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2.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e505, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280325

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia oportunista asociada a la inmunodepresión causada por VIH, que se relaciona con la infección por VHH tipo 8. Objetivo: Describir la presentación del sarcoma de Kaposi en personas que viven con VIH en Guinea Ecuatorial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de carácter retrospectivo para identificar la prevalencia y las características epidemiológicas y clínicas del sarcoma de Kaposi en las personas que viven con VIH que acuden a las unidades de referencia para el manejo de casos en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de una muestra aleatoria y representativa de 338 pacientes del grupo que ha recibido tratamiento en las unidades de referencia para enfermedades infecciosas de Bata, desde enero de 2007 a febrero de 2012. Resultados: Se identificaron 40 pacientes diagnosticados de sarcoma de Kaposi (prevalencia del 11, 83 por ciento). La mediana de la edad al diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi fue de 43 años, siendo la ratio del sexo de 1/1. La media de linfocitos CD4 al diagnóstico fue de 166 (rango 21-375) y la frecuencia de afectación oral fue de 45 por ciento. En la mayoría de los pacientes (94,6 por ciento) la observación del sarcoma de Kaposi fue anterior al inicio del tratamiento antirretroviral. Las cifras de linfocitos T CD4/mm3 inferiores a 100 aparecían sobre todo en pacientes menores de 30 años, y esto era especialmente frecuente en el grupo de mujeres (OR 11, p <0,04, Ic 95 por ciento 0,8-148). Conclusiones: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia prevalente en personas que viven con VIH seguidas en las unidades de referencia en Guinea Ecuatorial. En mujeres menores de 30 años podría existir un diagnóstico tardío(AU)


Introduction: Kaposi sarcoma is an opportunistic neoplasm associated to the immunosuppression caused by HIV and related to infection by HHV-8. Objective: Describe the presentation of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV in Equatorial Guinea. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to identify the prevalence and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV attending reference units for the management of cases in Equatorial Guinea. A review was carried out of the medical records of a random sample representative of 338 patients from the group receiving treatment at Bata reference unit for infectious diseases from January 2007 to February 2012. Results: A total 40 patients diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma were identified (prevalence of 11,83 percent). Mean age at Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis was 43 years, with a 1/1 sex ratio. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count at diagnosis was 166 (range 21-375), whereas the frequency of oral damage was 45 percent. In most patients (94.6 percent) detection of Kaposi sarcoma was prior to the start of antiretroviral therapy. CD4 T lymphocyte levels / mm3 below 100 were mainly found in patients aged under 30 years, a fact particularly frequent among women (OR 11, p< 0.04, CI 95% 0.8-148). Conclusions: Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm prevailing in people living with HIV who attend reference units in Equatorial Guinea. Late diagnosis could exist among women aged under 30 years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity , Herpesvirus 8, Human/growth & development , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Equatorial Guinea , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2977-2985, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156789

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se presentó el caso clínico de un paciente seropositivo, en fase sintomática avanzada. Fue atendido en el Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Docente "León Cuervo Rubio", de la ciudad de Pinar del Río, por presentar disnea, astenia, anorexia y pérdida de peso. Al examen oral se constató lesión tumoral de la lengua que dificultaba la masticación y deglución. La biopsia mostró sarcoma de Kaposi asociado al VIH/sida. La evolución tórpida y el estadio tan avanzado de la enfermedad, propiciaron el deceso del paciente (AU).


ABSTRACT The authors presented the clinical case of a seropositive patient, in advanced symptomatic phase. The patient attended the Internal Medicine Service of the Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital Leon Cuervo Rubio of Pinar del Rio, presenting dyspnea, asthenia, anorexia and weight loss. On the oral examination, a tumor lesion was found making difficult to chew and swallow. A biopsy showed Kaposi sarcoma associated to HIV/AIDS. The torpid evolution and disease's advanced stage propitiated the patient's death (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , HIV Seropositivity/complications , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/mortality , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , Condylomata Acuminata/diagnosis , HIV Seropositivity/mortality , Intensive Care Units
4.
Med. lab ; 25(2): 525-534, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342894

