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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200326, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by Schistosoma. Due to its complex life cycle, evolutionary position and sexual dimorphism, schistosomes have several mechanisms of gene regulation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNA transcripts. OBJECTIVES Here, we tested 12 miRNAs and identified their putative targets using a computational approach. METHODS We performed the expression profiles of a set of miRNAs and their putative targets during the parasite's life cycle by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). FINDINGS Our results showed differential expression patterns of the mature miRNAs sma-miR-250; sma-miR-92a; sma-miR-new_4-3p; sma-miR-new_4-5p; sma-miR-new_5-5p; sma-miR-new_12-5p; sma-miR-new_13-3p and sma-miR-new_13-5p. Interestingly, many of the putative target genes are linked to oxidative phosphorylation and are up-regulated in adult-worms, which led us to suggest that miRNAs might play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to energetic metabolism inversion during parasite development. It is noteworthy that the expression of sma-miR-new_13-3p exhibited a negative correlation on SmNADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex I. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our analysis revealed putative miRNA genes related to important biological processes, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling, proteasome regulation, glucose and lipid metabolism, immune system evasion and transcriptional regulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , MicroRNAs/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Life Cycle Stages/genetics
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190171, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020440

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biomphalaria glabrata is considered to be responsible for the incidence of schistosomiasis in Brazil. Therefore, surveillance of areas where schistosomiasis is prevalent is fundamental for public health planning. This study was aimed to evaluate B. glabrata populations in water bodies of the city of Salvador, determine their distribution, estimate the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections, characterize shed cercariae, and identify transmission foci. METHODS: Malacological surveys were carried out in 17 water collections from Salvador. Snail species were identified based on shell and mantle characteristics. Snails were evaluated for S. mansoni infection by exposure to light and via real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using S. mansoni-18S rRNA subunit specific primers. RESULTS: 1,403 B. glabrata were collected. Classical cercarial shedding indicated that 5 snails (0.4%) were positive for S. mansoni. A higher prevalence of infections was found in Horta de Saramandaia (5.5%) and Lagoa do IAT (1.9%). Non-Schistosoma larvae, such as Xiphidiocercaria, Strigeidae, Spirorchiidae and Clinostomidae, were observed in 3.2% of the snails. S. mansoni DNA was detected in 6.2% snails via qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: B. glabrata is widely distributed in Salvador, as indicated by 7 water collections associated with a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify B. glabrata eliminating cercariae of Clinostomidae, Strigeidae, and Spirorchiidae in Salvador. We propose that qPCR may be employed in combination with classical cercarial shedding. Estimating S. mansoni prevalence in snails by only considering the results of light exposure method classical into account may underestimate the problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Biomphalaria/parasitology , Disease Vectors , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Urban Population , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2015. XVI, 65 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-940887

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é uma das mais importantes doenças parasitárias sendo endêmica em 76 países. No Brasil, esta representa um dos mais sérios problemas de saúde pública,persistindo devido às precárias condições de vida nas quais a população está inserida.O Schistosoma mansoni é a única espécie descrita no Brasil responsável por causar a esquistossomose. Este parasito é um metazoário digenético com várias características única sem sua morfologia, fisiologia e ciclo de vida. Diante disto, é provável uma complexa regulação da expressão gênica em S. mansoni favorecendo mudanças morfológicas e bioquímicas atendendo as suas necessidades fisiológicas e de adaptação aos diversos ambientes. Assim, o mecanismo de regulação pós-transcricional, Splicedleader (SL) trans-splicing, existente no parasito, pode ser importante para viabilizar tais adaptações. Este mecanismo é apenas parcialmente compreendido sendo um amplo campo para pesquisa, auxiliando no desenvolvimento de possíveis ferramentas para o controle da esquistossomose.


