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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879184

ABSTRACT

Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus in six growth stages was taken as materials to study the species and content changes of material basis, which were detected by UPLC, GC and MS chromatography, including lignans, nucleosides, aroma components and fatty acids. The results showed that the texture, color and taste of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus in six growth stages were different. On the material basis, 12 lignans were detected by UPLC-MS, and the content of total lignans was higher in the samples from late August to early September, among which the highest content of schisandrin was 0.67%±0.01%, followed by schizandrol B, angeloylgomisin H and schisandrin B, and the total content increased with the maturity of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus. Thirteen kinds of nucleosides were detected by UPLC. The total nucleoside content was the highest in late July samples, in which the contents of uridine and guanosine were higher and decreased after maturity. Aroma components and fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. A total of 53 aroma components were detected and the highest total content was appeared in late August samples, of which ylangene was higher and bergamotene was followed. A total of 24 kinds of fatty acids were detected. The fruits matured basically in August, and the content of fatty acids in the samples was the highest, among which linoleic acid content was top the list and oleic acid was the second. To sum up, the maturity of Schisandra chinensis fruit is related to the content and variety of various material bases, and the growth period has different influences on the quality of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus. Therefore, the appropriate harvesting time should be determined according to the change law of target components. The results of this study can provide reference for the quality evaluation of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus material basis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit/chemistry , Lignans/analysis , Schisandra , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878999

ABSTRACT

Schisandrae has a long history of medicinal use in China. Domestic and foreign scholars have isolated a variety of chemical constituents from Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, including lignans, volatile oils, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, organic acids, amino acids and so on. Pharmacological studies have shown that their alcohol extracts, water extracts, lignan monomers and polysaccharides could protect liver injury and reduce enzyme ability by a variety of hepatoprotective effects such as enzyme reducing, liver protecting, and antioxidant effect. In this paper, the researches on the chemical composition, hepatoprotective effect and pharmacokinetics of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus in the past forty years were systematically collated, in order to provide useful enlightenment for the clinical application and new drug development of Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus in liver protection.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Lignans/pharmacology , Schisandra
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828388

ABSTRACT

Schisandra is the mature fruit of Schisandra chinensis(known as "north Schisandra") or S. shenanthera(known as "south Schisandra"). S. chinensis contains a variety of lignans, volatile oils, polysaccharides, organic acids and other chemical constituents; among them, lignans are recognized as the characteristic active components. Clinical studies have found that Schisandra and Schisandra-related products have a better effect in the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, liver cirrhosis, liver failure and other liver diseases. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Schisandra has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anticancer, regulation of nuclear receptor, antivirus, regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme, inhibition of liver cell apoptosis and promotion of liver regeneration. This paper reviews the studies about the applications and mechanism of Schisandra in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, in the expectation of providing guidance for the development of hepatoprotective drugs from Schisandra and the clinical applications of Schisandra-related products.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Chemistry , Humans , Lignans , Protective Agents , Schisandra
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-neuroinflammation effect of extract of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (EFSC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 cells and the possible involved mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Primary cortical neurons were isolated from embryonic (E17-18) cortices of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse fetuses. Primary microglia and astroglia were isolated from the frontal cortices of newborn ICR mouse. Different cells were cultured in specific culture medium. Cells were divided into 5 groups: control group, LPS group (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS only) and EFSC groups (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS and 100, 200 or 400 mg/mL EFSC, respectively). The effect of EFSC on cells viability was tested by methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. EFSC-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitrite oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified and neuron-protection effect against microglia-mediated inflammation injury was tested by hoechst 33258 apoptosis assay and crystal violet staining assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory marker proteins was evaluated by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced NO, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-induced BV-2 cells (P<0.01 or P<0.05). EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced the expression of NO in LPS-induced primary microglia and astroglia (P<0.01). In addition, EFSC alleviated cell apoptosis and inflammation injury in neurons exposed to microglia-conditioned medium (P<0.01). The mechanistic studies indicated EFSC could suppress nuclear factor (NF)-?B phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation (P<0.01). The anti-inflammatory effect of EFSC occurred through suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EFSC acted as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS-induced glia cells. These effects might be realized through blocking of NF-κB activity and inhibition of MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Down-Regulation , Inflammation , Pathology , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Nervous System , Pathology , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739662

