group. After 8 weeks of intervention, the peripheral serum levels of interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and the expression of miR-17-5 p, VLDLR, and PCSK9 mRNA in the aorta of mice were detected. The pathological changes of mice in each group were observed. According to the cell experiment, VSMC viability in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ-containing serum group was higher than that in the model group(P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of miR-17-5 p and VLDLR in VSMCs in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ-containing serum group was lower than that in the model group(P<0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of PCSK9 was higher than that in the model group(P<0.05). As for the animal experiment, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the peripheral serum of the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ group were lower(P<0.05) and the serum level of IL-10 was higher(P<0.05) than that of the model group. The mRNA expression of miR-17-5 p and VLDLR in the aorta in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ group was lower(P<0.05), and PCSK9 mRNA expression was higher(P<0.05) than that in the model group. Pathological observation showed mild AS in the miR-17-5 p inhibitor group and the astragaloside Ⅳ group. In summary, astragaloside Ⅳ can prevent the occurrence and development of AS. The mechanism is that it performs targeted regulation of miR-17-5 p, further affecting the PCSK9/VLDLR signal pathway, inhibiting vascular inflammation, and thus alleviating endothelial cell injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Mice , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Proprotein Convertase 9/metabolism , Receptors, LDL/metabolism , Saponins , Signal Transduction , Triterpenes
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of astragaloside Ⅳ in mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) and its effect on the percentage of peripheral blood T helper(Th17) cells. Following the establishment of UC mouse model with 2% sodium dextran sulfate(DSS), mice in the positive control group and low-and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ groups were treated with corresponding drugs by gavage. Disease activity index(DAI) was calculated, and serum interleukin-17(IL-17), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) levels were assayed by ELISA. The pathological changes in colon tissue were observed by HE staining, and Th17/regulatory T cells(Treg) ratio in the peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry. Western blot was conducted for detecting the relative protein expression levels of forkhead box protein P3(Foxp3) and retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor γT(ROR-γt). The findings demonstrated that in normal mice, the colonic structure was intact. The goblet cells were not reduced and the glands were neatly arranged, with no mucosal erosion, bleeding, or positive cell infiltration. In the model group, the colonic mucosal structure was seriously damaged, manifested as disordered arrangement or missing of glands, vascular dilatation, congestion, and massive inflammatory cell infiltration. The pathological injury of colon tissue was alleviated to varying degrees in drug treatment groups. Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited elevated percentage of Th17 cells, increased IL-17 and TNF-α content, up-regulated relative ROR-γt protein expression, lowered TGF-β, reduced percentage of Treg cells, and down-regulated relative Foxp3 protein expression. The comparison with the model group showed that DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the positive control group, low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were decreased, while TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were increased. The DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were higher than those in the positive control group, whereas the content of TGF-β, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were lower. DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, relative ROR-γt protein expression in the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group declined in contrast to those in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, while the TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression rose. There was no significant difference between the positive control group and the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group. Astragaloside Ⅳ is able to inhibit inflammatory response and diminish the percentage of Th17 cells in mice with UC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Mice , Saponins/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells , Triterpenes/pharmacology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927915

ABSTRACT

In this experiment, Panax notoginseng saponins chitosan nanoparticles(PNS-NPs) were prepared by self-assembly and their appearance, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, polydispersity index(PDI), Zeta potential, and microstructure were characterized. The prepared PNS-NPs were intact in structure, with an average particle size of(209±0.258) nm, encapsulation efficiency of 42.34%±0.28%, a drug loading of 37.63%±0.85%, and a Zeta potential of(39.8±3.122) mV. The intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs in rats was further studied. The established HPLC method of PNS was employed to investigate the effects of pH, perfusion rate, and different drugs(PNS raw materials, Xuesaitong Capsules, and PNS-NPs). The absorption rate constant(K_a) and apparent permeability coefficient(P_(app)) in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were calculated and analyzed. As illustrated by the results, the intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was increased in the perfusion solution at pH 6.8(P<0.05), and perfusion rate had no significant effect on the K_a and P_(app) of PNS-NPs. The intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was significantly different from that of PNS raw materials and Xuesaitong Capsules(P<0.05), and the intestinal absorption of PNS-NPs was significantly improved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chitosan/pharmacology , Intestinal Absorption , Nanoparticles , Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927909