O SL trans-splicing ocorre através da adição de uma sequência identificada como Spliced leader, que é doada da extremidade 5’ de um RNA pequeno, para alguns pré-mRNAs receptores, formando o éxon 5’ terminal dos mRNAs maduros. Neste trabalho, foi realizado a identificação de transcritos processados por SL trans-splicing na fase de esporocisto do ciclo de vida do S. mansoni através da construção de biblioteca de cDNA enriquecida neste mecanismo. Assim, por meio de um estudo pioneiro de transcriptômica envolvendo a fase de esporocisto, foram construídas bibliotecas do tipo fragmento e utilizado um sequenciador de segunda geração para identificação de 1.191 transcritos processados por SL trans-splicing nesta fase. Neste trabalho foi observado que 10% dos transcritos expressos na fase de esporocisto são processados por SL trans-splicing se comparado à 5ª versão do proteoma predito de S. mansoni e 15%, se comparado com os 6.677 genes expressos identificados no transcriptoma da fase de esporocisto. Ainda, a partir da classificação dostranscritos em categorias funcionais e identificação de vias metabólicas, foi observado que o mecanismo de SL trans-splicing não está particularmente enriquecido, caracterizando-se como um mecanismo ubíquo. Em conjunto, estes dados enriquecem os estudos de transcriptômica do parasito S. mansoni. Compreender as reais funções deste mecanismo pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento futuro de uma ferramenta de intervenção terapêutica para o controle da esquistossomose mansônica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosomiasis/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
4.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2015. XVI, 65 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-760550

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é uma das mais importantes doenças parasitárias sendo endêmica em 76 países. No Brasil, esta representa um dos mais sérios problemas de saúde pública,persistindo devido às precárias condições de vida nas quais a população está inserida.O Schistosoma mansoni é a única espécie descrita no Brasil responsável por causar a esquistossomose. Este parasito é um metazoário digenético com várias características única sem sua morfologia, fisiologia e ciclo de vida. Diante disto, é provável uma complexa regulação da expressão gênica em S. mansoni favorecendo mudanças morfológicas e bioquímicas atendendo as suas necessidades fisiológicas e de adaptação aos diversos ambientes. Assim, o mecanismo de regulação pós-transcricional, Splicedleader (SL) trans-splicing, existente no parasito, pode ser importante para viabilizar tais adaptações. Este mecanismo é apenas parcialmente compreendido sendo um amplo campo para pesquisa, auxiliando no desenvolvimento de possíveis ferramentas para o controle da esquistossomose...


O SL trans-splicing ocorre através da adição de uma sequência identificada como Spliced leader, que é doada da extremidade 5’ de um RNA pequeno, para alguns pré-mRNAs receptores, formando o éxon 5’ terminal dos mRNAs maduros. Neste trabalho, foi realizado a identificação de transcritos processados por SL trans-splicing na fase de esporocisto do ciclo de vida do S. mansoni através da construção de biblioteca de cDNA enriquecida neste mecanismo. Assim, por meio de um estudo pioneiro de transcriptômica envolvendo a fase de esporocisto, foram construídas bibliotecas do tipo fragmento e utilizado um sequenciador de segunda geração para identificação de 1.191 transcritos processados por SL trans-splicing nesta fase. Neste trabalho foi observado que 10% dos transcritos expressos na fase de esporocisto são processados por SL trans-splicing se comparado à 5ª versão do proteoma predito de S. mansoni e 15%, se comparado com os 6.677 genes expressos identificados no transcriptoma da fase de esporocisto. Ainda, a partir da classificação dostranscritos em categorias funcionais e identificação de vias metabólicas, foi observado que o mecanismo de SL trans-splicing não está particularmente enriquecido, caracterizando-se como um mecanismo ubíquo. Em conjunto, estes dados enriquecem os estudos de transcriptômica do parasito S. mansoni. Compreender as reais funções deste mecanismo pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento futuro de uma ferramenta de intervenção terapêutica para o controle da esquistossomose mansônica...


