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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249230, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345556

ABSTRACT

Abstract The presence of weeds in areas of agricultural activities is a hinderance to the development of these activities. It is important to take advantage of the vast open spaces suitable for agriculture and provide food security for humans, and also it is an important indicator for determining the feasibility of growing crops, benefiting from yield and determining the percentage of loss, clearing fields through agricultural practices, that protect crops from weed attack and agricultural practice method must be followed that will reduce weed presence. This study was conducted during the years 2018 to 2020 to evaluate Portulacaceae of Flora in the Taif area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different altitudes (Area 1 =1700 m, Area 2 =1500 m, Area 3 =1500 m, Area 4 =500 m ِ Area 5 = 2200 m, and Area 6 = 2200 m). The results show that there were 2,816 individuals of Portulaca oleracea weed, with the highest density found in A 1, followed by A 2, while in A 5 and A 6, no weeds were recorded. The highest density of weeds were in the Pomegranate fields, followed by Grape fields. The lowest density was found in A man field. The results of this study will help to take the necessary measures to combat weeds and its management in areas of agricultural activity, while more studies are needed to survey the ecology of weeds of Taif in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Resumo A presença de plantas daninhas em áreas de atividades agrícolas é um entrave ao desenvolvimento dessas atividades. É importante aproveitar os vastos espaços abertos adequados para a agricultura e dar segurança alimentar para o homem. Também é um indicador importante para determinar a viabilidade de cultivo de lavouras, beneficiando-se da produtividade e determinando o percentual de perda, desmatando campos agrícolas, práticas que protegem as lavouras do ataque de ervas daninhas, e métodos de práticas agrícolas devem ser seguidos para reduzir a presença de ervas daninhas. Este estudo foi realizado durante os anos de 2018 a 2020 para avaliar Portulacaceae de flora na área de Taif, no Reino da Arábia Saudita, em diferentes altitudes (Área 1 = 1.700 m, Área 2 = 1.500 m, Área 3 = 1.500 m, Área 4 = 500 m, Área 5 = 2.200 m, e Área 6 = 2.200 m). Os resultados mostram que houve 2.816 indivíduos de planta daninha Portulaca oleracea, com a maior densidade encontrada em A 1, seguida de A 2, enquanto em A 5 e A 6, nas plantas daninhas foram registrados. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas estava nos campos de romã, seguido pelos campos de uva. A densidade mais baixa foi encontrada no campo A man. Os resultados deste estudo ajudarão a tomar as medidas necessárias para combater as ervas daninhas e seu manejo em áreas de atividade agrícola, enquanto mais estudos são necessários para levantar a ecologia das ervas daninhas de Taif na Arábia Saudita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Portulacaceae , Saudi Arabia , Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture , Plant Weeds
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia , Case-Control Studies , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.


Resumo As algas marinhas são um importante recurso marinho que pode ser explorado para desenvolver novas moléculas farmacêuticas. O presente estudo mostrou a presença de componentes bioativos únicos no extrato etéreo de petróleo (PEE) e no extrato metanólico (ME) de Sargassum tenerrimum. A análise por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massa sugeriu que o PEE de S. tenerrimum continha biomoléculas antibacterianas: ácido hexadecanoico, éster metílico, 17-pentatriaconteno, dasycarpidan-1-metanol e acetato (éster). Entretanto, o ME de S. tenerrimum exibiu melhor efeito antibacteriano do que o PEE devido à presença dos compostos bioativos ácido 1,2-benzenodicarboxílico, éster diisooctil, tetratetracontano, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzoenodiol e ácido benzoico. Assim, moléculas antibacterianas promissoras podem ser isoladas de S. tenerrimum para melhor uso terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Sargassum , Saudi Arabia , Plant Extracts , Indian Ocean , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248828, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339354

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.