ABSTRACT

Depression is a major mood disorder. Abnormal expression of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is associated with depression. Schisantherin B (STB) is one bioactive of lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill which has been commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. This paper was designed to investigate the effects of STB on depressive mice induced by forced swimming test (FST). Additionally, we also assessed the impairment of FST on cognitive function in mice with different ages. FST and open field test (OFT) were used for assessing depressive symptoms, and Y-maze was used for evaluating cognition processes. Our study showed that STB acting as an antidepressant, which increased GLT-1 levels by promoting PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Although the damage is reversible, short-term learning and memory impairment caused by FST test is more serious in the aged mice, and STB also exerts cognition improvement ability in the meanwhile. Our findings suggested that STB might be a promising therapeutic agent of depression by regulating the GLT-1 restoration as well as activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Depression , Glutamic Acid , Herbal Medicine , Learning , Lignans , Memory , Mice , Mood Disorders , Physical Exertion , Schisandra
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some conventional medications used to treat insomnia, such as benzodiazepine, non-benzodiazepine, and hormone therapy, are associated with side effects. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the use of herbal medicine. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects herbal medicines have on sleep disorders of peri- and postmenopausal women. METHODS: Three databases were searched including MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2018. RESULTS: Six trials assessed the effect of soy on sleep disorders. Forrest plot for 2 studies showed that the standardized mean difference (SMD) of the sleep problems was lower in the soy group than the placebo group (SMD = −0.996; P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval, −1.42 to −0.563). Three trials showed soy had no significant effect on sleep disorders and one study showed a positive effect on sleep disorders. Accordingly, it is difficult to reach a definite conclusion regarding the effects of soy on sleep disorders based on these findings. According to a trial, significant beneficial effect associated with taking Schisandra chinensis. Findings suggested that some herbal medicines like red clover, lavender combined with bitter orange and pin bark extract had attenuating effects on sleep disorders. After intake of 530 mg of valerian twice a day for one month, statistically significant effects were observed regarding the quality of sleep of postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review and meta-analysis found inadequate evidence to draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medications, especially soy.


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines , Citrus sinensis , Female , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Lavandula , Postmenopause , Schisandra , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Trifolium , Valerian
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of the Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SC) and its major compound gomisin A (GA), on the contractility of rabbit penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (PCCSM). MATERIALS/METHODS: PCCSM was exposed to SC or GA after appropriate pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker, guanylate cyclase blocker, adenylyl cyclase blocker or protein kinase A blocker. Subsequently, we evaluated the cyclic nucleotide in the perfusate by radioimmunoassay, protein expression level of neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) by western blot, and the interaction of SC or GA with udenafil and rolipram. RESULTS: Both SC and GA induce PCCSM relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NOS blocker, guanylate cyclase blocker, adenylyl cyclase blocker or protein kinase A blocker result in significantly decreased relaxation. SC and GA also induce the levels of cyclic nucleotide in the perfusate in a concentration-dependent manner. Perfusion with GA also showed significantly higher levels of eNOS protein. Furthermore, the udenafil and rolipram induced relaxations of PCCSM were enhanced after exposure to SC and GA. Our results indicate that SC and GA induce the relaxation of PCCSM via the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP and cAMP signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The SC and GA are potential alternative treatments for men who want to consume natural products to ameliorate erectile function, or who do not respond to the commercially available medicines.


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases , Biological Products , Blotting, Western , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Erectile Dysfunction , Fruit , Guanosine Monophosphate , Guanosine , Guanylate Cyclase , Humans , Lignans , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Perfusion , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors , Radioimmunoassay , Relaxation , Rolipram , Schisandra
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776916

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used to treat sleep disorders. Zebrafish sleep/wake behavioral profiling provides a high-throughput platform to screen chemicals, but has never been used to study extracts and components from TCM. In the present study, the ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis and its two main lignin components, schisandrin and schisandrin B, were studied in zebrafish. We found that the ethanol extract had bidirectional improvement in rest and activity in zebrafish. Schisandrin and schisandrin B were both sedative and active components. We predicted that schisandrin was related to serotonin pathway and the enthanol extract of Schisandra chinensis was related to seoronin and domapine pathways using a database of zebrafish behaviors. These predictions were confirmed in experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans. In conclusion, zebrafish behavior profiling could be used as a high-throughput platform to screen neuroactive effects and predict molecular pathways of extracts and components from TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans , Central Nervous System Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cyclooctanes , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Lignans , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polycyclic Compounds , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Zebrafish , Physiology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741595