Subject(s)
Animals , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Schistosomiasis/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics
5.
Recife; s.n; 2015. 86 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-983377

ABSTRACT

O exame parasitológico por Kato-Katz ainda é considerado o padrão ouro no diagnóstico da esquistossomose mansônica, entretanto, este apresenta baixa sensibilidade para utilização em inquéritos epidemiológicos. Além disso, as técnicas de diagnóstico imunológico, apresentam reações cruzadas com outros helmintos, protozoários e até bactérias como ocorre com a utilização dos extratos brutos do parasita. Nesse sentido, salientamos que Abath et al. identificaram um peptídeo de 15kDa denominado Sm15, que apresentou uma boa reatividade com soros de animais infectados pelo verme e, portanto, possui potencial para abordagens imunoprofiláticas e para testes diagnósticos. Neste estudo obtivemos o polipeptídio recombinante Sm15 em Escherichia coli e verificamos seu potencial para realização do diagnóstico a partir de amostras de soros de pacientes com diferentes manifestações clínicas da esquistossomose. Através de ELISA constatamos que o Sm15 apresentou maior reatividade frente a soros de pacientes esquistossomóticos, quando comparado ao extrato bruto SEA (P=0.0043). O Sm15 ainda demonstrou melhor desempenho ao apresentar maiores valores de sensibilidade, especificidade e área abaixo da curva ROC (P=0.0030). Além disso, o Sm15 foi capaz de diferenciar pacientes esquistossomóticos quanto à forma clínica, aguda ou crônica (P=0.0007). Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam, além de ratificar o potencial diagnóstico apresentado pelo polipeptídeo Sm15, que o mesmo poderá ser capaz de gerar uma alternativa de imunodiagnóstico de elevada acurácia, suprindo assim as lacunas existentes com relação aos testes parasitológicos e sorológicos atualmente disponíveis. Além disso, possibilitará o diagnostico precoce da esquistossomose, realização de inquéritos epidemiológicos em áreas de baixa endemicidade, impedindo assim a evolução da doença para formas clínicas de maior gravidade.


The parasitological examination by Kato-Katz still considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, however, it has low sensitivity for use in epidemiological surveys. Moreover, the techniques of immunological diagnosis, have cross-reactivity with other helminth, protozoa and even bacteria as occur with the use of crude parasite extracts. In this regard, we note that Abath and colleagues identified a 15kDa peptide termed SM15, which showed good reactivity with sera from animals infected by the worm, and therefore has potential immunoprophylactic and diagnostic testing approaches. In this study we obtained the recombinant polypeptide in Escherichia coli SM15 and check its potential for making the diagnosis from samples of patient sera with different clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis. By ELISA we found that the SM15 showed higher reactivity towards sera from schistosomiasis patients, when compared to the crude extract SEA (P = 0.0043). The SM15 also demonstrated better performance by presenting higher sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve (P = 0.0030). In addition, the SM15 was able to differentiate schistosomiasis patients about the clinical presentation, acute or chronic (P = 0.0007). The results of this study indicate not only ratifies the diagnostic potential presented by the SM15 polypeptide, that it may be able to generate an immunodiagnostic alternative high accuracy, thereby supplying the gaps in the parasitological and serological tests currently available. Also, it enables the early diagnosis of schistosomiasis, carrying out epidemiological surveys in low endemicity areas, thereby preventing disease progression to more severe clinical forms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Immunologic Tests/classification , Immunologic Tests/methods , Recombinant Proteins , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis , Antigens, Helminth/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Helminth Proteins/genetics , Helminth Proteins/immunology , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 1-8, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703649

ABSTRACT

Several genes related to the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway, including those coding for proteasome subunits and conjugation enzymes, are differentially expressed during the Schistosoma mansoni life cycle. Although deubiquitinating enzymes have been reported to be negative regulators of protein ubiquitination and shown to play an important role in Ub-dependent processes, little is known about their role in S. mansoni . In this study, we analysed the Ub carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (UCHs) proteins found in the database of the parasite’s genome. An in silico ana- lysis (GeneDB and MEROPS) identified three different UCH family members in the genome, Sm UCH-L3, Sm UCH-L5 and Sm BAP-1 and a phylogenetic analysis confirmed the evolutionary conservation of the proteins. We performed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and observed a differential expression profile for all of the investigated transcripts between the cercariae and adult worm stages. These results were corroborated by low rates of Z-Arg-Leu-Arg-Gly-Gly-AMC hydrolysis in a crude extract obtained from cercariae in parallel with high Ub conjugate levels in the same extracts. We suggest that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the cercaria and early schistosomulum stages is related to a decrease in 26S proteasome activity. Taken together, our data suggest that UCH family members contribute to regulating the activity of the Ub-proteasome system during the life cycle of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endopeptidases/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/enzymology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics , Cercaria/enzymology , Cercaria/genetics , Conserved Sequence/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression , Genome, Helminth/genetics , Genome/genetics , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sequence Alignment , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/growth & development , Transcriptome/physiology , Transcytosis/physiology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/classification , Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases/genetics , Ubiquitination/physiology
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(8): 1037-1044, 6/dez. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697144