Resumo Os metais tóxicos do soro têm sido implicados no desenvolvimento de muitas doenças. Este estudo investigou a associação entre os níveis sanguíneos de chumbo e cádmio com densidade mineral óssea anormal (DMO) e incidência de osteoporose. Sessenta adultos sauditas do sexo masculino com idades iguais foram divididos em dois grupos: um grupo de controle saudável (n = 30) e pacientes com osteoporose diagnosticados de acordo com o T-score (n = 30). Cálcio sérico, vitamina D, osteocalcina, chumbo, cádmio foram medidos. O grupo osteoporótico apresentou elevação altamente significativa dos níveis de chumbo e cádmio no sangue em comparação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). A DMO foi negativamente correlacionada com o nível de osteocalcina sérica em comparação com o controle. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis de cádmio e chumbo (r = -0,465 ep = 0,01) e cálcio (p < 0,004). Nossos achados sugeriram que cádmio e chumbo elevados foram correlacionados negativamente à DMO e aumentaram o fator de risco para osteoporose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Lead , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Osteocalcin , Incidence
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244479, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285635

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyse the bioactive compounds of the leaves of Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). The GC-MS analysis of the hot methanolic extract of the leaves (HMEL) of C. lancifolius exhibited the bioactive compounds such as 1-(3-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl) iso quinoline, morphin-4-ol-6,7-dione, 1-bromo-N-methyl-, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 2,2':4',2"-terthiophene, ethyl iso-allocholate, caryophyllene oxide, campesterol, epiglobulol, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3á,5à)-, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) and oleic acid, eicosyl ester. The FT-IR analysis of HMEL of C. lancifolius showed a unique peak at 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representing coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. The HMEL of C. lancifolius was actively inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 ATCC at the concentration of 72.66 ± 8.21 µg/ml as IC50 value. The HMEL of C. lancifolius also revealed a good spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures screened in this work. The activity observed has shown more or less similar effects against screened bacteria. However, the magnitude of potentiality was significantly lesser compared to standard ciprofloxacin disc at p< 0.001 level (99% confidence intervals). Furthermore, the study demonstrating the bioactive compounds can be isolated from the leaves of C. lancifolius.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os compostos bioativos das folhas de Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). A análise por GC-MS do extrato metanólico quente das folhas (HMEL) de C. lancifolius exibiu os compostos bioativos como 1- (3-Metoxi-2-nitrobenzil) isoquinolina, morfina-4-ol-6,7- diona, 1-bromo-N-metil-, fitol, ácido hexadecanoico, 2,3-di-hidroxipropil éster, 2,2 ': 4', 2 " - tertiofeno, isoalocolato de etil, óxido de cariofileno, campesterol, epiglobulol, colestano -3-ol, 2-metileno-, (3á, 5à) -, dasycarpidan-1-metanol, acetato (éster) e ácido oleico, éster eicosílico. A análise FT-IR de HMEL de C. lancifolius mostrou um pico único em 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representando ácido cumarico, ácido clorogênico e ácido ferúlico. O HMEL de C. lancifolius inibiu ativamente a proliferação de células de câncer de mama MCF-7 ATCC na concentração de 72,66 ± 8,21 µg / ml como valor de IC50. O HMEL de C. lancifolius também revelou bom espectro de atividade contra culturas de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas rastreadas neste trabalho. A atividade observada mostrou efeitos mais ou menos semelhantes contra bactérias rastreadas. No entanto, a magnitude da potencialidade foi significativamente menor em comparação com o disco de ciprofloxacina padrão em nível de p < 0,001 (intervalos de confiança de 99%). Além disso, o estudo demonstrando os compostos bioativos pode ser isolado das folhas de C. lancifolius.


Subject(s)
Trees , Plant Leaves , Saudi Arabia , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244581, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278490

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to the urbanization and human invasion of the natural environments, great changes have been occurred on the food composition and feeding ecology of several animals especially those are sharing human his habitat in fields, wadis and gardens. The desert hedgehogs Paraechinus aethiopicus populations inhabiting different localities in Saudi Arabia were studied by using stomach contents analysis between February 2015 and October 2019. Precise analysis of stomach contents of 55 hedgehogs showed that the food of P. aethiopicus is highly diverse and highly influenced with effect of human on the environment including cooked rice, insects, plant materials, eggshells, worms, garbage and remnants of mammals and birds. Diet composition showed seasonal variations that are apparently associated with changes in the availability of different food items. The present results clearly showed that P. aethiopicus is an omnivorous mammal, capable of adapting to a great variety of dietary compositions in the study sites.