ABSTRACT

An isoform of NADPH oxidase (NOX), NOX2 is a superoxide-generating enzyme involved in diverse pathophysiological events. Although its potential as a therapeutic target has been validated, there is no clinically available inhibitor. Herein, NOX2-inhibitory activity was screened with the constituents isolated from Schisandra chinensis, which has been reported to have antioxidant and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging effects. Among the partitions prepared from crude methanolic extract, a chloroform-soluble partition showed the highest NOX2-inhibitory activity in PLB-985 cell-based NOX2 assay. A total of twenty nine compounds (1 – 29) were identified from the chloroform fraction, including two first isolated compounds; dimethyl-malate (25) and 2-(2-hydroxyacetyl) furan (27) from this plants. Of these constituents, two compounds (gomisin T, and pregomisin) exhibited an NOX2-inhibitory effect with the IC₅₀ of 9.4 ± 3.6, and 62.9 ± 11.3 µM, respectively. They are confirmed not to be nonspecific superoxide scavengers in a counter assay using a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. These findings suggest the potential application of gomisin T (6) and other constituents of S. chinensis to inhibit NOX2.


Subject(s)
Chloroform , Fruit , Lignans , Methanol , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Schisandra , Superoxides
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773569

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to evaluate protective activity of an ethanol extract of the stems of Schisandra chinensis (SCE) and explore its possible molecular mechanisms on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity in a mouse model. The results of HPLC analysis showed that the main components of SCE included schisandrol A, schisandrol B, deoxyschisandrin, schisandrin B, and schisandrin C and their contents were 5.83, 7.11, 2.13, 4.86, 0.42 mg·g, respectively. SCE extract was given for 7 consecutive days before a single hepatotoxic dose of APAP (250 mg·kg) was injected to mice. Our results showed that SCE pretreatment ameliorated liver dysfunction and oxidative stress, which was evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and elevations in reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. These findings were associated with the result that the SCE pretreatment significantly decreased expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). SCE also significantly decreased the expression levels of Bax, mitogen- activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cleaved caspase-3 by APAP exposure. Furthermore, supplementation with SCE suppressed the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), suggesting alleviation of inflammatory response. In summary, these findings from the present study clearly demonstrated that SCE exerted significant alleviation in APAP-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis mainly via regulating MAPK and caspase-3 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glutathione , Metabolism , Humans , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Schisandra , Chemistry , Signal Transduction
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812358

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to evaluate protective activity of an ethanol extract of the stems of Schisandra chinensis (SCE) and explore its possible molecular mechanisms on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity in a mouse model. The results of HPLC analysis showed that the main components of SCE included schisandrol A, schisandrol B, deoxyschisandrin, schisandrin B, and schisandrin C and their contents were 5.83, 7.11, 2.13, 4.86, 0.42 mg·g, respectively. SCE extract was given for 7 consecutive days before a single hepatotoxic dose of APAP (250 mg·kg) was injected to mice. Our results showed that SCE pretreatment ameliorated liver dysfunction and oxidative stress, which was evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and elevations in reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. These findings were associated with the result that the SCE pretreatment significantly decreased expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). SCE also significantly decreased the expression levels of Bax, mitogen- activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cleaved caspase-3 by APAP exposure. Furthermore, supplementation with SCE suppressed the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), suggesting alleviation of inflammatory response. In summary, these findings from the present study clearly demonstrated that SCE exerted significant alleviation in APAP-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis mainly via regulating MAPK and caspase-3 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glutathione , Metabolism , Humans , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Schisandra , Chemistry , Signal Transduction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812338

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used to treat sleep disorders. Zebrafish sleep/wake behavioral profiling provides a high-throughput platform to screen chemicals, but has never been used to study extracts and components from TCM. In the present study, the ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis and its two main lignin components, schisandrin and schisandrin B, were studied in zebrafish. We found that the ethanol extract had bidirectional improvement in rest and activity in zebrafish. Schisandrin and schisandrin B were both sedative and active components. We predicted that schisandrin was related to serotonin pathway and the enthanol extract of Schisandra chinensis was related to seoronin and domapine pathways using a database of zebrafish behaviors. These predictions were confirmed in experiments using Caenorhabditis elegans. In conclusion, zebrafish behavior profiling could be used as a high-throughput platform to screen neuroactive effects and predict molecular pathways of extracts and components from TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans , Central Nervous System Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cyclooctanes , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Lignans , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polycyclic Compounds , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Zebrafish , Physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727575