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , DNA, Helminth/genetics , Feces/parasitology , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parasite Egg Count/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 707-717, set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685497

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease caused by trematodes from the genus Schistosoma. Because schistosomes exhibit a complex life cycle and numerous mechanisms for regulating gene expression, it is believed that spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing could play an important role in the biology of these parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of trans-splicing in Schistosoma mansoni through analysis of genes that may be regulated by this mechanism and via silencing SL-containing transcripts through RNA interference. Here, we report our analysis of SL transcript-enriched cDNA libraries from different S. mansoni life stages. Our results show that the trans-splicing mechanism is apparently not associated with specific genes, subcellular localisations or life stages. In cross-species comparisons, even though the sets of genes that are subject to SL trans-splicing regulation appear to differ between organisms, several commonly shared orthologues were observed. Knockdown of trans-spliced transcripts in sporocysts resulted in a systemic reduction of the expression levels of all tested trans-spliced transcripts; however, the only phenotypic effect observed was diminished larval size. Further studies involving the findings from this work will provide new insights into the role of trans-splicing in the biology of S. mansoni and other organisms. All Expressed Sequence Tags generated in this study were submitted to dbEST as five different libraries. The accessions for each library and for the individual sequences are as follows: (i) adult worms of mixed sexes (LIBEST_027999: JZ139310 - JZ139779), (ii) female adult worms (LIBEST_028000: JZ139780 - JZ140379), (iii) male adult worms (LIBEST_028001: JZ140380 - JZ141002), (iv) eggs (LIBEST_028002: JZ141003 - JZ141497) and (v) schistosomula (LIBEST_028003: JZ141498 - JZ141974).


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Gene Knockdown Techniques , RNA Precursors/isolation & purification , RNA, Spliced Leader/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Trans-Splicing/physiology , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Library , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Larva , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Phenotype , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Precursors/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Schistosoma mansoni/growth & development , Trans-Splicing/genetics
9.
Salvador; s.n; 2013. 63 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000916

ABSTRACT

Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune sistêmica na qual a principal alteração está relacionada à ativação policlonal de linfócitos B com a produção de uma ampla variedade de autoanticorpos dirigidos contra componentes nucleares, citoplasmáticos, de superfície celular e moléculas solúveis do plasma. Fatores genéticos têm sido implicados na patogênese dessa patologia. TolI-like receptor 9 (TLR9) é um importante componente do sistema imune inato que reconhece sequências não metiladas CpG de DNA...


Subject(s)
Humans , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Praziquantel/analysis , Schistosoma mansoni/growth & development , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/parasitology
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(7): 899-902, Nov. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656046

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Brazil , Feces/parasitology , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(5): 245-248, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-648558

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million individuals infected worldwide and 700 million people living in risk areas. In Brazil there are areas of high, medium and low endemicity. Studies have shown that in endemic areas with a low prevalence of Schistosoma infection the sensitivity of parasitological methods is clearly reduced. Consequently diagnosis is often impeded due to the presence of false-negative results. The aim of this study is to present the PCR reamplification (Re-PCR) protocol for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni in samples with low parasite load (with less than 100 eggs per gram (epg) of feces). Three methods were used for the lysis of the envelopes of the S. mansoni eggs and two techniques of DNA extraction were carried out. Extracted DNA was quantified, and the results suggested that the extraction technique, which mixed glass beads with a guanidine isothiocyanate/phenol/chloroform (GT) solution, produced good results. PCR reamplification was conducted and detection sensitivity was found to be five eggs per 500 mg of artificially marked feces. The results achieved using these methods suggest that they are potentially viable for the detection of Schistosoma infection with low parasite load.