Resumo Devido à urbanização e invasão humana dos ambientes naturais, grandes mudanças têm ocorrido na composição alimentar e ecologia alimentar de vários animais, especialmente aqueles que estão compartilhando seu hábitat humano em campos, wadis e jardins. As populações de ouriços-do-deserto Paraechinus aethiopicus que habitam diferentes localidades na Arábia Saudita foram estudadas usando análise de conteúdo estomacal entre fevereiro de 2015 e outubro de 2019. A análise precisa do conteúdo estomacal de 55 ouriços mostrou que a alimentação de P. aethiopicus é altamente diversa e altamente influenciada com efeito de humanos no meio ambiente, incluindo arroz cozido, insetos, materiais vegetais, cascas de ovo, vermes, lixo e restos de mamíferos e pássaros. A composição da dieta apresentou variações sazonais que aparentemente estão associadas a mudanças na disponibilidade de diferentes itens alimentares. Os presentes resultados mostraram claramente que P. aethiopicus é um mamífero onívoro, capaz de se adaptar a uma grande variedade de composições dietéticas nos locais de estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Hedgehogs , Saudi Arabia , Ecology , Feeding Behavior
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365237

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the knowledge of pregnant women regarding their child's oral health. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was developed and the 1st section comprised sociodemographic variables. The second section contained questions about the eruption of teeth, fluoride importance, cariogenic food, and dental visits. The questionnaire was shared electronically via a link to the receptionist of the gynaecologist at different health centres of Najran to be filled by expectant mothers. The convenient sampling method was used to collect the responses. Data were presented using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 572 pregnant women participated in this survey. Three hundred and fifteen (55.1%) knew that 1st primary tooth erupts at the age of 6 months. The majority of the respondents (n=332) agreed that toothbrushes and toothpaste could be used to clean a child's teeth; only 5.4%, 10%, and 24.5% preferred miswak, mouthwash, and toothbrush, respectively. Participants were well familiar with cariogenic food and occasionally allowed their children to take it. They have enough knowledge about fluoride toothpaste, but they were not familiar with the benefits of fluoride varnish. Almost 50% of the respondents agreed that the child should visit the dentist within six months, and 27.4% said they should visit the dentist whenever there is a problem. Conclusion: Almost 50% of participants showed a positive attitude towards most questions. However, there is a need to improve their behaviour and knowledge about many aspects of dental care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health/education , Dental Care , Pediatric Dentistry , Pregnant Women , Tooth, Deciduous , Tooth Eruption , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1117-1127, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345253

ABSTRACT

Members of the family Diclidophoridae are potentially dangerous species for the puffer fish aquaculture worldwide. They are parasitic polyopisthocotyleans, with a posterior haptor equipped with clamps for attachment to the host's surface, allowing the worm to resist the flow of water to maintain its position on gills. The anterior body of the worm is deformable, allows the worm to feed on blood sucked from fish gills. The present study is the first description of a Heterobothrium species from the gills of the tiger puffer Lagocephalus sceleratus (Tetraodontidae) from the coasts of the Arabian Gulf at Jubail, Saudi Arabia morphologically by light microscopy as well as by molecular analysis of the parasite partial 28S rRNA through multiple sequence alignments and phylogeny by maximum likelihood analysis which is provided for the first time for the described species. Seventeen tiger puffer fish were captured alive from marine water off Saudi Arabia; gills were separated and further examined for parasitic infection. Nine fish were found infected with a monogenean parasite which was robust, equipped by two buccal organs at the tapered anterior end; the posterior haptor was rectangular with four symmetrically arranged clamps, with no isthmus. Marginal hooks absent. Ovary elongated, U-shaped, testes numerous, irregularly shaped and extended from the posterior part of the ovary to the anterior margin of the haptor. Copulatory organ muscular, as a spherical cup armed with 12 to 15 genital hooks. The molecular analysis of the parasite 28s rRNA and phylogeny revealed a percentage of identities between 87.47-89.09%, with Diclidophoridae species within the monophyletic clade of Mazocraeidea where a maximum percentage of 89.09% were obtained for the morphologically different sister taxon H. okamotoi. The results obtained from molecular analysis are consistent with the conclusions drawn from morphological classification where that the parasite recorded was morphologically similar to H. lamothei which was not characterized by molecular analysis before. The recovered sequences were deposited into the GeneBank under accession number MT322610.(AU)


