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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 1007-1017, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of effects of total saponin fraction from Dioscorea Nipponica Makino (TSDN) on M1/M2 polarization of monocytes/macrophages and arachidonic acid (AA) pathway in rats with gouty arthritis (GA).@*METHODS@#Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=18 in each): normal, model, TSDN at 160 mg/kg, and celecoxib at 43.3 mg/kg. Monosodium urate crystal (MSU) was injected into the rats' ankle joints to induce an experimental GA model. Blood and tissue samples were collected on the 3rd, 5th, and 8th days of drug administration. Histopathological changes in the synovium of joints were observed via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The expression levels of arachidonic acid (AA) signaling pathway were assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot. Flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of M1 and M2 macrophages in the peripheral blood. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect interleukine (IL)-1 β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-4, IL-10, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4).@*RESULTS@#HE staining showed that TSDN improved the synovial tissue. qPCR and Western blot showed that on the 3rd, 5th and 8th days of drug administration, TSDN reduced the mRNA and protein expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 derived eicosanoids (mPGES-1), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), recombinant human mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NALP3), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in rats' ankle synovial tissues (P<0.01). TSDN decreased COX1 mRNA and protein expression on 3rd and 5th day of drug administration and raised it on the 8th day (both P<0.01). It lowered CD68 protein expression on days 3 (P<0.01), as well as mRNA and protein expression on days 5 and 8 (P<0.01). On the 3rd, 5th, and 8th days of drug administration, TSDN elevated the mRNA and protein expression of Arg1 and CD163 (P<0.01). Flow cytometry results showed that TSDN decreased the percentage of M1 macrophages while increasing the percentage of M2 in peripheral blood (P<0.05 or P<0.01). ELISA results showed that on the 3rd, 5th, and 8th days of drug administration, TSDN decreased serum levels of IL-1 β, TNF-α, and LTB4 (P<0.01), as well as PGE2 levels on days 3rd and 8th days (P<0.05 or P<0.01); on day 8 of administration, TSDN increased IL-4 serum levels and enhanced IL-10 contents on days 5 and 8 (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The anti-inflammatory effect of TSDN on rats with GA may be achieved by influencing M1/M2 polarization through AA signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Humans , Animals , Arthritis, Gouty/drug therapy , Monocytes/pathology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid/pharmacology , Dioscorea/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Macrophages , Signal Transduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 771-778, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prevention among real-world surgical inpatients who received panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) combined with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH).@*METHODS@#A prospective cohort study was conducted among surgical patients between January 2016 and November 2018 in Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Participants received LMWH alone or PNS combined with LMWH for preventing DVT. The primary outcome was incidence of lower extremity DVT, which was screened once a week. Participants in the LMWH group were given LMWH (enoxaparin) via hypodermic injection, 4000-8000 AxalU once daily. Participants in the exposure group received PNS (Xuesaitong oral tablets, 100 mg, 3 times daily) combined with LMWH given the same as LMWH group.@*RESULTS@#Of the 325 patients screened for the study, 281 participants were included in the final analysis. The cohort was divided into PNS + LMWH group and LMWH group with 134 and 147 participants, respectively. There was a significant difference of DVT incidence between two groups (P=0.01), with 21 (15.7%) incident DVT in the PNS + LMWH group, and 41 (27.9%) incident DVT in the LMWH group. Compared with participants without DVT, the participants diagnosed with DVT were older and had higher D-dimer level. The multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant lower risk of incident DVT among participants in the PNS + LMWH group compared with the LMWH group (odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.86). There were no significant differences in thromboelaslography values (including R, K, Angle, and MA) and differences in severe bleeding between two groups. No symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred during the study.@*CONCLUSION@#Combined application of PNS and LMWH can effectively reduce the incidence of DVT among surgical inpatients compared with LMWH monotherapy, without increased risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Panax notoginseng , Prospective Studies , Saponins/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 258-269, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929258