A esquistossomose constitui grande problema de saúde pública, sendo que estimativas apontam para 200 milhões de pessoas infectadas no mundo e 700 milhões de pessoas em áreas de risco. No Brasil, existem áreas de alta, média e baixa endemicidade. Estudos demonstram que nas áreas endêmicas de baixa prevalência da infecção, a reduzida sensibilidade dos métodos parasitológicos torna-se evidente. Isto dificulta o diagnóstico, pela presença de resultados falso-negativos. O objetivo deste estudo foi a padronização de um protocolo de reamplificação da PCR (Re-PCR) para a detecção de Schistosoma mansoni em amostras com menos de 100 ovos por grama (opg) de fezes. Foram utilizados três métodos para ruptura dos envoltórios dos ovos de S. mansoni e duas técnicas de extração de DNA foram aplicadas. O DNA extraído foi quantificado e os resultados sugerem que a técnica de extração de melhor produtividade foi a que associa esferas de vidro a uma solução de isotiocianato de guanidina/fenol/clorofórmio (GT). Aplicou-se a Re-PCR, que demonstrou sensibilidade para a detecção de cinco ovos/500 mg de fezes artificialmente marcadas. Assim, essas novas ferramentas são potencialmente aplicáveis nas infecções por S. mansoni com baixa carga parasitária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , DNA, Helminth/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Parasite Load , Parasite Egg Count/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223079

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to characterize the phenotypes of CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells within the liver granulomas and association with both Foxp-3 gene expression and splenic cytokines. Naive C57BL/6 mice were intravenously injected with multiple doses of the soluble egg antigen (SEA) 7 days before cercarial infection. The immunized and infected control groups were sacrificed 8 and 16 weeks post-infection (PI). Histopathology, parasitological parameters, splenic phenotypes for T regulatory cells, the FOXP-3 expression in hepatic granuloma using real-time PCR, and the associated splenic cytokines were studied. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed remarkable increase in degenerated ova within hepatic granuloma which decreased in diameter at weeks 8 and 16 PI (P<0.01). The percentage of T regulatory cells (CD4+ CD25+) increased significantly (P<0.01) in the immunized group compared to the infected control at weeks 8 and 16 PI. The FOXP-3 expression in hepatic granulomas increased from 10 at week 8 to 30 fold at week 16 PI in the infected control group. However, its expression in the immunized group showed an increase from 30 at week 8 to 70 fold at week 16 PI. The splenic cytokine levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and TNF-alpha, showed significant decreases (P<0.05) compared to the infected control group. In conclusion, the magnitude and phenotype of the egg-induced effects on T helper responses were found to be controlled by a parallel response within the T regulatory population which provides protection in worm parasite-induced immunopathology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/administration & dosage , Cytokines/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Granuloma/immunology , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosomiasis mansoni/genetics , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(7): 785-793, Nov. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606640

ABSTRACT

Genome sequences for Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni are now available. The schistosome genome encodes ~13,000 protein encoding genes for which the function of only a minority is understood. There is a valuable role for transgenesis in functional genomic investigations of these new schistosome gene sequences. In gain-of-function approaches, transgenesis can lead to integration of transgenes into the schistosome genome which can facilitate insertional mutagenesis screens. By contrast, transgene driven, vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) offers powerful loss-of-function manipulations. Our laboratory has focused on development of tools to facilitate schistosome transgenesis. We have investigated the utility of retroviruses and transposons to transduce schistosomes. Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV) can transduce developmental stages of S. mansoni including eggs. We have also observed that the piggyBac transposon is transpositionally active in schistosomes. Approaches with both VSVG-MLV and piggyBac have resulted in somatic transgenesis and have lead to integration of active reporter transgenes into schistosome chromosomes. These findings provided the first reports of integration of reporter transgenes into schistosome chromosomes. Experience with these systems is reviewed herewith, along with findings with transgene mediated RNAi and germ line transgenesis, in addition to pioneering and earlier reports of gene manipulation for schistosomes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genome, Helminth/genetics , Schistosoma japonicum/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Animals, Genetically Modified , Chromosomes/genetics , Chromosomes/virology , DNA Transposable Elements , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Genetic Vectors , Leukemia Virus, Murine/genetics , Leukemia Virus, Murine/isolation & purification , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/isolation & purification , RNA Interference , Schistosoma japonicum/virology , Schistosoma mansoni/virology , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/isolation & purification
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(7): 823-830, Nov. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606645