Os membros da família Diclidophoridae são espécies potencialmente perigosas para a aquicultura de peixes puffer em todo o mundo. Eles são parasitas poliopisthocotyleans, com uma hélice posterior equipada com pinças para fixação na superfície do hospedeiro, permitindo que o verme resista ao fluxo de água para manter sua posição nas brânquias. O corpo anterior do verme é deformável, e permite que o verme se alimente de sangue sugado das guelras dos peixes. O presente estudo é a primeira descrição de uma espécie Heterobothrium das guelras do tigre Lagocephalus sceleratus (Tetraodontidae) das costas do Golfo Arábico em Jubail, Arábia Saudita, usando morfologia por microscopia leve, bem como análise molecular do rRNA parcial do parasita 28S através de alinhamentos de sequências múltiplas e filogenia por análise de máxima verossimilhança que é fornecida pela primeira vez para as espécies descritas. Dezessete peixes tigre puffer foram capturados vivos da água marinha da Arábia Saudita; as brânquias foram separadas e mais tarde examinadas para detecção de infecção parasitária. Nove peixes foram encontrados infectados por um parasita monogênio robusto, equipado por dois órgãos bucais na extremidade anterior afilada; o hortetor posterior era retangular com quatro pinças dispostas simetricamente, sem istmo. Ausência de ganchos marginais. Ovário alongado, em forma de U, testículos numerosos, de forma irregular e estendido desde a parte posterior do ovário até a margem anterior do hortelino. Órgão copulatório muscular, como um copo esférico armado com 12 a 15 ganchos genitais. A análise molecular do parasita 28s rRNA e filogenia revelou uma porcentagem de identidades entre 87,47-89,09%, com espécies Diclidophoridae dentro do clade monofilético de Mazocraeidea onde uma porcentagem máxima de 89,09% foi obtida para o táxon-irmão morfologicamente diferente H. okamotoi. Os resultados obtidos da análise molecular são consistentes com as conclusões tiradas da classificação morfológica onde o parasita registrado era morfologicamente semelhante ao H. lamothei que não era caracterizado pela análise molecular antes. As sequências recuperadas foram depositadas no GeneBank sob o número de acesso MT322610.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Platyhelminths/anatomy & histology , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Tetraodontiformes/parasitology , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia
9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(2): 242-247, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287023

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Metabolic bone disease concerns a broad spectrum of conditions related to reduced bone density. Metabolic bone disease has been linked to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. This study examines the prevalence of metabolic bone disease in ulcerative colitis patients and explores possible clinical predictors. Method: The authors performed a retrospective study involving children and adolescents with confirmed ulcerative colitis between January 2013 and December 2018. Bone density was evaluated through a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of the spine and total body. Osteoporosis was defined as a bone mineral density Z-score of <−2 and osteopenia as a Z-score of between −1.0 and −2. Results: A total of 37 patients were included in this analysis, with a mean age of 13.4 ± 3.9 years and a mean duration of illness of 2.1 ± 2.4 years. Using lumbar spine Z-scores and total body Z-scores, osteoporosis and osteopenia were identified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan measurements in 11 patients (29.7%) and 15 patients (40.5%), and in ten patients (27%) and 13 patients (35%), respectively. Lumbar spine Z-scores were significantly positively associated with male gender (B = 2.02; p = 0.0001), and negatively associated with the presence of extraintestinal manifestations (B = −1.51, p = 0.009) and the use of biologics (B = −1.33, p = 0.004). However, total body Z-scores were positively associated with body mass index Z-scores (B = 0.26, p = 0.004) and duration of illness in years (B = 0.35, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Metabolic bone disease is very common in this cohort of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents with ulcerative colitis and its occurrence appears to increase in female patients who suffer from extraintestinal manifestations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Saudi Arabia , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Retrospective Studies
10.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 178-184, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251297

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aimed to explore the opinion and ethical consideration of vulvovaginal aesthetics procedures (VVAPs) among health professionals and medical students in Saudi Arabia. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between January 2020 and April 2020. Data was collected through electronic media, WhatsApp, and emails. The results were analyzed by applying the Students t-test, and correlations were considered significant if they presented a p-value<0.05. Results There is significant demand to educate doctors, health professionals, medical students, and gynecologists for the VVAPs to have a solid foundation, justified indications, and knowledge about various aesthetic options. Although female doctors, medical students, young doctors, and gynecologists have more knowledge about VVAPs, all health professionals ought to be aware of recent trends in vulvovaginal aesthetics (VVA). The present analysis determined that VVA should be under the domain of gynecologists, rather than under that of plastic surgeons, general surgeons, and cosmetologists. Themajority of the participants considered that vaginal rejuvenation, "G-spot" augmentation, clitoral surgery, and hymenoplasty are not justifiable on medical grounds. Conclusion The decision to opt for different techniques for vaginal tightening and revitalization should be taken very carefully, utilizing the shared decision-making approach. Ethical aspects and moral considerations are important key factors before embarking in the VVAPs purely for cosmetic reasons. Further research is required to determine the sexual, psychological, and body image outcomes for women who underwent elective VVAPs. Moreover, medical educators must consider VVAPs as part of the undergraduate and postgraduate medical curriculum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Vagina/surgery , Vulva/surgery , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Health Personnel , Rejuvenation , Saudi Arabia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Electronic Health Records , Gynecology , Middle Aged
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250438