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most lethal cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A key driver of CRC development is colon inflammatory responses especially in patients with inflammatory bowl disease (IBD). It has been proved that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor effects. The chemopreventive and immunomodulatory functions of PNS on colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) have not been evaluated.This present study was designed to study the potential protective effects of PNS on AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice to explore the possible mechanism of PNS against CAC. Our study showed that PNS significantly alleviated colitis severity and prevented the occurrence of CAC. Functional assays revealed that PNS relieved immunosuppression of Treg cells in the CAC microenvironment by inhibiting the expression of IDO1 mediated directly by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) rather than phosphorylated STAT1. Ultimately, Rh1, one of the PNS metabolites, exhibited the best inhibitory effect on IDO1 enzyme activity. Our study showed that PNS exerted significant chemopreventive function and immunomodulatory properties on CAC. It could reduce macrophages accumulation and Treg cells differentiation to reshape the immune microenvironment of CAC. These findings provided a promising approach for CAC intervention.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Colitis/drug therapy , Colitis-Associated Neoplasms/drug therapy , Macrophages , Panax notoginseng , Saponins/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 410-418, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 20-27, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Pai-Neng-Da Capsule (, panaxadiol saponins component, PNDC) in combination with the cyclosporine and androgen for patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA).@*METHODS@#A total of 79 CAA patients was randomly divided into 2 groups by a random number table, including PCA group [43 cases, orally PNDC 320 mg/d plus cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 80 mg/d] and CA group [36 cases, orally cyclosporine 5 mg/(kg·d) plus andriol 160 mg/d]. All patients were treated and followed-up for 6 treatment courses over 24 weeks. The complete blood counts, score of Chinese medical (CM) symptoms were assessed and urine routine, electrocardiogram, hepatic and renal function were observed for safety evaluation. Female masculinization rating scale was established according to the actual clinical manifestations to evaluate the accurate degree of masculinization in female CAA patients treated by andriol.@*RESULTS@#The effective rates were 88.1% (37/42) in the PCA group and 77.8% (28/36) in the CA group based on the standard for the therapeutic efficacy evaluation of hematopathy. There was no significant difference in the white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin concentration of peripheral blood between two groups after 6 months treatment. The masculinization score of female patient in the PCA group was significantly lower than the CA group (P<0.05). The mild abdominal distention was observed in 1 cases in the PCA group. In CA group, the abnormalities in the hepatic function developed in 2 cases and the renal disfunction was found in 1 case.@*CONCLUSION@#The PNDC possesses certain curative effects in the treatment of CAA without obvious side-effects and can partially replace andriol thereby to reduce the degree of masculinization [Registried at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChicTR1900028153)].


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Androgens , Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , China , Nonprescription Drugs , Saponins/therapeutic use
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 538-545, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effects of total saponins from Panax notognseng (PNS) combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX) in mice bearing hepatocellular carcinoma H22 cell xenograft.@*METHODS@#We examined the effects of treatment with different concentrations of PNS on H22 cell proliferation for 24 to 72 h in vitro using CCK8 colorimetric assay. Annexin V/PI double fluorescence staining was used to detect the effect of PNS on apoptosis of H22 cells. Mouse models bearing H22 cell xenograft were established and treated with CTX (25 mg/kg), PNS (120, 240 or 480 mg/kg), alone or in combinations. After treatments for consecutive 10 days, the mice were euthanized for examinations of carbon clearance ability of the monocytes and macrophages, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), serum hemolysin antibody level, blood indicators, and the tumor inhibition rate.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with PNS concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferation and significantly promoted apoptosis of cultured H22 cells (P < 0.01). In the tumor-bearing mouse models, PNS alone and its combination with CTX both resulted in obvious enhancement of phagocytosis of the monocyte-macrophages, stimulated the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, promoted the release of TNF-α and IL-2 and the production of serum hemolysin antibody, and increased the number of white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Treatment with 480 mg/kg PNS combined with CTX resulted in a tumor inhibition rate of 83.28% (P < 0.01) and a life prolonging rate of 131.25% in the mouse models (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PNS alone or in combination with CTX can improve the immunity and tumor inhibition rate and prolong the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Hemolysin Proteins , Heterografts , Interleukin-2 , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Panax notoginseng , Saponins/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 427-435, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tribulus terrestris to treat female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Data sources We performed unrestricted electronic searches in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO,WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov and OpenGrey databases. Selection of studies We included any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared T. terrestris versus inactive/active interventions. After the selection process, conducted by two reviewers, 5 RCTs (n = 279 participants) were included. Data collection Data extraction was performed by two reviewers with a preestablished data collection formulary. Data synthesis Due to lack of data and clinical heterogeneity, we could not perform meta-analyses. The risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and the certainty of evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Results After 1 to 3 months of treatment, premenopausal and postmenopausal women randomized to T. terrestris had a significant increase in sexual function scores. Three months of treatment with T. terrestris showed a significant increase in the serum testosterone levels of premenopausal women. There was no report of serious adverse events, and none of the studies assessed health-related quality of life. The certainty of the evidence was very low, whichmeans that we have very little confidence in the effect estimates, and future studies are likely to change these estimates. Conclusion MoreRCTs are needed to supportor refute the use of T. terrestris. The decision to use this intervention should be shared with the patients, and the uncertainties around its effects should be discussed in the clinical decision-making process. Number of Protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42019121130