ABSTRACT

Panax quinquefolium, as a common precious medicinal plant, has complex chemical components and unique pharmacological activities, which can play a healthcare role in the human body. With the deepening of research, the application of P. quinquefolium has become increasingly extensive. This paper summarized the research progress of the saponins isolated and identified from diffe-rent parts of P. quinquefolium, the structural classification and pharmacological activities of the saponins, and the quality control of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. Further, this paper put forward the urgent problems to be solved in the development of P. quinquefolium. It is hoped to lay a foundation for the further study and provide reference for the research direction of P. quinquefolium.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Humans , Panax/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Quality Control , Saponins/pharmacology
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1004-1024, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927759

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoid saponins are widely used in medicine, health cares, cosmetics, food additives and agriculture because of their unique chemical properties and rich pharmacological activities. UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the key enzymes involved in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis, and play important roles in the diversity of triterpenoid saponin structures and pharmacological activities. This review summarized the UGTs involved in plant triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis based on the sources of UGTs and the types of receptors. Moreover, the application of UGTs in heterologous biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins based on synthetic biology was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Plants , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939914

ABSTRACT

Impaired immunomodulatory capacity and oxidative stress are the key factors limiting the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation therapy. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of jujuboside A (JuA) on the protective effect and immunomodulatory capacity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). Hydrogen peroxide was used to establish an oxidative damage model of hUC-MSCs, while PBMCs isolated from rats were used to evaluate the effect of JuA pre-treatment on the immunomodulatory capacity of hUC-MSCs. Furthermore, Hoechst 33258 staining, lactate dehydrogenase test, measurement of malondialdehyde, Western blot, high-performance liquid chromatography; and flow cytometry were performed. Our results indicated that JuA (25 μmol·L-1) promoted the proliferation of hUC-MSCs, but did not affect the differentiating capability of these cells. JuA pre-treatment inhibited apoptosis, prevented oxidative damage, and up-regulated the protein expression of nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1 in hUC-MSCs in which oxidative stress was induced with H2O2. In addition, JuA pre-treatment enhanced the inhibitory effect of hUC-MSCs against abnormally activated PBMCs, which was related to stimulation of the expression and activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that JuA pre-treatment can enhance the survival and immunomodulatory ability through pathways related to oxidative stress, providing a new option for the improvement of hUC-MSCs in the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Saponins , Umbilical Cord/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prevention among real-world surgical inpatients who received panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) combined with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH).@*METHODS@#A prospective cohort study was conducted among surgical patients between January 2016 and November 2018 in Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Participants received LMWH alone or PNS combined with LMWH for preventing DVT. The primary outcome was incidence of lower extremity DVT, which was screened once a week. Participants in the LMWH group were given LMWH (enoxaparin) via hypodermic injection, 4000-8000 AxalU once daily. Participants in the exposure group received PNS (Xuesaitong oral tablets, 100 mg, 3 times daily) combined with LMWH given the same as LMWH group.@*RESULTS@#Of the 325 patients screened for the study, 281 participants were included in the final analysis. The cohort was divided into PNS + LMWH group and LMWH group with 134 and 147 participants, respectively. There was a significant difference of DVT incidence between two groups (P=0.01), with 21 (15.7%) incident DVT in the PNS + LMWH group, and 41 (27.9%) incident DVT in the LMWH group. Compared with participants without DVT, the participants diagnosed with DVT were older and had higher D-dimer level. The multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant lower risk of incident DVT among participants in the PNS + LMWH group compared with the LMWH group (odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.86). There were no significant differences in thromboelaslography values (including R, K, Angle, and MA) and differences in severe bleeding between two groups. No symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred during the study.@*CONCLUSION@#Combined application of PNS and LMWH can effectively reduce the incidence of DVT among surgical inpatients compared with LMWH monotherapy, without increased risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Prospective Studies , Saponins/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939772