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the clinical competence of undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry at Qassim University dental school. Material and Methods: A retrospective audit of students' clinical competency sheets of fourth and fifth-year students (n= 102) over two years was performed. Mean competency scores for each clinical procedure aswell as overall scores of the students were compared according to their academic level and gender. Also, the percentage of competent students was compared according to the academic level. Chi-square and t-tests were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: Compared to fifth-year students, fourth-year students were significantly more competent in pediatric dentistry (100% scored >50% overall compared to 86.9 % of fifth-year students). They had significantly higher mean overall scores (84.63 ± 9.15 compared to 67.68 ± 13.83) as well as individual scores in performing an examination, diagnosis, and treatment planning of a child patient, restorations, and stainless steel crowns than fifth-year students. In addition, females had significantly higher mean scores in the aforementioned procedures and in placing esthetic crowns (p<0.05). Conclusion: Fourth-year dental students at Qassim University were more competent clinically than fifth-year students in pediatric dentistry. Also, in most of the shared procedures, females were more competent than males. A deficiency in the competence of fifth-year students was noted in pulp therapy, stainless steel and esthetic crowns procedures, and these are currently being addressed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Quality of Health Care , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Schools, Dental , Students, Dental , Clinical Competence , Pediatric Dentistry , Chi-Square Distribution , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346676

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and attitude in relation to basic life support (BLS) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills among the dental undergraduates and interns in Sakaka, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October 2019 and December 2019 in Sakaka, Saudi Arabia. One hundred and eighty randomly selected dental students aged over 18 years participated in the study. Their knowledge and attitude towards BLS were gathered through a questionnaire. Results: A total of 158 (out of 180) UG students and interns participated in this study, making the responses of 87.8%. The mean age of the participants was 24.6 years. The samples comprised 86 (54.4%) males and 72 (45.6%) females. The assessments showed that overall the participants had average knowledge towards BLS and CPR, with males responding significantly better than the females (p˂0.05). Furthermore, as students climb the academic ladder, their knowledge regarding BLS and CPR tends to rise. Also, their attitude was positive, and they were willing to receive CPR training. Conclusion: Attitude toward acquiring knowledge about CPR was very positive. However, their knowledge about the topic was average. Students should understand the importance of such skills and efficiently involve in these life-saving procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/instrumentation , Emergency Treatment , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survivorship
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351208

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Toanalyze the technical quality of endodontic treatment carried out at the undergraduate dental clinics. Material and Methods: Random radiographic records of 92 patients' were selected who received endodontic treatment by the undergraduate students from June 2018 to July 2019. The quality of root canal filling was determined in relation to the adequate density, length, and taper. Statistical analysis was performed by using GraphPad (Prism 5), and to determine the association between different variables Chi-square test was used. Results: Adequate technical quality of canal obturation conducted by the undergraduate students was found in less than 65% of the cases. The frequency of adequate root canal taper was significantly greater in maxillary teeth (75%) as compared to mandibular teeth (33%); however, adequacy of acceptable density was found more in maxillary teeth (62%) as compared to mandibular teeth (55%).A statistically significant difference was seen in the quality of root canal fillings between anterior and posterior teeth (p=0.001). Conclusion: The root canal therapy performed by undergraduate students was less than optimum in terms of technical quality. Hence, it is suggested that the endodontic training courses delivered at pre-clinical and clinical levelsfor undergraduate students must be thoroughly revised.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Students, Dental , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351205