Resumo Objetivo Nós realizamos uma revisão sistemática para avaliar a efetividade e a segurança do Tribulus terrestris no tratamento da disfunção sexual feminina (DSF). Fontes de dados Nós realizados uma busca eletrônica irrestrita nas seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov, e OpenGrey. Seleção dos estudos Nós incluímos todos os ensaios clínico randomizados (ECR) que comparou T. terrestris com controles ativos/inativos. Após o processo de seleção, conduzido por 2 revisores, 5 ECRs (n = 279 participantes) foram incluídos. Extração de dados O processo de extração de dados foi realizado por dois revisores, utilizando-se um formulário de extração de dados pré-estabelecido. Síntese de dados Devido à falta de dados disponíveis e à heterogeneidade clínica entre os estudos incluídos, nós não realizamos meta-análises. O risco de viés foi avaliado pela tabela de risco de viés da Cochrane e, a certeza do corpo da evidência foi avaliada pelo Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Resultados Após 1 a três 3 meses de tratamento, mulheres na pré e pós-menopausa randomizadas ao T. terrestris tiveram um aumento significante nos escores de função sexual. O grupo com 3 meses de tratamento com T. terrestris exibiu um aumento significante dos níveis séricos de testosterona emmulheres pré-menopausa. Não houve relato de eventos adversos graves, e nenhum estudo avaliou qualidade de vida das participantes. A certeza da evidência foi considerada muito baixa, o que significa que existe pouca certeza na estimativa dos efeitos e que é provável que futuros estudos mudem estas estimativas. Conclusão Mais ECRs são importantes para apoiar ou refutar o uso do T. terrestris. A decisão de usar essa intervenção deve ser compartilhada com pacientes, e as incertezas sobre seus efeitos devem ser discutidas durante o processo de decisão clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tribulus/chemistry , Saponins/adverse effects , Saponins/therapeutic use , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/blood , Testosterone/blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Premenopause , Postmenopause , Diosgenin/analogs & derivatives , Diosgenin/adverse effects , Diosgenin/therapeutic use
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 41-47, Jan. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087517

ABSTRACT

Background: The harmful effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications have become a major global public health problem. In this study, the effects of Momordica charantia saponins (MCS) on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling pathway in type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Results: MCS could attenuate the tendency of weight loss of the model rats. It could also improve glucose tolerance; reduce fasting blood glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol; and increase the insulin content and insulin sensitivity index of the rats. The activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased, and the content of malondialdehyde decreased in the liver and pancreas tissues of rats in MCS-treated groups significantly. In addition, the expression of p-IRS-1 (Y612) and p-Akt (S473) increased, and the expression of p-IRS-1 (S307) decreased in the liver tissues and pancreas tissues of rats in MCS-treated groups significantly. Conclusion: MCS has an antidiabetic effect, which may be related to its improving the lipid metabolism disorder, reducing oxidative stress level, and regulating the insulin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Saponins/therapeutic use , Momordica charantia/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pancreas/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight , Insulin Resistance , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Lipids , Liver/drug effects
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 617-622, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008546