ABSTRACT

As in perhaps all eukaryotes, schistosomes use a supplementary information transmitting system, the epigenetic inheritance system, to shape genetic information and to produce different phenotypes. In contrast to other important parasites, the study of epigenetic phenomena in schistosomes is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, we are beginning to grasp what goes on behind the epigenetic scene in this parasite. We have developed techniques of native chromatin immunoprecipitation (N-ChIP) and associated the necessary bioinformatics tools that allow us to run genome-wide comparative chromatin studies on Schistosoma mansoni at different stages of its life cycle, on different strains and on different sexes. We present here an application of such an approach to study the genetic and epigenetic basis for a phenotypic trait, the compatibility of S. mansoni with its invertebrate host Biomphalaria glabrata. We have applied the ChIP procedure to two strains that are either compatible or incompatible with their intermediate host. The precipitated DNA was sequenced and aligned to a reference genome and this information was used to determine regions in which both strands differ in their genomic sequence and/or chromatin structure. This procedure allowed us to identify candidate genes that display either genetic or epigenetic difference between the two strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Male , Biomphalaria/parasitology , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation/methods , Epigenomics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Acetylation , Host-Parasite Interactions , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Schistosoma mansoni/physiology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(7): 864-877, Nov. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606651

ABSTRACT

Schistosoma mansoni is one of the three main causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a major health problem with a vast socio-economic impact. Recent advances in the proteomic analysis of schistosomes have revealed that peptidases are the main virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this context, evolutionary studies can be applied to identify peptidase families that have been expanded in genomes over time in response to different selection pressures. Using a phylogenomic approach, we searched for expanded endopeptidase families in the S. mansoni predicted proteome with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of such enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. We found three endopeptidase families that comprise leishmanolysins (metallopeptidase M8 family), cercarial elastases (serine peptidase S1 family) and cathepsin D proteins (aspartic peptidase A1 family). Our results suggest that the Schistosoma members of these families originated from successive gene duplication events in the parasite lineage after its diversification from other metazoans. Overall, critical residues are conserved among the duplicated genes/proteins. Furthermore, each protein family displays a distinct evolutionary history. Altogether, this work provides an evolutionary view of three S. mansoni peptidase families, which allows for a deeper understanding of the genomic complexity and lineage-specific adaptations potentially related to the parasitic lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cathepsin D/genetics , Metalloproteases/genetics , Pancreatic Elastase/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/enzymology , Biological Evolution , Phylogeny , Proteomics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/pathogenicity
16.
Invest. clín ; 52(2): 121-139, jun. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-664553

ABSTRACT

Understanding the mode of Schistosoma mansoni larval invasion and the mechanism of immune evasion utilized by larvae and adult worms is essential for a rational development of vaccines or drugs to prevent or cure the disease. This parasite has a very complex molecular organization in all parasite stages, and identifying the major parasite proteins would give clues to schistosome metabolism and to the interaction of the parasite with the host immune system. Our goal was the evaluation of the protein parasite repertoire using a proteomic approach, and the characterization of protein extracts from two different parasite stages of a Venezuelan isolate, such as cercariae and adult worms, previously performed by other authors in some other strains. A comparison among authors was made. Besides, we aimed to identify different isoforms of one of the vaccine candidates, the gluthation-S-transferase protein (Sm28GST), by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, and to achieve its immunologic detection using sera from rabbits immunized with synthetic peptides derived from the Sm28GST protein. These techniques allowed the identification of some of the target molecules of the protective immune response that are being evaluated as potential members of a multi-component and multi-stage anti-S. mansoni vaccine and to clarify if the selected peptides induce antibodies that are able to recognize different isoforms of the Sm28GST.