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the cephalometric (Ceph.) norm by Ceph. for orthognathic surgery (COGS) analysis for Saudi population. Material and Methods: 500 adult Saudi samples (250 males and 250 females) with the age range of 18-30 years old were selected for this study. The selections of samples were based on a normal occlusal relationship, no history of facial trauma and no previous orthodontic treatment. Lateral Ceph. radiographs were tracing by CASSOS software and analyzed by SPSS software according to COGS analysis. Results: Significant differences were showed between the Saudi males and females on most of the Ceph. parameters. The Saudi males had a convex facial profile with chin prominent and more bimaxillary protrusion, upper and lower lip protrusion than the Saudi females. Conclusion: This study evaluated the craniofacial morphological difference between the male and the female population in Saudi Arabia by using COGS analysis. The finding of this study will help for better diagnosis of orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment planning and identify the morphological facial characteristics of Saudi patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontics , Saudi Arabia , Cephalometry/instrumentation , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/instrumentation , Orthognathic Surgery/instrumentation , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Data Interpretation, Statistical
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287489

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To make the readers cognizant about the use of Personnel Protective Equipment (PPEs) and infection control practices which should always form a part of basic patient management and not arise with every emerging disease. Material and Methods: Authors personal clinical experiences and existing literature were summed up to infer relevant information related specifically to dentistry. A comprehensive review was done for the last 15 years in an attempt to explain the current state of understanding on the topic. Results: The authors have tried to compile the most probable reasons as to why PPEs have been a forgotten protocol, which can be enumerated as follows: decreased awareness, financial issues, boredom and lethargy, time constraints, unavailability, carelessness, and burnout due to long procedure and patient feeling discomfort/offended. Conclusion: COVID-19 being highly infectious, a dental clinic is a potential and genuine point of source for many new infections, and no confabulation is less to underline the importance of using PPEs during this pandemic or even otherwise.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Management , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Facial Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Health Personnel , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Physical Distancing
16.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(3): 344-354, Sept.-Dec. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1134674

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: CoV infections can potentially cause from a simple cold to a severe respiratory syndrome, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). The COVID-19 created a new reality for global healthcare modelsOBJETIVE: To evaluate trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the WorldMETHODS: We conducted a population-based time-series study using public and official data of cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Peru, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Russian, between December, 2019 and August, 2020. Data were based on reports from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. COVID-19 was defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (U07.1). A Prais-Winsten regression model was performed and the Daily Percentage Change (DPC) calculated determine rates as increasing, decreasing or flatRESULTS: During the study period, trends in case-fatality rates in the world were flat (DPC = 0.3; CI 95% [-0.2: 0.7]; p = 0.225). In Africa, Morocco had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.1; CI 95% [-1.5: -0.7]; p < 0.001), whereas it were increasing in South Africa (p < 0.05) and flat in Nigeria (p > 0.05). In the Americas, Argentina showed a decreasing trend in case-fatality rates (DPC = -0.6; CI 95% [-1.1: -0.2]; p = 0.005), the U.S. had flat trends (p > 0.05) and all other American countries had increasing trends (p < 0.05). In Asia, Iran had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.5; CI 95% [-2.6 : -0.2]; p = 0.019); China and Saudi Arabia showed increasing trends (p < 0.05), while in India, Japan and South Korea they were flat (p > 0.05). European countries had mostly increasing trends (p < 0.05): Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and Russia; France and Switzerland had flat trends (p > 0.05). Finally, in Oceania, trends in case-fatality rates were flat in Australia (p > 0.05) and increasing in New Zealand (p < 0.05CONCLUSION: Trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the World were flat between December, 31 and August, 31. Argentina, Iran and Morocco were the only countries with decreasing trends. On the other hand, South Africa, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, China, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, Russian and New Zealand had increasing trends in case-fatality rate. All the other countries analyzed had flat trends. Based on case-fatality rate data, our study supports that COVID-19 pandemic is still in progress worldwide


INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções por CoV podem causar desde um simples resfriado até uma síndrome respiratória grave, como a Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave e a Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio (MERS-CoV). O COVID-19 impôs uma nova realidade em termos de modelos globais de saúdeOBJETIVO: Avaliar as tendências das taxas de letalidade do COVID-19 no mundoMÉTODO: Estudo de séries temporais de base populacional usando dados públicos e oficiais de casos e mortes por COVID-19 na Argentina, Austrália, Brasil, Chile, China, Colômbia, França, Alemanha, Índia, Irã, Itália, Japão, México, Marrocos, Nova Zelândia, Nigéria, Peru, Arábia Saudita, África do Sul, Coreia do Sul, Espanha, Suíça, Reino Unido, Estados Unidos (EUA) e Rússia, entre 31 dezembro de 2019 e 31 agosto de 2020. Os dados foram baseados nos relatórios do Centro Europeu de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças. COVID-19 foi definido pela Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 10ª revisão (U07.1). Para análise estatística, foi realizado o modelo de regressão de Prais-Winsten, a partir do qual foi possível calcular a variação percentual de mudança diária (DPC) das taxas, classificadas como crescentes, decrescentes ou estacionáriasRESULTADOS: Durante o período do estudo, as taxas de letalidade no mundo permaneceram estacionárias (DPC = 0,3; IC 95% [-0,2: 0,7]; p = 0,225). Na África, Marrocos teve tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,1; IC 95% [-1,5: -0,7]; p <0,001), enquanto na África do Sul houve tendência crescente (p < 0,05) e estacionária na Nigéria (p > 0,05). Em relação às Américas, a Argentina revelou tendência decrescente nas taxas de letalidade (DPC = -0,6; IC 95% [-1,1: -0,2]; p = 0,005), os EUA demonstraram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05) e todos os outros países americanos demonstraram tendências crescentes (p < 0,05). Na Ásia, o Irã apresentou tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,5; IC 95% [-2,6: -0,2]; p = 0,019); China e Arábia Saudita apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05), enquanto Índia, Japão e Coreia do Sul mantiveram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05). A maioria dos países europeus apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05): Alemanha, Itália, Espanha, Reino Unido e Rússia; França e Suíça demonstraram tendências estacionárias (p > 0,05). Por fim, na Oceania, a tendência nas taxas de letalidade na Austrália foi estacionária (p > 0,05) e aumentou na Nova Zelândia (p < 0,05CONCLUSÃO: A tendência nas taxas de letalidade por COVID-19 no mundo permaneceu estacionária entre 31 de dezembro de 2019 e 31 de agosto de 2020. Argentina, Irã e Marrocos foram os únicos países com tendências decrescentes. Por outro lado, África do Sul, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colômbia, México, Peru, China, Arábia Saudita, Alemanha, Espanha, Reino Unido, Rússia e Nova Zelândia apresentaram tendências crescentes de letalidade. Todos os outros países analisados demonstraram tendências estacionárias. De acordo com dados de letalidade, nosso estudo confirma que a pandemia de COVID-19 ainda está em fase de progressão em todo o mundo


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19/mortality , Peru , Argentina , Saudi Arabia , Australia , South Africa , Spain , Switzerland , United States , Brazil , Chile , China , Russia , Colombia , Republic of Korea , France , Germany , United Kingdom , India , Iran , Italy , Japan , Mexico , Morocco , New Zealand , Nigeria
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 622-626, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098297

ABSTRACT

The studies have illustrated odontometric analysis can be used to determine the sexual dimorphism effect on size of the teeth in various populations. The main aim of the study was to identify the inter-cuspal-, bucco-lingual -dimensions and weight of human upper-arch pre-molars in males and females of different South Asian populations. These metrics can distinguish sex which can have application in mass disasters, archaeology of mingled human remains and the in unidentified or several ancestry. The sample size consisted of 60 orthodontically extracted maxillary pre-molars from Pakistani and Saudi Arabian populations respectively. For male and female groups of each population fifteen first and second maxillary premolars were collected respectively, stored in PBS solution. The weight of the individual teeth was recorded. Later, digitally pictures were captured parallel to the occlusal surface to measure maximal bucco-lingual and inter-cuspal dimensions using Image-J software. The dimensions and weights were compared using Students' t-test between males and females respective Pakistani and Saudi Arabian first (P1) and second (P2) maxillary pre-molars. The dimensions for male P1 and P2 were statistically significantly larger than that for females in both populations. Furthermore, wet-weight of pre-molars in males is significantly greater than females in both populations. The findings demonstrate maxillary pre-molars can discriminate between the sexes in various populations.