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect and mechanism of anemoside B4 on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. A total of 50 rats were randomly divided into the model group(NS) and anemoside B4 low-dose(1.25 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(2.5 mg·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(5 mg·kg~(-1)) groups after the right kidney was removed and the left kidney was ligated to make the ischemia reperfusion model. Another 10 rats were selected as sham operation group only for normal control group(NS, received normal saline). Automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure serum blood urea nitrogen(BUN), creatinine(Cre), cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) and urinemicroalbumin(mALB) levels after 5 days of tail vein injection treament. Total urine protein and total urinary albu-min were calculated and kidney samples were collected. Histopathological changes of renal tissues were observed by PAS staining. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the protein expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB in renal inflammatory factors related to NLRP3 pathway and TLR4/NF-κB pathway. The results showed that the levels of BUN, Cre, urinary total protein and urinary total albumin in the model group were significantly increased(P<0.01), with severe renal tubule injury was serious, manifested by obvious expansion of renal tubules, more serious tubular proteins, and some tubular epithelial cells were exfoliated. At the same time, the expression of inflammatory factors related to NLRP3 pathway and TLR4/NF-κB pathway increased significantly(P<0.01 or P<0.05). The levels of BUN, Cre were reduced in different doses of anemoside B4(P<0.05). The levels of total urinary protein and total urinary albumin were decreased in the low and high dose groups of anemoside B4.The level of total urinary albumin in the high-dose group of anemoside B4 was significantly reduced(P<0.05).Renal tubular injury was alleviated, tubular epithelial cell exfoliation was reduced, and the expression of related inflammatory factors was reduced in different degrees(P<0.01 or P<0.05). This study showed that anemoside B4 could alleviate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. And its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of inflammatory factors related to response mediated by NLRP3 pathway and TLR4/NF-κB pathway by anemoside B4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Kidney , Ligation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Renal Artery/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Saponins/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 513-517, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008532

ABSTRACT

Cerebral ischemia is also known as ischemic stroke. In recent years, research on neuroprotection after ischemia has became a hot spot as stroke can result in symptoms of nerve damages such as hemiplegia, learning and memory disorders. The key factors that cause the death of cells include excitotoxicity, oxidative damage, nitrosative stress and inflammation. However, there is no effective preparation for the treatment of post-ischemic nerve defects at present, so it is urgent to find and develop effective drugs for the treatment of nerve damages after ischemia. Traditional Chinese medicine has advantages and potentials in the treatment of neurological diseases. Many scholars have carried out related researches on the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine and achieved some good results. In this context, the researches on the neuroprotective effects of traditional Chinese medicines such as tetramethylpyrazine, butylphthalide and total saponins of Panax notoginseng were reviewed. The author found that the neuroprotective researches of traditional Chinese medicine mostly focused on anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress, but those effects were not sounique to the nervous system. Furthermore, most ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine showed a poor water-soluble property. In view of the research status and existing problems of traditional Chinese medicine in nerve injury, the suggestions for the research and development of the potent neuroprotective agents were proposed in this study from the perspective of pharmacological mechanism research and preparation theory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzofurans/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Panax notoginseng , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Saponins/therapeutic use
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 157-162, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008451