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants have provided numerous medicinal active ingredients for thousands of years and these ingredients have been used in Chinese medicine (CM) and traditional pharmacologies worldwide. Recently, the exploitation and utilisation of medicinal plant resources has increased significantly. The results of the studies have led to the identification of many active components, such as steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, and glycosides, in various medicinal plants with different evolutionary levels. Moreover, research on the chemical classification, molecular phylogeny, and pharmacological activity of medicinal plants is increasing in popularity. Pharmacophylogeny is an interdisciplinary topic that studies the correlation between plant phylogeny, chemical composition, and curative effects (pharmacological activity and the traditional curative effect) of medicinal plants. In addition, it provides the basic tools to enable research and development of CM resources. This literature review, based on the genetic relationship between phytogroup and species, highlights the formation process, research content, applications, and future directions of pharmacophylogeny.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Glycosides , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Saponins , Terpenes
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of total saponins from Panax notognseng (PNS) combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX) in mice bearing hepatocellular carcinoma H22 cell xenograft.@*METHODS@#We examined the effects of treatment with different concentrations of PNS on H22 cell proliferation for 24 to 72 h in vitro using CCK8 colorimetric assay. Annexin V/PI double fluorescence staining was used to detect the effect of PNS on apoptosis of H22 cells. Mouse models bearing H22 cell xenograft were established and treated with CTX (25 mg/kg), PNS (120, 240 or 480 mg/kg), alone or in combinations. After treatments for consecutive 10 days, the mice were euthanized for examinations of carbon clearance ability of the monocytes and macrophages, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), serum hemolysin antibody level, blood indicators, and the tumor inhibition rate.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with PNS concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferation and significantly promoted apoptosis of cultured H22 cells (P < 0.01). In the tumor-bearing mouse models, PNS alone and its combination with CTX both resulted in obvious enhancement of phagocytosis of the monocyte-macrophages, stimulated the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, promoted the release of TNF-α and IL-2 and the production of serum hemolysin antibody, and increased the number of white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Treatment with 480 mg/kg PNS combined with CTX resulted in a tumor inhibition rate of 83.28% (P < 0.01) and a life prolonging rate of 131.25% in the mouse models (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PNS alone or in combination with CTX can improve the immunity and tumor inhibition rate and prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Hemolysin Proteins , Heterografts , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mice , Panax notoginseng , Saponins/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929258

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most lethal cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A key driver of CRC development is colon inflammatory responses especially in patients with inflammatory bowl disease (IBD). It has been proved that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor effects. The chemopreventive and immunomodulatory functions of PNS on colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) have not been evaluated.This present study was designed to study the potential protective effects of PNS on AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice to explore the possible mechanism of PNS against CAC. Our study showed that PNS significantly alleviated colitis severity and prevented the occurrence of CAC. Functional assays revealed that PNS relieved immunosuppression of Treg cells in the CAC microenvironment by inhibiting the expression of IDO1 mediated directly by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) rather than phosphorylated STAT1. Ultimately, Rh1, one of the PNS metabolites, exhibited the best inhibitory effect on IDO1 enzyme activity. Our study showed that PNS exerted significant chemopreventive function and immunomodulatory properties on CAC. It could reduce macrophages accumulation and Treg cells differentiation to reshape the immune microenvironment of CAC. These findings provided a promising approach for CAC intervention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis/drug therapy , Colitis-Associated Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophages , Mice , Panax notoginseng , Saponins/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 153-162, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The present study investigated antiglycation and antioxidant activities of crude dry extract and saponin fraction of Tribulus terrestris. It also developed a method of microencapsulation and evaluated antiglycation and antioxidant activities of crude dry extract and saponin fraction before and after microcapsule release.@*METHODS@#Antiglycation activity was determined by relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), free amino groups and inhibition of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) tests. Microcapsules were prepared using maltodextrin as wall material and freeze-drying as encapsulation technique. Morphological characterization of microcapsules was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and encapsulation efficiency and microcapsule release were determined by total saponins released. Antiglycation and antioxidant assays were performed using crude dry extract and saponin fraction of T. terrestris before and after release.@*RESULTS@#Saponin fraction showed an increase of 32.8% total saponins. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of saponins in the obtained fraction. Antiglycation evaluation by REM demonstrated that samples before and after release presented antiglycation activity similar to bovine serum albumin treated with aminoguanidine. Additionally, samples inhibited AGE formation, highlighting treatment with saponin fraction after release (89.89%). Antioxidant tests demonstrated antioxidant activity of the samples. Crude dry extract before encapsulation presented the highest activities in DPPH (92.00%) and TBARS (32.49%) assays. Saponin fraction before encapsulation in FRAP test (499 μmol Trolox equivalent per gram of dry sample) and NO test (15.13 μmol nitrite formed per gram of extract) presented the highest activities.@*CONCLUSION@#This study presented antiglycation activity of crude dry extract and saponin fraction of T. terrestris, besides it demonstrated promising antioxidant properties. It also showed that the encapsulation method was efficient and maintained biological activity of bioactive compounds after microcapsule release. These results provide information for further studies on antidiabetic and antiaging potential, and data for new herbal medicine and food supplement formulations containing microcapsules with crude extract and/or saponin fraction of T. terrestris.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Capsules , Complex Mixtures , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Saponins/pharmacology , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Tribulus
17.
Artemisa; I Jornada Científica de Farmacología y Salud. Fármaco Salud Artemisa 2021; 2021. [1-16] p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1284586