Las investigaciones han ilustrado que el análisis odontométrico se puede utilizar para determinar el efecto del dimorfismo sexual en el tamaño de los dientes en varias poblaciones. El objetivo principal del estudio fue identificar las dimensiones y el peso entre cúspides, buco-linguales y el peso de los premolares de la arcada superior humana en hombres y mujeres de diferentes poblaciones del sur de Asia. Estas medidas pueden distinguir el sexo y ser importante en desastres masivos, arqueología de restos humanos entremezclados y en ancestros no identificados. El tamaño de la muestra consistió en 60 premolares maxilares extraídos ortodóncicamente de las poblaciones de Pakistán y Arabia Saudita, respectivamente. Para los grupos de hombres y mujeres de cada población, se recogieron quince primeros y segundos premolares superiores respectivamente, almacenados en solución de PBS. Se registró el peso de los dientes individuales. Posteriormente se capturaron imágenes digitales paralelas a la superficie oclusal para medir las dimensiones máximas buco-linguales e intercúspides utilizando software Image-J. Las dimensiones y los pesos se compararon mediante la prueba t de Student entre lo premolares maxilares (P1) y segundos (P2) de hombres y mujeres paquistaníes y saudíes. Las dimensiones para P1 y P2 de los hombres fueron estadísticamente significativos mayores que para las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Además, el peso húmedo de los premolares en los varones era significativamente mayor que el de las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Los hallazgos demuestran que los premolares maxilares pueden discriminar entre los sexos en varias poblaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Determination Analysis/methods , Bicuspid/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics , Jaw/anatomy & histology , Pakistan , Saudi Arabia , Forensic Medicine
18.
Blood Research ; : 44-48, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a known cause of morbidity and mortality after bariatric surgery. However, the data concerning appropriate thromboprophylaxis after bariatric surgery is uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended duration thromboprophylaxis in post-bariatric surgery patients.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery from November 2014 to October 2018 at King Fahad General Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. All included patients were treated with extended duration thromboprophylaxis.RESULTS: We identified 374 patients who underwent bariatric surgery during the study period. Of these, 312 patients (83%) were followed for at least 3 months. The most common type of surgery was a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (N=357) and the median weight was 110 kg. The cumulative incidence of symptomatic postoperative VTE at 3 months was 0.64% (95% confidence interval, 0.20–1.52). All events occurred after hospital discharge. The most commonly used pharmacological prophylaxis (91%) for VTE prevention after bariatric surgery was enoxaparin 40 mg subcutaneously twice daily for 10–14 days after hospital discharge. There were no reported cases of bleeding or VTE related mortality after 3 months.CONCLUSION: Extended thromboprophylaxis after bariatric surgery appears to be an effective and safe strategy for VTE prevention. Large prospective studies are needed to evaluate the optimal thromboprophylaxis regimen after bariatric surgery.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Enoxaparin , Gastrectomy , Hemorrhage , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Mortality , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis
19.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056869

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the dental caries experience and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (UDC) among primary school children of Al Jouf region, Saudi Arabia and to determine the correlation between dental caries experience and clinical consequences of UDC. Material and Methods: A 250 primary school children 6-7 years were recruited using systematic random sampling. The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous dentition was assessed by following WHO criteria using the dmft index and the clinical consequence of UDC was assessed with the pufa index. The pufa score was calculated cumulatively following the pufa diagnostic criteria. The Student's t-test was used to equate the mean dmft and pufa scores between boys and girls. The correlation between the dmft and the pufa scores was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and the p-value was set at 0.05 for statistical significance. Results: Out of which 154 (61.60%) boys and 94 (37.60%) were girls. The mean (SD) values of dmft for boys reported to be 5.37 (± 3.31) and for girls 6.35 (± 3.27), which was statistically significant with gender (p<0.001). Statistically, significant mean values of pufa were 1.20 (± 1.37) in boys and 1.71 (± 1.58) in girls, respectively was observed (p<0.001). The Pearson correlation between dmft and pufa values showed a highly significant positive correlation among dmft and pufa values (r= 0.635, p<0.001). Conclusion: The present study revealed that high caries prevalence and experience of the clinical consequences of UDC in the primary dentition, and there was a strong positive correlation between dmft and pufa score values.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child , DMF Index , Epidemiologic Methods , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) for post-treated fixed dental prostheses in selected sample of patients. Material and Methods: 120 patients treated with fixed dental prostheses, either single crowns or fixed partial dentures in maxillary or mandibular arches were asked to express their views about their quality of life. Patients' files were randomly selected from the archives of Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, a self-structured questionnaire was prepared and their responses recorded. The responses were categorized on a 5 point scale and frequencies calculated. Results: Of 120 patients approached, 79 responded with the mean age group of 37 years. From the survey, it was noted that only three variables were statistically significant, those relating to the importance of natural teeth over fixed prostheses (p=0.046), the ability to chew all kinds of foods (p=0.021) and satisfaction with the occlusion (p<0.001). Conclusion: Oral health remains important, which directly or indirectly is related to many systemic diseases. In the present study, the majority of patients were satisfied with the treatment given.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Quality of Life/psychology , Oral Health/education , Dental Prosthesis , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
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