ABSTRACT

This paper was aimed to observe the effect of anemoside B4(hereinafter referred to as B4) on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in mice, and to investigate its possible mechanism in renal protection from inflammation and apoptosis aspects. Mice were divided into normal group, model group, dexamethasone positive group and B4 high, middle and low dose groups(5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg·kg~(-1 )doses). All the other mice groups except normal group were given with tail vein injection of cisplatin(15 mg·kg~(-1)) to induce acute kidney injury models. The drug administration was started on the day of modeling, and lasted for 4 days. After 1 hour of the last injection, orbital blood was collected. After the serum was separated, serum urea nitrogen(BUN), creatinine(Cre), total protein(TP), and albumin(ALB) were tested by using an automatic biochemical analyzer; the changes of kidney pathological morphology were observed by PAS staining; the protein expression levels of inflammatory factors including nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor(NLRP3), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 1(caspase-1), interleukin-18(IL-18), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α), and interleukin-6(IL-6) and apoptosis factors including p53, caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax), and B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2) were analyzed by Western blot. The results showed that B4 significantly reduced the serum BUN and Cre contents, and alleviated pathological changes in renal tissues, such as the shedding and degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells, tubulin tubule type. B4 significantly down-regulated the protein expressions of p53, Bax, cleaved-caspase-3 in the kidney and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2/Bax. In model group, however, no significant up-regulation was observed in the protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines(NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, IL-18, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6). The results suggested that B4 had a certain protective effect on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, and could activate p53 signaling pathway related apoptotic factors. B4 renal protective effect was mainly related to the regulation of p53 signaling pathway, while NLRP3 inflammasome and related inflammatory factors had no obvious response in this model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Cytokines , Inflammation , Kidney , Saponins/therapeutic use
12.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 679-686, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of astragaloside Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ) on microglia/macrophage M1/M2 polarization and inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty eight male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation control group, model control group and AS-Ⅳ group with 16 rats in each. Focal cerebral ischemia model was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) using the intraluminal filament. After ischemia induced, the rats in AS-Ⅳ group were intraperitoneally injected with 40 mg/kg AS-Ⅳ once a day for 3 days. The neurological functions were evaluated by the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and the corner test on d1 and d3 after modelling. The infarct volume was measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on d3 after ischemia. The expression of M1 microglia/macrophage markers CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, M2 microglia/macrophages markers CD206, arginase-1 (Arg-1), chitinase-like protein (YM1/2) and anti-inflammatory factors interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) was detected by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD16/32/Iba1 and CD206/Iba1 was determined by double labeling immunefluorescence method in the peripheral area of cerebral ischemia.@*RESULTS@#Compared with model control group, AS-Ⅳ treatment improved neurological function recovery and reduced infarct volume after ischemia (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The findings suggest that AS-Ⅳ ameliorates brain injury after cerebral ischemia in rats, which may be related to inhibiting inflammation through promoting the polarization of the microglia/macrophage from M1 to M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cell Polarity/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , Microglia/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/therapeutic use
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9628, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132530

ABSTRACT

Ophiopogonin D (OP-D) is the principal pharmacologically active ingredient from Ophiopogon japonicas, which has been demonstrated to have numerous pharmacological activities. However, its protective effect against renal damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats remains unclear. The present study was performed to investigate the protective effect of OP-D in the STZ-induced DN rat model. DN rats showed renal dysfunction, as evidenced by decreased serum albumin and creatinine clearance, along with increases in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, TGF-β1, and kidney hypertrophy, and these were reversed by OP-D. In addition, STZ induced oxidative damage and inflammatory response in diabetic kidney tissue. These abnormalities were reversed by OP-D treatment. The findings obtained in the present study indicated that OP-D might possess the potential to be a therapeutic agent against DN via inhibiting renal inflammation and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Saponins/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ophiopogon/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Inflammation/prevention & control , Spirostans/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin
14.
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Dec; 4(12): 1400-1407
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164206

ABSTRACT

Albizia lebbeck is a tree widely distributed in India and is also found in South Africa, South America and Australia. As in Indian traditional system as folk medicine, this plant is used to treat several inflammatory pathologies such as asthma, arthritis and burns. Study of other species this same genus has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity of crude extract, which, in some work has been attributed to the presence of saponins. In order to confirm these findings a study of phytochemical profile was realized and a rich extract in saponins, butanolic extract, was obtained and its anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated through measured by inhibition of carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, using dexamethasone as reference compound. The extract exhibited a moderate control of the both phase of inflammation, provoking an inhibition of edema formation. However, the butanolic extract exhibited lesser activity than reference compound dexamethasone. The results obtained suggest a significant antiinflamatory property of the butanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck, justifying the use of this plant in the traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and confirm their saponins as bioactive product.


Subject(s)
Albizzia/classification , Albizzia/pharmacology , Albizzia/therapeutic use , Butanols/pharmacology , Butanols/therapeutic use , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , India , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Extracts , Saponins/pharmacology , Saponins/therapeutic use
15.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Dec; 49(6): 451-457
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144086