ABSTRACT

α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms, but the mechanism responsible for this activity has not been determined. To determine the role played by ICB on the regulation of vascular tone, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ICB on vascular contractile responses by adrenergic α-receptor agonists. In addition, we investigated the role on myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and cytosolic calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In aortic rings isolated from C57BL/6J mice, ICB significantly attenuated the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE) and norepinephrine (NE), whereas ICB had no effects on KCl (60 mM)-induced contraction. In vasculatures precontracted with PE, ICB caused marked relaxation of aortic rings with or without endothelium, suggesting a direct effect on VSMC. In cultured rat VSMC, PE or NE increased MLC phosphorylation and increased cytosolic calcium levels. Both of these effects were significantly suppressed by ICB. In conclusion, our results showed that ICB regulated vascular tone by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation and calcium flux into VSMC, and suggest that ICB has anti-hypertensive properties and therapeutic potential for cardiovascular disorders related to vascular hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium , Cytosol , Endothelium , Hypertension , Lignin , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myosin Light Chains , Myosins , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Phosphorylation , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Relaxation , Schisandra
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727986

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) is a non-selective cation channel with modest permeability to calcium ions. It is involved in intracellular calcium signaling and is therefore important in processes such as thermal sensation, skin barrier formation, and wound healing. TRPV3 was initially proposed as a warm temperature sensor. It is activated by synthetic small-molecule chemicals and plant-derived natural compounds such as camphor and eugenol. Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill (SC) has diverse pharmacological properties including antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing activities. It is extensively used as an oriental herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, we investigated whether SC fruit extracts and seed oil, as well as four compounds isolated from the fruit can activate the TRPV3 channel. By performing whole-cell patch clamp recording in HEK293T cells overexpressing TRPV3, we found that the methanolic extract of SC fruit has an agonistic effect on the TRPV3 channel. Furthermore, electrophysiological analysis revealed that γ-schisandrin, one of the isolated compounds, activated TRPV3 at a concentration of 30 µM. In addition, γ-schisandrin (~100 µM) increased cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ concentrations by approximately 20% in response to TRPV3 activation. This is the first report to indicate that SC extract and γ-schisandrin can modulate the TRPV3 channel. This report also suggests a mechanism by which γ-schisandrin acts as a therapeutic agent against TRPV3-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Calcium Channels , Calcium Signaling , Camphor , Cytoplasm , Eugenol , Fruit , Herbal Medicine , Ions , Methanol , Permeability , Schisandra , Sensation , Skin , Wound Healing
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328321

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe protective effects of Schisandra extract (SE) on embryotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of early pregnant rats exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene (Bap).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Pregnant rat model was prepared using periodic screening cage method. Totally 50 female pregnant SD rats were divided into five groups by randomized block design according to the weight, i.e., the BaP model group, the low dose SE group, the middle dose SE group, the high dose SE group, the normal control group, 10 rats in each group. Rats in the BaP model group were administered with BaP at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg by gastrogavage. Rats in low, middle, and high dose SE groups were administered by gastrogavage with BaP (at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg) plus SE at a daily dose of 40, 200, and 1 000 mg/kg, respectively. Equal volume of olive oil was administered to rats in the normal control group by gastrogavage. All medication was performed for 8 successive days. Changes of rat body weight in each period were observed. The uterus embryonic total quality and ovary quality were measured, and organ index calculated. The number of corpus luteum, the number of embryo implantation, and the number of absorbed embryo were statistically calculated respectively. The implantation rate and the absorbed embryos rate were calculated. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin β (β-HCG) and progesterone (PROG) were detected by ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the normal control group, the weight of 9-day pregnant rats, the number of embryo implantation, the uterus embryonic total index, ovary index, serum levels of β-HCG and PROG all decreased in the Bap model group with significant difference (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with the Bap model group, body weight, the uterus embryonic total index, and the PROG level increased in 3 dose SE groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Ovary index and serum β-HCG increased in middle and high dose SE groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The number of implantation obviously increased in the high dose SE groups (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SE could reduce the embryotoxicity and reproductive toxicity of early pregnant rats exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzo(a)pyrene , Toxicity , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Blood , Embryo Implantation , Female , Ovary , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Pregnancy , Progesterone , Blood , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproduction , Schisandra , Chemistry , Uterus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77738

ABSTRACT

A phytoformula containing the root barks of Morus alba, the fructus of Schizandra sinensis and the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis (MSA) was prepared as a potential new herbal remedy, and its therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory lung conditions was examined. For in vivo evaluation, an animal model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice was used. With oral administration of 6 - 60 mg/kg, MSA potently and dose-dependently inhibited bronchitis-like symptoms in acute lung injury induced by intranasal treatment of LPS as judged by the number of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological observation. The inhibitory potency was comparable with that of dexamethasone. For in vitro assay, the effects on the production of proinflammatory molecules in lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages were examined. Although MSA inhibited IL-6 production in IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells (A549) only at a high concentration (300 µg/ml), the formula strongly and concentration-dependently inhibited NO production in LPS-treated alveolar macrophages (MH-S) at 20 - 300 µg/ml. Based on all of these findings, the new phytoformula MSA is suggested to have the potential to control inflammatory lung diseases including bronchitis, at least in part, by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase-catalyzed NO production.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Administration, Oral , Animals , Bronchitis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Dexamethasone , Epithelial Cells , Interleukin-6 , Lung Diseases , Lung , Macrophages, Alveolar , Mice , Models, Animal , Morus , Nitric Oxide , Pneumonia , Schisandra
17.
Mycobiology ; : 58-62, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729452