ABSTRACT

El cáncer es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en los receptores de trasplante. La combinación de infecciones virales, terapia de inmunosupresión y la alteración en el sistema inmune en los pacientes trasplantados, contribuyen al desarrollo de cáncer. El sarcoma de Kaposi es causado por el virus herpes humano 8 (VHH-8), y aunque es raro en la población general, puede ser hasta 300 veces más frecuente en los pacientes con trasplante renal. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se realiza a menudo con base en las características de las lesiones, pero debe ser confirmado por histología. En años recientes, los inhibidores de mTOR han mostrado ser efectivos para el control del sarcoma de Kaposi en los pacientes trasplantados, ya que se interrumpe el efecto antiapoptótico y la angiogénesis dependientes de la proteína mTOR, los cuales son esenciales para el desarrollo y la propagación de células malignas. Se presentan dos casos de pacientes con sarcoma de Kaposi ganglionar, sin lesiones en piel, en nuestro centro de trasplante, quienes respondieron de manera positiva al cambio del esquema inmunosupresor con inhibidores de mTOR


Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The combination of viral infections, immunosuppression therapy and immune system dysfunction in transplant patients contribute to the development of cancer. Kaposi sarcoma is caused by human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) and although rare in the general population, it is reported to be up to 300 times more common in kidney transplant patients. Diagnosis of the disease is often made on the basis of the characteristic appearance of lesions, but must be confirmed by histology. In recent years, mTOR inhibitors have been shown to be effective in controlling Kaposi sarcoma in transplant patients, due to disruption of the antiapoptotic effect and angiogenesis dependent on the mTOR protein, which are essential for development and propagation of malignant cells. We present two case reports of patients with Kaposi sarcoma in lymph nodes and no skin lesions, who responded well to the immunosuppressive therapy switch with mTOR inhibitors


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Kidney Transplantation , Herpesvirus 8, Human , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Lymph Nodes
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888468

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of neonates with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS), and to provide a reference for optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical and follow-up data of 16 neonates with KMS who were admitted to the Anhui Children's Hospital, Anhui Medical University, from January 2016 to December 2020.@*RESULTS@#Of the 16 neonates, there were 13 boys (81%) and 3 girls (19%), with an age of 1 hour to 10 days on admission. Among these neonates, 13 (81%) had cutaneous hemangioma (2 in the head and face, 5 in the trunk, and 6 in the extremities) and 3 (19%) had liver hemangioma. The main clinical manifestations of bleeding tendency and scattered petechiae and ecchymosis were observed in 10 neonates (62%). All the 16 neonates had varying degrees of thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders. They all received glucocorticoid treatment after admission and 7 (44%) of them had response, among whom 4 experienced recurrence. Among the neonates with no response to glucocorticoid treatment, 3 received sirolimus treatment, among whom 1 had the tumor volume reduced by 58.8% after 4 weeks of treatment, with platelet count and coagulation function returning to normal, while 2 had no significant reduction in tumor volume or significant increase in platelet count and achieved a tumor volume reduced by (43.7±0.4)% after 4 weeks of combined treatment with bleomycin arterial embolization, with platelet count and coagulation function returning to normal. After 4 weeks of bleomycin arterial embolization alone for 4 neonates, tumor volume was reduced by (52.0±3.4)%, and platelet count and coagulation function returned to normal. Blunt and sharp dissection was performed for 2 neonates. The tumor was removed completely during surgery in the 2 neonates, with no infection or recurrence after surgery, and platelet count and coagulation function returned to normal. The postoperative pathological examination showed Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma in 1 out of the 2 neonates.@*CONCLUSIONS@#KMS has characteristic clinical manifestations, histopathological features, and laboratory examination results. The KMS neonates who are not sensitive to glucocorticoids can achieve a good curative effect through arterial embolization and sirolimus treatment.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Hemangioendothelioma , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome/therapy , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma, Kaposi
6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 159-164, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178006

ABSTRACT

La elefantiasis verrugosa nostra es una patología poco frecuente secundaria a linfedema crónico no filariásico, con la consecuente deformación y aumento de volumen del miembro afecto acompañado de un engrosamiento excesivo de la piel. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino con hiperplasia verrugosa en miembros inferiores secundaria a linfedema crónico por trastornos de la circulación venolinfática.


The elephantiasis nostra verrucosa is a rare pathology secondary to chronic non-filarial lymphedema, with the consequent deformation and volume increase of the affected limb accompanied by excessive thickening of the skin. We present the case of a male patient with verrucous hyperplasia in the lower limbs secondary to chronic lymphedema due to disorders of the venolymphatic circulation.