Es esencial comprender la forma como las larvas de Schistosoma mansoni invaden y los mecanismos de evasión inmune utilizados por larvas y adultos, para el desarrollo racional de vacunas o drogas para prevenir o curar la esquistosomiasis. Este parásito tiene una organización molecular muy compleja en todos sus estadíos, por lo que la identificación de las proteínas más importantes es clave para investigar el metabolismo del esquistosoma y la interacción del parásito con el sistema inmune del hospedero. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el repertorio proteico del parásito utilizando una aproximación proteómica y la caracterización de extractos proteicos de dos estadios parasitarios diferentes de un aislado venezolano, como la cercaria y el verme adulto, previamente realizado por otros autores en otras aislados. Se realizó una comparación entre autores. Además, se identificaron diferentes isoformas de uno de los candidatos a vacuna, la glutation S transferasa (Sm28GST) por 2D SDS-PAGE y espectrometría de masas y se logró su detección inmunológica, usando sueros de conejos inmunizados con péptidos sintéticos derivados de la proteína Sm28GST. Estas técnicas permitieron identificar algunas de las moléculas blanco de la respuesta inmune protectora que están siendo evaluados como miembros potenciales de una vacuna multi-estadio y multi-componente y aclarar si los péptidos seleccionados indujeron anticuerpos capaces de reconocer diferentes isoformas de la Sm28GST.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Glutathione Transferase/genetics , Glutathione Transferase/immunology , Helminth Proteins/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Cercaria , Proteomics , Vaccines , Venezuela
18.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(2): 637-648, June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589920

ABSTRACT

Schistosomes are trematode parasites and of worldwide medical importance for humans and animals. Growth and development of these parasites require a specific host environment, but also permanent communication processes between the two genders. Accumulating molecular evidence indicates that the responsible interactions are mediated by signal transduction processes. Conserved signaling molecules were identified, and first approaches made for their characterization. However, no representative of the conserved family of cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) has been described in this parasite yet. Within the Schistosoma mansoni genome data-set we identified cGK homologs, of which one was investigated in more detail in this study. We present the cloning of SmcGK1, whose sequence shows homology to cGKs of higher eukaryotes. SmcGK1 was found to be gender-independently transcribed in adult schistosomes. The occurrence of SmcGK1 sense and antisense transcripts suggests that the expression of this gene is controlled at the post-transcriptional level. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrated a gonad-preferential expression profile in both genders indicating a role of SmcGK1, at least during sexual development of schistosomes. Using a cGK-specific inhibitor to treat adult schistosomes in vitro finally resulted in a multifaceted phenotype including slow motion, oocyte congestion, and reduced egg production.


Esquistossomos são parasitas trematodos de importância médica em todo o mundo para o homem e os animais. O crescimento e o desenvolvimento destes parasitas requerem um ambiente específico do hospedeiro, mas também um processo de comunicação permanente entre parasitas dos dois sexos. Evidência molecular tem se acumulado e indica que as interações são mediadas por processos de transdução de sinal. Moléculas sinalizadoras conservadas foram identificadas, e as primeiras abordagens têm sido feitas para sua caracterização. Contudo, não foi ainda descrito nenhum representante da família conservada das proteína-quinases dependentes de cGMP (cGKs) neste parasita. Analisando o genoma do Schistosoma mansoni nós identificamos homólogos de cGK, dos quais um foi investigado em mais detalhe no presente estudo. Aqui apresentamos a clonagem do gene SmcGK1, cuja sequência mostra homologia com cGKs de eucariotos superiores. Smc- GK1 foi detectada como sendo transcrita de forma gêneroindependente em esquistossomos adultos. A ocorrência de transcritos de SmcGK1 senso e antisenso sugere que a expressão deste gene é controlada em nível pos-transcricional. Experimentos de hibridização in situ demonstraram uma expressão preferencial nas gônadas em ambos os gêneros, indicando um papel para SmcGK1, pelo menos durante o desenvolvimento de esquistossomos. Usando um inibidor específico de cGK para tratamento de esquistossomos adultos in vitro finalmente resultou em um fenótipo multifacetado, incluindo movimentos lentos, congestão dos oócitos, e redução da produção de ovos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/genetics , Gonads/metabolism , Oocytes/metabolism , Schistosoma mansoni/enzymology , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , DNA, Complementary/genetics , In Situ Hybridization , Molecular Sequence Data , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(2): 673-694, June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589923