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se expone una revisión bibliográfica realizada con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos sobre la actividad antidiabética de las plantas medicinales y los productos naturales obtenidos a partir de ellas. Existe gran variedad de plantas con acciones hipoglicemiante y antidiabética relacionadas con la presencia de determinados metabolitos secundarios, entre los que se encuentran en primer lugar los flavonoides, seguidos de alcaloides, taninos y saponinas. Los resultados obtenidos en esta revisión se fundamentan en estudios in vitro e in vivo que probaron el potencial farmacológico de un elevado número de plantas estudiadas.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Hypoglycemic Agents , Saponins , Flavonoids , Databases, Bibliographic , Alkaloids , Medicine, Traditional
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10240, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249316

ABSTRACT

Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Infection with any of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes can be asymptomatic or lead to disease with clinical symptoms ranging from undifferentiated and self-limiting fever to severe dengue disease, which can be fatal in some cases. Currently, no specific antiviral compound is available for treating DENV. The aim of this study was to identify compounds in plants from Paraguayan folk medicine with inhibitory effects against DENV. We found high virucidal activity (50% maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 24.97 µg/mL) against DENV-2 in the ethanolic extract of the roots of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Solanaceae) without an evident cytotoxic effect on Vero E6 cells. Three saponins isolated from the root extract showed virucidal effects (EC50 values ranging from 24.9 to 35.1 µg/mL) against DENV-2. Additionally, the saponins showed inhibitory activity against yellow fever virus (EC50 values ranging from 126 to 302.6 µg/mL), the prototype virus of the Flavivirus genus, suggesting that they may also be effective against other members of this genus. Consequently, these saponins may be lead compounds for the development of antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Saponins/pharmacology , Solanum , Dengue Virus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Replication , Yellow fever virus
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888182

ABSTRACT

A spectrum-activity relationship is established with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints and the in vitro antioxidant activity to improve the quality evaluation system of Aralia taibaiensis. The HPLC profiles of 12 batches of samples were collected, and the similarity evaluation, heat map analysis and principal component analysis were conducted for the chemometric study of the fingerprint data. Combined with grey correlation analysis, the contributions of the common peaks in the fingerprints to the antioxidant activity were clarified, and the important peaks reflecting the efficacy were identified. The results showed that 17 common peaks were found in 12 batches of A. taibaiensis samples, and 6 of them were identified as saponins. Similarity evaluation, heat map analysis and principal component analysis roughly classified the A. taibaiensis herbs into two categories, i.e.,(1) S1-S10, S12 and(2) S11. Twelve batches of samples showed different antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, S9 had the strongest antioxidant activity, while S11 was the weakest in antioxidant capacity, which was basically consistent with the overall score results. The results of grey correlation analysis demonstrated that the 17 common peaks scavenged DPPH radicals in the following order: X_3>X_(17)>X_4>X_8>X_7>X_(13)>X_2>X_6>X_(11)>X_(10)>X_(16)>X_(12)>X_9>X_5>X_(14)>X_1>X_(15), and scavenged ABTS radicals in the order of X_4>X_3>X_7>X_8>X_2>X_(17)>X_(13)>X_6>X_(16)>X_(11)>X_5>X_(12)>X_(10)>X_9>X_(14)>X_1>X_(15). Among them, X_3, X_4, X_7(araloside C), X_8 and X_(17) were the important peaks reflecting the efficacy of A. taibaiensis, which were basically consistent with those contained in the principal component 1. In this study, the correlation between the HPLC fingerprints of 12 batches of A. taibaiensis and its antioxidant activity provides a reference for the Q-marker screening and quality control of A. taibaiensis.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Aralia , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Saponins
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888179

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish the high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, determine their pharmacodynamic indexes of promoting blood circulation, and explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the efficacy of promoting blood circulation. Firstly, the HPLC fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were established. Then, the pharmacodynamic indexes were determined after the capillary coagulation experiment and the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats, including capillary coagulation time, percentage of cerebral ischemic area, cerebral water loss rate, and brain-body index. Afterward, the partial least-squares method was used to explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the pharmacodynamic indexes. The results showed that this study successfully established the HPLC fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, found 23 common peaks, and identified 12 of them, all of which were saponins. The method was proved stable and reliable. Both the capillary coagulation experiment and the middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion experiment on rats revealed that there were obvious differences in the pharmacodynamic indexes of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The relationships between 23 common components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in different batches and the pharmacodynamic indexes were discussed by means of spectrum-effect correlation analysis, of which 17 components had positive effects while 6 components had negative effects on the pharmacodynamic indexes. This study provides a certain reference basis for the clinical rational use and quality control of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Coagulation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Quality Control , Rats , Rhizome , Saponins
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