Subject(s)
Sarcoma, Kaposi , Elephantiasis , Non-Filarial Lymphedema , Hyperplasia , Lymphedema , Pathology , Skin
7.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(2): 179-183, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249981

ABSTRACT

El artículo se centra en la utilización de la nueva herramienta, CRISPR (repeticiones palindrómicas cortas agrupadas a intervalos regulares), la cual permite editar los genomas de los seres vivos de manera más precisa que otras técnicas; a lo largo del artículo se mencionan trabajos relacionados con la detención de la angiogénesis, cáncer, Sarcoma de Kaposi en inmunodeficiencias, Parkinson, regeneración y modificación genética en humanos, todas estas investigaciones tiene en común la utilización de la herramienta CRISPR. También se comenta las complicaciones éticas que conlleva utilizar esta tecnología en el ADN de células embrionarias humanas, que según diferentes criterios, podrían llevar a generar seres humanos “mejorados”, es decir no solo sin susceptibilidad a enfermedades degenerativas o incurables, sino también modificados en aspectos físicos que no necesariamente estarían ligados a alguna patología.


The article focuses on the use of the new tool, CRISPR (short palindromic repetitions grouped at regular intervals), which allows editing the genomes of living beings more accurately than other techniques; Throughout the article, works related to the arrest of angiogenesis, cancer, Kaposi’s sarcoma in immunodeficiencies, Parkinson’s, regeneration and genetic modification in humans are mentioned, all these investigations have in common the use of the CRISPR tool. You can also comment on the ethical complications that involve using this technology in the DNA of human embryonic cells, which according to different criteria, carry out improved human beings, that is not only without susceptibility to degenerative or incurable diseases, but also modified in physical aspects that are not linked to any pathology.


Subject(s)
DNA , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Cells , Genome , Genetics , Neoplasms
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(5): 655-657, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130939

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present the case of an HIV-negative man with asymptomatic penile erythematoviolaceous papules associated with similar slightly verrucous papules in the interdigital space of the right foot. A biopsy of the penile lesion confirmed Kaposi's sarcoma. No other causes of immunosuppression were observed. Penile lesions of KS are rare in HIV-negative individuals but it should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Careful follow-up is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 8, Human , Diagnosis, Differential
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1060-1064, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124897

ABSTRACT

La linfangiomatosis es una patología benigna, de etiología desconocida, que afecta especialmente a población pediátrica, caracterizándose por desarrollo de masas subcutáneas que involucran uno o más órganos. Cuando se asocia con coagulopatía y derrames quilosos, recibe el nombre de linfangiomatosis kaposiforme (LK), cuya evidencia disponible es escasa. El objetivo de este manuscrito es reportar un caso de LK pediátrico atendido en el Instituto del Cáncer SOLCA, Cuenca, Ecuador. Paciente femenina de 1 año 7 meses, con hernia inguinal bilaterales y alteración de los tiempos de coagulación. En los estudios de imagen se evidenció una masa mediastínica asociada a presencia de líquido en espacio pleural y cavidad abdomino-pélvica. Además, se evidenció la existencia de múltiples imágenes hipogénicas en el bazo. Se practicó timectomía mínima, toma de biopsia de linfonodos mediastínicos para establecer el diagnóstico, y se instaló un dren en el tórax para tratar el derrame pleural antes señalado. Se descartaron patologías similares (linfomas, lupus, inmunológicas, etc.). Dado el continúo deterioro respiratorio, coagulopatía, lesiones hipogénicas esplénicas y drenaje abundante del quilotórax por el tubo torácico, se planteó el diagnóstico de LK. Se inició apoyo nutricional vía parenteral (sin lípidos); se indicó vincristina, y se realizó una pleurodesis con bleomicina sin buena respuesta. La paciente falleció a los 16 días de su ingreso. Se trata de un caso de mal pronóstico, con evolución rápidamente progresiva hacia un desenlace fatal.


Lymphangiomatosis is a benign pathology, of unknown etiology. Affects especially to pediatric population and is characterized by development of subcutaneous masses that involve one or more organs. When it presents with coagulopathy and chylous effusions, it is called kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KL). The available evidence of KL is scarce. The objective of this manuscript was to report a case of pediatric KL treated at SOLCA Cancer Institute, Cuenca, Ecuador. Female patient of 1 year and 7 months age. She had a bilateral inguinal hernia and altered coagulation times. Imaging studies revealed a mediastinal mass associated with fluid in the pleural space and in the abdominalpelvic cavity. Furthermore, the existence of multiple hypogenic images in the spleen was evidenced. Minimal thymectomy, biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed to establish the diagnosis, and a drain was installed in the chest to treat the aforementioned pleural effusion. Other pathologies like lymphomas, lupus, etc. were ruled out. Given the continuous respiratory deterioration, coagulopathy, splenic hypogenic lesions and abundant drainage of the chylothorax through the chest tube, the diagnosis of KL was raised. Parenteral nutrition (lipid-free) was started; Vincristine was indicated, and a pleurodesis with bleomycin was performed without a good response. The patient died 16 days after her admission. It is a case of very bad prognosis, with a rapidly progressive evolution towards a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnostic imaging , Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Hemangioendothelioma/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Fatal Outcome
11.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(4): e3129, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139177

