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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(10): e7579, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951716


Glucocorticoid insensitivity is an important barrier to the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI). Saquinavir (SQV) is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus protease, and the therapeutic effects of SQV in ALI accompanied with glucocorticoid insensitivity have not been previously investigated. In this study, the effects of SQV on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated injury in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), and alveolar macrophages were determined. In addition, the effects of SQV on an LPS-induced ALI model with or without methylprednisolone (MPS) were studied. In LPS-stimulated HPMECs, SQV treatment resulted in a decrease of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), phospho-NF-κB (p-NF-κB), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and an increase of VE-cadherin. Compared to MPS alone, MPS plus SQV attenuated the decrease of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα) and IκBα in LPS-stimulated HPMECs. HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB expression were also lessened in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages with SQV treatment. In addition, SQV reduced the injury in human AT I with a decrease of HMGB1 and p-NF-κB, and with an increase of aquaporin 5 (AQP 5). SQV ameliorated the lung injury caused by LPS in rats with reductions in vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and histopathological scores, and with lowered HMGB1, TLR4, and p-NF-κB expression, but with enhanced VE-cadherin expression. By comparison, SQV plus MPS increased GRα and IκBα in lung tissues of rats with ALI. This study demonstrated that SQV prevented experimental ALI and improved glucocorticoid insensitivity by modulating the HMGB1/TLR4 pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Saquinavir/administration & dosage , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Antigens, CD/drug effects , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Cadherins/drug effects , Cadherins/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 4/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44502


OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of 1,400 mg BID and 1,200 mg TID of saquinavir soft gel given with zidovudine and lamivudine in antiretroviral-naïve, advanced AIDS patients. METHOD: A randomized, open-label study conducted at a university hospital. RESULTS: Forty cases were enrolled in the study, 20 cases in each group. The mean CD4 cell count was 29 cells/mm3. The mean log10 HIV-1 RNA was 5.27 copies/mL. Using an on-treatment analysis, the reduction in plasma log10HIV-1 RNA of BID and TID groups was not statistically significant at -2.44 vs -2.60 copies/mL (-0.16, 95% CI -0.63 to 0.30; p= 0.48). The mean increase in CD4 cell counts was not statistically significant at +144 and +159 cells/mm3 (11, 95% CI -75 to 97; p=0.79). CONCLUSION: The preliminary data suggests that in antiretroviral-naïve, advanced AIDS patients, 1,400 mg BID of saquinavir soft gel given with two nucleoside analogues might be as effective as the standard 1,200 mg TID.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Lamivudine/administration & dosage , Male , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Saquinavir/administration & dosage , Zidovudine/administration & dosage