ABSTRACT

Six different extracts from Eucalyptus citriodora leaves were investigated for their anticancer effect. Extracts were prepared using a range of polar and non-polar solvents to leach out maximum active components. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. Cytotoxic activity of different extracts was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cell lines from seven different tissues, such as SW-620 (colon), HOP-62 (lung), PC-3 (prostate), OVCAR-5 (ovary), HeLa (cervix), IMR-32 (neuroblastoma) and HEP-2 (liver). The ethyl acetate, chloroform and 50% methanolic extract displayed highest anti-proliferative effect in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated against murine tumor (solid) model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180. The results showed that ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts suppressed the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (29.79% and 18.48%, respectively), but showed little growth inhibition in case of Sarcoma 180 (13. 86% and 8.57%, respectively). The activity might be due to the flavonoids, tannins and saponins that are present in all the extracts of the plant. Further investigation is required for the isolation of active principle(s) from the ethyl acetate extract, which has shown significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer potential.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Eucalyptus/therapeutic use , Mice , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Saponins/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Tannins/therapeutic use
16.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 538-547, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99201

ABSTRACT

Total aralosides of Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (TASAES) from Chinese traditional herb Longya Aralia chinensis L was found to improve cardiac function. The present study was to determine the protective effects of TASAES on diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the possible mechanisms. Therefore, a single dose of streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in Wister rats. Diabetic rats were immediately treated with low, medium and high doses of TASAES at 4.9, 9.8 mg/kg and 19.6 mg/kg body weight by gavage, respectively, for eight weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by in situ hemodynamic measurements, and patch clamp for the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa2+-L) and transient outward K+ channel current (Ito). Histopathological changes were observed under light and electron microscope. The expression of pro-fibrotic factor, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was monitored using immunohistochemistry staining. Compared with diabetic group, medium and high doses, but not low dose, of TASAES showed a significant protection against diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, shown by increased absolute value of left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and maximum rates of pressure development (+/-dp/dt(max)), and enhanced amplitude of ICa2+-L (P < 0.05). Histological staining indicated a significant inhibition of diabetes-caused pathological changes and up-regulation of CTGF expression (P < 0.05). The results suggest that TASAES prevents diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and pathological damage through up-regulating ICa2+-L in cardiac cells and decreasing CTGF expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aralia/chemistry , Calcium Channels, L-Type/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/drug therapy , Connective Tissue Growth Factor/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Heart/drug effects , Hemodynamics , Myocardium/pathology , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Saponins/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 291-296, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8383

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated whether ginseng total saponins (GTSs) protect hippocampal neurons after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. A moderate-grade TBI was made with the aid of a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device set at a velocity of 3.0 m/sec, a deformation of 3.0 mm, and a compression time of 0.2 sec at the right parietal area for adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Shamoperated rats that underwent craniectomy without impact served as controls. GTSs (100 and 200 mg/kg) or saline was injected intraperitoneally into the rats immediately post-injury. Twenty-four hours after the injury, the rats underwent neurological evaluation. Contusion volume and the number of hippocampal neurons were calculated with apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL staining. 24 hr post-injury, salineinjected rats showed a significant loss of neuronal cells in the CA2 region of the right hippocampus (53.4%, p<0.05) and CA3 (34.6%, p<0.05) compared with contralateral hippocampal region, a significant increase in contusion volume (34 +/-8microliter), and significant increase in neurologic deficits compared with the GTSs groups. Treating rats with GTSs seemed to protect the CCI-induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, decrease cortical contusion volume, and improve neurological deficits.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Injuries/drug therapy , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Panax , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins/therapeutic use , Staining and Labeling
18.
Rev. odontopediatr ; 4(3): 147-53, jul.-set. 1995. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-203160

ABSTRACT

Com o propósito de analisar comparativamente a reduçäo do índice de placa bacteriana em crianças, através do uso do Pó de Juá, foi realizado o presente trabalho. Para tal, foram utilizados 30 crianças na faixa de 7 a 12 anos, de ambos os sexos, divididos em 3 grupos numericamente iguais: G1(grupo controle - pasta), G2(grupo experimental - Pó de Juá + pasta) e G3(grupo experimental - Pó de Juá). O trabalho foi realizado e supervisionado por um único operador em crianças atentidas na Faculdade de Odontologia de Camilo Castelo Branco de acordo com os resultados obtidos, o Pó de Juá utilizado individualmente ou associado ao creme dental, säo fatores que seguramente agem na reduçäo do índice de placa(G.V.S.)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Oral Hygiene , Plants , Complementary Therapies , Toothbrushing , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Saponins/analysis , Saponins/therapeutic use , Plant Stems
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