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La insuficiencia venosa crónica es el conjunto de síntomas y signos derivados de una hipertensión venosa en los miembros inferiores debido a un mal funcionamiento valvular de los sistemas venosos. Se han asociado varias complicaciones a esta entidad, una de ellas es el pseudosarcoma de Kaposi, enfermedad rara y caracterizada por una proliferación reactiva vascular, con lesiones cutáneas similares a las del sarcoma de Kaposi. Objetivo: Describir el proceso diagnóstico de una paciente con pseudosarcoma de Kaposi tipo Mali unilateral como complicación de la insuficiencia venosa crónica. Presentación del caso: Se presenta una paciente femenina, piel blanca, de 51 años de edad, con lesiones cutáneas de aproximadamente 9 años de evolución, tipo placas eritematomarronáceas y papuloescamocostrosas, en el miembro inferior derecho, que progresivamente fueron extendiéndose; la paciente presentaba además insuficiencia venosa crónica. Se diagnosticó pseudosarcoma de Kaposi tipo Mali unilateral, teniendo en cuenta, fundamentalmente, los antecedentes patológicos personales, el examen clínico realizado, la biopsia de la lesión, la inmunohistoquímica para anticuerpos CD 34 y el dúplex venoso de miembro inferior derecho. Se indicó terapia compresiva de la extremidad y ungüento esteroideo en lesiones, con mejoría de estas. Conclusiones: Una de las complicaciones asociadas a la insuficiencia venosa crónica es el pseudosarcoma de Kaposi. En esta rara entidad cutánea el estudio histopatológico y la inmunohistoquímica desempeñan un papel muy importante para su correcto diagnóstico y diferenciación del sarcoma de Kaposi, principal diagnóstico diferencial a tener en cuenta(AU)


Introduction: Chronic venous insufficiency is the set of symptoms and signs derived from venous hypertension in the lower limbs due to a valvular malfunction of the venous system. Several complications have been associated with this entity; one of them is Pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma, a rare disease characterized by reactive vascular proliferation with skin lesions similar to those of Kaposi's sarcoma. Objective: To describe the diagnostic process of a patient with unilateral Mali-type Pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma as a complication of chronic venous insufficiency. Case presentation: Fifty-one-year-old white female patient with about 9-year history of brownish erythematosus-type and squamous, crusty plaque-like skin lesions in the right lower limb that were progressively extending. The patient also presented chronic venous insufficiency. Unilateral Mali-type Pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma was diagnosed, mainly considering the personal pathological antecedents, the clinical examination performed, the biopsy of the lesion, the immunohistochemistry for CD34 antibodies and the venous duplex imaging of the right lower limb. Compressive therapy of the limb and steroid ointment was indicated for the lesions, with improvement of the condition. Conclusions: Pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma is one of the complications associated with chronic venous insufficiency. In this rare skin entity, the histopathological study and immunohistochemistry play a very important role in the correct diagnosis and differentiation of Kaposi's sarcoma, being this the main differential diagnosis to take into account(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Venous Insufficiency/complications , Leg
12.
Rev. ADM ; 77(2): 100-107, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102211

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) es una neoplasia vascular maligna poco frecuente, asociada al virus herpes humano tipo 8. Existen cuatro formas clínicas: clásico, endémico, asociado con inmunosupresión iatrogénica y asociado al VIH/SIDA. Este artículo presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la epidemiología, la patogénesis, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento del sarcoma de Kaposi asociado al VIH/ SIDA (SK-VIH/SIDA) a propósito de un caso clínico manejado en la Clínica Académica de Atención Dental. La baja en la incidencia de esta neoplasia da lugar al desconocimiento de sus manifestaciones clínicas. En adición, los pacientes seropositivos suelen no mencionar su padecimiento en la anamnesis, lo cual representa un riesgo tanto para el paciente en su diagnóstico y manejo odontológico como para el odontólogo y el personal clínico con riesgo de contagio (AU)


Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an uncommon malignant vascular neoplasm, associated with human herpes virus type 8. There are four clinical presentations: classic, endemic, associated with iatrogenic immunosuppression and associated with AIDS. This article presents a review of the literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and HIV/AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (SK-HIV/AIDS) regarding a clinical case managed at the Academic Center of Dental Care. The decrease in the incidence of this neoplasm, leads to ignorance of its clinical manifestations. In addition, seropositive patients usually don't mention their condition in the anamnesis, which represents a risk for the patients on their diagnosis and the case management as well as for the dentist and the clinical personnel from risk of infection (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oral Manifestations , Sarcoma, Kaposi , HIV Infections/complications , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnostic imaging , Communicable Disease Control , Infection Control, Dental , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Mexico
13.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(2): e1521, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130539

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are primary neoplasms derived from lymphocytes, and Kaposi's sarcoma (SK) is a multicentric disease of viral etiology and is associated with HIV. Aim: To study the etiopathogenesis and clinical characteristics of NHL and KS, describing their mutual factors. Methods: This retrospective investigation was performed on 101 medical charts. The patients were studied according to their age, gender, and HIV-positivity, following the PRISMA guidelines. The characteristics of the tumors and comorbidities were analyzed according to their age and lymphatic metastasis. Results: The mean age of the patients ranged between 15-87 years for NHL and between 25-54 for KS, but the age of patients with NHL associated with HIV did not surpass 34 years. The ratio male: female was 1,8:1 for NHL, but only men presented KS. HIV-positivity was found in five patients with NHL and in 14 with KS. The stages of NHL were: I (21%), II (18,4%), III (26,3%), and IV (34,2%), but KS were found only at III (40%) and IV (60%) stages. The lymphatic metastases were positive in 62 patients NHL and in four with KS. HIV-positivity occurred in 60% of patients with NHL and in 50% with KS. Conclusion: The HIV seropositivity was revealed for most of patients during the NHL and SK propaedeutic and none of them present clinical manifestations of AIDS. NHL associated with HIV was found only in young patients. NHL and KS patients have similar epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics.


RESUMO Racional: Os linfomas não Hodgkin (LNH) são neoplasias primárias derivadas de linfócitos e o sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) é doença multicêntrica de etiologia viral, ambas associadas ao HIV. Objetivo: Avaliar características clínicas dos LNH e SK, relacionando fatores etiopatogênicos mútuos. Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente 101 prontuários. Os doentes foram analisados quanto a idade, sexo e soropositividade para o HIV, de acordo com o PRISMA guidelines. Os tumores foram classificados por estadiamento, presença de linfonodos regionais invadidos e tipo celular. Resultados: A idade variou entre 15 e 87 anos para o LNH e 25 a 54 anos para o SK, mas a idade dos pacientes com LNH associado com o HIV não ultrapassou 34 anos. A proporção homem: mulher foi de 1,8:1 para o LNH, enquanto SK foi registrado apenas em homens. A soropositividade para o HIV ocorreu em cinco pacientes com LNH e 14 com SK. A invasão de linfonodos regionais foi positiva em 62 com LNH e quatro com SK. Os linfomas foram 27,9% de baixo grau, 17,4% de grau intermediário e 12,8% de alto grau. A soropositividade para HIV, foi diagnosticada durante a propedêutica do tumor em 60% dos pacientes com LNH e 50% dos com SK. Conclusão: A maioria dos pacientes portadores de HIV descobriram a soropositividade durante propedêutica para LNH e SK, sem manifestações clínicas de AIDS. Todos os pacientes com LNH associado com o HIV eram jovens. Pacientes com LNH e com SK apresentam características epidemiológicas, clínicas e terapêuticas semelhantes entre si.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/etiology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Retrospective Studies , HIV Seropositivity
14.
Medwave ; 20(1): e7767, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087871

ABSTRACT

Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, a rare manifestation of Kaposi's sarcoma, is a progressive cutaneous hypertrophy caused by chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to obstruction of the lymphatic system that can lead to severe disfigurement of parts of the body that have gravity-dependent blood flow, due to edema, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, especially lower extremities. Among the various conditions that can induce chronic lymphedema are tumors, trauma, radiotherapy, obesity, hypothyroidism, chronic venous stasis, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor associated with the presence of human gammaherpesvirus 8 that is predominantly cutaneous, locally aggressive, with metastasis, and is associated with the production of factors that favor inflammation, lymphatic obstruction, and lymphedema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Elephantiasis/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Didanosine/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Elephantiasis/etiology , Elephantiasis/pathology , Alkynes
15.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020206, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131860