ABSTRACT

Extensive disease surveys performed during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in Schisandra chinensis orchards resulted in the finding of a Septobasidium sp. associated with felt disease. The fungus was characterized to be symbiotic with a scale insect (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the Septobasidium isolates were investigated. The isolates were morphologically and phylogenetically close to S. bogoriense. We tentatively describe this isolate as a Septobasidium sp., mainly because of the limited amount of information available on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of Septobasidium spp.


Subject(s)
DNA, Ribosomal , Fungi , Hemiptera , Schisandra
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330243

ABSTRACT

In this study, we focused on the study of pharmacodynamic effects for 6 major bioactive lignans of Schisandra chinensis, namely deoxyschizandrin, schisandrin B, schisandrin C, schisandrin, schizandrol B and schisantherin A. A compound-gene-pathway network, which contained 124 related genes and 88 pathways, was constructed by collecting drug genes through mining relevant literatures and network pharmacology analysis. Based on the network analysis, 32 pathways and 80 related genes were associated with inflammation, which implied that anti-inflammatory might be the major pharmacodynamic effects of these compounds. All lignans except schizandrol B reduced LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells, which validated the anti-inflammatory hypothesis generated from network analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of deoxyschizandrin, schisandrin C, schisandrin and schisantherin A on the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2. As a result, deoxyschizandrin showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with inhibitory effect on all 4 inflammatory cytokines secretions and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2. This study provided evidences for systematic exploration on the pharmacolgical actions and mechanisms of schisandra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines , Bodily Secretions , Internet , Lignans , Pharmacology , Mice , Schisandra , Chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310911

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of Chinese medicine (CM) Schisandra chinensis on interleukin (IL), glucose metabolism, and pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axis of rats after strenuous navigation and exercise.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into the quiet control group, the stress group, and the CM group (15 in each group). The CM group received 2.5 g/kg of Schisandra chinensis twice per day for one week before modeling. Except the quiet controls, rats were trained using the Bedford mode for 10 days. On the 11th day, they performed 3 h of stressful experimental navigation and 3 h of strenuous treadmill exercise. The levels of serum testosterone (T), cortisol (CORT), luteinizing hormone (LH), IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 were tested by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The adrenal cortex ultrastructure was observed using electron microscopy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the quiet control group, after navigation and strenuous exercise, blood glucose was increased, and T level was decreased in the stress group (both P<0.01). The blood glucose, CORT, IL-1 and IL-2 levels were significantly reduced in the CM group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) as compared with the stress group. Electron microscopy revealed that the rats in the CM group had a smaller decrease in adrenal intracellular lipid droplets and higher levels of apoptosis than those in the stress group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Schisandra chinensis can reduce serum CORT and blood glucose levels in stressed rats. It appears to protect the cell structure of the adrenal cortex, and offset the negative effects of psychological stress and strenuous exercise related to immune dysfunction. Schisandra chinensis plays a regulatory role in immune function, and can decrease the influence of stress in rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex , Pathology , Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Glucose , Metabolism , Gonads , Metabolism , Hydrocortisone , Blood , Interleukin-1 , Blood , Interleukin-2 , Blood , Interleukin-6 , Blood , Interleukins , Blood , Luteinizing Hormone , Blood , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Schisandra , Chemistry , Swimming , Physiology , Testosterone , Blood
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304841

ABSTRACT

The contents of schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, schisandrin A , schisandrin B, schisandrin C in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (SCF) were determined simultaneously by HPLC. Collect 100-seed weight, color, pulp content, longitude and latitude of SCF of different batches were collected. SIMCA-P and SPSS were applied to make PLS-DA analysis of 24 batches of SCF and correlation analysis of relevant parameters. According to the 13 parameters, SCF from three different places of origin could be distinguished effectively. It was found that the content of chemical component of SCF increased with latitude and longitude first, and then decrease. The results provide some theoretical basis for study of SCF genuineness and traditional method of identifying just from experience.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fruit , Chemistry , Quality Control , Schisandra , Chemistry , Classification
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