ABSTRACT

We present the first report of two rare yet remarkably similar autopsy cases of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and intravascular human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) positive lymphoproliferative disorder in renal transplant patients. It is well established that HHV8 infection causes Kaposi sarcoma (KS). More recently, it is recognized that HHV8 is also related to several lymphoproliferative conditions. These are poorly characterized and often difficult to diagnose. In both cases described herein, the diagnoses of multifocal hepatic KS and intravascular HHV8 positive (EBV negative) systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, NOS were made at autopsy. Given the findings we describe in cases with fatal outcomes, we discuss the implications of HHV8 screening in solid allograft recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Herpesvirus 8, Human , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Transplant Recipients
16.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(3): 1-8, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120856

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A sobrevida do sarcoma de Kaposi ainda não é bem conhecida porque os poucos estudos que avaliaram-na foram, em maioria, conduzidos com pessoas vivendo com vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). Objetivo: Avaliar a sobrevida e os fatores prognósticos pré-tratamento de pacientes com sarcoma de Kaposi associado ou não ao HIV. Método: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em uma coorte hospitalar de 81 pacientes diagnosticados com sarcoma de Kaposi entre 2000 e 2014, atendidos em um centro de assistência de alta complexidade em oncologia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A probabilidade de sobrevida em cinco anos foi estimada por meio do método de Kaplan-Meier. O modelo semiparamétrico de riscos proporcionais de Cox estimou hazard ratios (HR) e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%). Resultados: A sobrevida global em cinco anos foi de 50,9% (IC95%: 38,2-62,3). Os fatores associados ao óbito foram idade ≥50 anos (HR: 4,19; IC95%: 1,5-11,29) e sorologia anti-HIV positiva (HR: 5,82; IC95%: 1,90-17,85). Conclusão:A coorte apresentou sobrevida baixa. O prognóstico foi influenciado pela idade ≥50 anos e sorologia anti-HIV positiva, devendo esses fatores serem considerados na avaliação de risco pré-tratamento.


Introduction: The survival of Kaposi's sarcoma is still not well known because the few studies that evaluated it were mostly conducted with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective:To assess survival and pre-treatment prognostic factors in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma associated or not with HIV. Method: Retrospective study conducted in a hospital cohort of 81 patients diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma between the years 2000 and 2014 treated at a high complexity care center in oncology in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The probability of 5-year survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated following Cox's semi-parametric model of proportional hazards. Results:The overall 5-year survival was 50.9% (95%CI: 38.2-62.3). The factors associated with death were age ≥50 years (HR: 4.19; 95%CI: 1.5-11.29) and positive anti-HIV serology (HR: 5.82; 95%CI: 1.90-17.85). Conclusion:The cohort had low survival. The prognosis was influenced by age ≥50 years and positive anti-HIV serology, and these factors should be considered in the pre-treatment risk assessment


Introducción: La supervivencia del sarcoma de Kaposi aún no se conoce bien porque los pocos estudios que lo evaluaron se realizaron, en su mayoría, con personas que viven con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Objetivo: Evaluar la supervivencia y los factores pronósticos previos al tratamiento en pacientes con sarcoma de Kaposi asociado o no con VIH. Método: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en una cohorte hospitalaria de 81 pacientes diagnosticados con sarcoma de Kaposi entre 2000 y 2014 tratados en un centro de atención oncológica de alta complejidad en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. La probabilidad de supervivencia a cinco años se estimó utilizando el método de Kaplan-Meier. El modelo de riesgos proporcionales semiparamétricos de Cox estimó las razones de riesgo (HR) y los respectivos intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%). Resultados: La tasa de supervivencia general a cinco años fue del 50,9% (IC95%: 38,2-62,3). Los factores asociados con la muerte fueron edad ≥50 años (HR: 4,19; IC95%: 1,5-11,29) y serología positiva contra el VIH (HR: 5,82; IC95%: 1,90-17,85) Conclusión: La cohorte mostró baja supervivencia. El pronóstico estuvo influenciado por la edad ≥50 años y la serología positiva contra el VIH, y estos factores deben considerarse en la evaluación de riesgos previa al tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Prognosis , Cancer Care Facilities , Retrospective Studies
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(6): 617-625, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055455

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine if the distribution of Langerhans cells (LC) and interstitial dendritic cells (IDC) is altered in AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma when compared to HIV-negative highly vascular oral lesions. Fifty-one cases of AIDS-associated oral Kaposi's sarcoma and 20 of highly vascular oral lesions were retrospectively retrieved. All cases of Kaposi's sarcoma were confirmed with immunoreactions against CD34 and HHV-8. Clinical data regarding sex, age and lesions location were obtained from pathology reports. Immunohistochemistry against CD207 (immature dendritic cells) and CD83 (mature dendritic cells) were done. LC were in the epithelium and IDC in the stroma. CD207+ cells predominated in the epithelium of the lesions, whereas CD83+ cells predominated in their stromal compartment. Kaposi's sarcoma had a lower CD207+ immature LC count (p=0.02) and an increased CD207+ IDC than highly vascular oral lesions (p<0.001). Moreover, Kaposi's sarcoma also showed an increased number of mature CD83+ IDC than highly vascular oral lesions (p<0.001). There were significant alterations in the distribution of LC and IDC in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma when compared to HIV-negative vascular oral lesions, suggesting that changes in their concentrations may play a role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se a distribuição das células de Langerhans (CL) e das células dendríticas intersticiais (CDI) está alterada no sarcoma de Kaposi oral associado à AIDS quando comparado às lesões orais altamente vasculares HIV-negativas. 51 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi oral associado à AIDS e 20 de lesões orais altamente vasculares foram recuperados retrospectivamente. Todos os casos de sarcoma de Kaposi foram confirmados pela positividade para os anticorpos CD34 e HHV-8. Dados clínicos sobre sexo, idade e localização das lesões foram obtidos dos laudos histopatológicos. Foram realizadas imunoistoquímica contra CD207 (células dendríticas imaturas) e CD83 (células dendríticas maduras). As CL estavam presentes no epitélio enquanto as CDI estavam presentes no estroma. As células CD207+ predominaram no epitélio das lesões, enquanto as células CD83+ predominaram no estroma. O sarcoma de Kaposi teve uma contagem mais baixa de CD imaturas CD207+ (p = 0,02) e número aumentado de CDC CD207+ do que lesões orais altamente vasculares (p<0,001). Além disso, o sarcoma de Kaposi também mostrou um número aumentado de CDI CD83+ maduras do que lesões orais altamente vasculares (p<0,001). Houve alterações significativas na distribuição de CL e CDI no sarcoma de Kaposi associado à AIDS quando comparado às lesões orais vasculares HIV-negativas, sugerindo que alterações na distribuição das mesmas podem desempenhar um papel na patogênese do sarcoma de Kaposi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Herpesvirus 8, Human , Dendritic Cells , Retrospective Studies
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(5): 429-431, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019432

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Here, we present a case in which extensive bulbar conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma was the initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus in a 36-year-old man. The patient had a 3-month history of recurrent self-limited inferior conjunctiva hyperemia in the right eye, and presented with a painless bullous lesion in the right inferior bulbar conjunctiva persisting for 15 days. Surgical incision biopsy was performed at five locations and revealed a pattern compatible with Kaposi's sarcoma. Serologic testing was positive for human immunodeficiency virus; however, the patient had no other symptoms, or knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This case highlights the need to consider Kaposi's sarcoma as an early presentation of human immunodeficiency virus even if the patient denies infection.


RESUMO Este relato de caso apresenta um sarcoma de Kaposi extenso na conjuntival bulbar como a apresentação inicial do vírus da imunodeficiência humana em um homem de 36 anos de idade. O paciente tinha história de hiperemia na conjuntiva inferior do olho direito há 3 meses, autolimitada e recorrente e de surgimento de uma lesão bolhosa indolor no mesmo local 15 dias antes da sua apresentação. Uma biópsia incisional cirúrgica foi realizada e revelou um padrão compatível com sarcoma de Kaposi. Teste sorológico posterior revelou positividade para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana, no entanto, o paciente não apresentou outros sintomas, sinais ou conhecimento prévio sobre a infecção. Como conclusão deste caso, deve se ressaltar que a suspeita do diagnóstico do sarcoma de Kaposi deve ser levantada ainda que na apresentação inicial do vírus da imunodeficiência humana ou mesmo naqueles ainda sem este diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Conjunctiva/pathology , Conjunctival Neoplasms/etiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/surgery , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Biopsy , Conjunctiva/surgery , Conjunctival Neoplasms/surgery , Conjunctival Neoplasms/pathology
19.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(1): e311, ene.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093547

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma de Kaposi se ha convertido en uno de los tumores más prevalentes en África tras la epidemia de VIH, que afecta de una manera similar a hombres y mujeres. El retraso diagnóstico y el limitado acceso a tratamiento antirretroviral o quimioterapia condicionan el pronóstico de los pacientes que lo padecen. En este artículo se realiza una revisión sobre la referida enfermedad, con el objetivo de describir sus aspectos más relevantes en los últimos años en África, como son su epidemiología, caractéristicas clínicas y opciones terapéuticas existentes. Este tumor es provocado por la infección por virus herpes humano tipo 8, que resulta más prevalente en las zonas rurales del continente africano. Se postula la transmisión a través de la saliva como la vía más importante de contagio en África. La inmunodepresión que causa el VIH favorece el efecto oncogénico del virus. La forma epidémica de SK se manifiesta inicialmente como lesiones hiperpigmentadas o violáceas en la piel, que pueden extenderse a linfáticos o mucosas y a nivel sistémico, principalmente a pulmón o aparato digestivo. El síndrome de reconstitución inmune sistémica puede complicar la evolución del paciente. El inicio temprano de la terapia antirretroviral resulta imprescindible. Además, el pronóstico de los pacientes mejora con la suma de tratamiento quimioterápico con doxorrubicina, vincristina, etopóxido o bleomicina principalmente(AU)


Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has become one of the most prevalent tumors in Africa after the HIV epidemic. KS affects both men and women. Diagnostic delay and limited access to antiretroviral treatment or chemotherapy have an impact on the prognosis of KS patients. A review was conducted about KS with the purpose of describing its most outstanding characteristics in recent years in Africa, such as its epidemiology, clinical features, and existing therapeutic options. This tumor is caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8, which is more prevalent in rural areas of the African continent. Transmission via saliva was found to be the most important transmission route in Africa. HIV-related immunosuppression fosters the oncogenic effect of the virus. The epidemic form of KS initially presents as hyperpigmented or violet-colored skin lesions which may extend to lymph nodes or mucosae, or systemically, mainly to the lungs or the digestive tract. Systemic immune reconstitution syndrome may complicate the patient's evolution. Early start of antiretroviral therapy is indispensable. Additionally, prognosis improves with chemotherapy with doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide or bleomycin, mainly(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/complications , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/pathogenicity , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
20.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 18(2): 241-253, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1014166

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las lesiones en la cavidad oral son con frecuencia las primeras evidencias clínicas de la infección por VIH. Una amigdalitis hemorrágica debe hacer sospechar, entre otras causas, que exista un Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK). El SK, considerada una enfermedad marcadora de sida en la infección por VIH, afecta, fundamentalmente, la piel y con frecuencia la mucosa de la cavidad oral. Objetivo: identificar una amigdalitis hemorrágica como forma de presentación de un Sarcoma de Kaposi asociado al VIH Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 22 años, que consulta por odinofagia y disfagia. En la faringoscopìa se observan amígdalas hipertróficas y de aspecto hemorrágicas. Se sospecha causa sistémica, entre ellas la infección por VIH. Se confirma debut clínico de sida por SK con lesiones predominantes de cavidad oral incluyendo las amígdalas. Conclusiones: Las características hemorrágicas de una amigdalitis permitieron sospechar el diagnóstico infección por VIH con Sarcoma de Kaposi predominante en cavidad oral(AU)


Introduction: Lesions in the oral cavity can be the first clinical evidences of HIV infection. Hemorrhagic tonsillitis should be suspicious of a Kaposi's sarcoma, among other causes. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is considered a marker of AIDS in HIV infection, which mainly affects the skin, but often acts upon the mucosa of the oral cavity. Objective: To identify hemorrhagic tonsillitis as a form of presentation of Kaposi's sarcoma associated to HIV. Case presentation: A 22-year-old male patient comes to the doctor´s office complaining of odynophagia and dysphagia. Hypertrophic tonsils of hemorrhagic aspect are observed in the laryngoscopy. Systemic cause is suspected, mainly, an HIV infection. A clinical onset of AIDS as a result of KS with predominant lesions in the oral cavity including the tonsils is confirmed. Conclusions: The hemorrhagic characteristics of tonsillitis leads to a presumptive diagnostic of HIV infection with a Kaposi's sarcoma occurring predominantly in the oral cavity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Tonsillitis/blood , HIV Infections/complications
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