ABSTRACT

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) were recently given much higher attention due to technical advances in sequencing which expanded the characterization of transcriptomes in different organisms. ncRNAs have different lengths (22 nt to >1, 000 nt) and mechanisms of action that essentially comprise a sophisticated gene expression regulation network. Recent publication of schistosome genomes and transcriptomes has increased the description and characterization of a large number of parasite genes. Here we review the number of predicted genes and the coverage of genomic bases in face of the public ESTs dataset available, including a critical appraisal of the evidence and characterization of ncRNAs in schistosomes. We show expression data for ncRNAs in Schistosoma mansoni. We analyze three different microarray experiment datasets: (1) adult worms' large-scale expression measurements; (2) differentially expressed S. mansoni genes regulated by a human cytokine (TNF-α) in a parasite culture; and (3) a stage-specific expression of ncRNAs. All these data point to ncRNAs involved in different biological processes and physiological responses that suggest functionality of these new players in the parasite's biology. Exploring this world is a challenge for the scientists under a new molecular perspective of host-parasite interactions and parasite development.


RNAs não codificadores (ncRNAs) têm sido recentemente objeto de atenção muito maior devido aos avanços técnicos no sequenciamento que expandiram a caracterização dos transcritomas em diferentes organismos. ncRNAs possuem diferentes comprimentos (22 nt a >1.000 nt) e mecanismos de ação que essencialmente compreendem uma sofisticada rede de regulação de expressão gênica. A publicação recente dos genomas e transcritomas dos esquistossomos aumentou a descrição e caracterização de um grande número de genes do parasita. Aqui nós revisamos o número de genes preditos e a cobertura das bases do genoma em face dos ESTs públicos disponíveis, incluindo uma avaliação crítica da evidência e caracterização de ncRNAs em esquistossomos. Nós mostramos dados de expressão de ncRNAs em Schistosoma mansoni. Nós analisamos três conjuntos diferentes de dados de experimentos com microarranjos: (1) medidas de expressão em larga escala de vermes adultos; (2) genes diferencialmente expressos de S. mansoni regulados por uma citocina humana (TNF-α) no parasita em cultura; e (3) expressão estágio-especifica de ncRNAs. Todos estes dados apontam para ncRNAs envolvidos em diferentes processos biológicos e respostas fisiológicas que sugerem funcionalidade destes novos personagens na biologia do parasita. Explorar este mundo é um desafio para os cientistas sob uma nova perspectiva molecular da interação parasita-hospedeiro e do desenvolvimento do parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Genome, Helminth/genetics , RNA, Helminth/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , Schistosoma japonicum/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Expressed Sequence Tags
20.
Recife; s.n; 2010. 159 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-638839

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é uma doença crônica que está vinculada particularmente às condições hidro-biológica dos criadouros dos caramujos. Em Pernambuco, nada se sabe sobre a situação atual da ecologia do Biomphalaria e da variabilidade genética de S. mansoni. Além disso, das implicações desses aspectos na definição da dinâmica de transmissão. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi: Analisar alguns aspectos da ecologia do Biomphalaria e da estrutura dos perfis genéticos de Schistosoma mansoni. Realizamos um estudo ecológico na escala regional e um estudo experimental na escala local (município de Goiana). Coletamos os moluscos em 14 municípios, tomamos nota das variáveis bióticas (espécies de moluscos e tipo de vegetação aquática) e abióticas (tipo de habitat e tipo de substrato). Analisamos os dados através da Análise de Correlação Canônica (ACC). O diagnostico da positividade do Biomphalaria foi feito através da técnica convencional e a Nested-PCR. Em Goiana, foram isoladas as cepas de S. mansoni e de Biomphalaria. Também, coletamos caramujos. Por último, isolamos os ciclos de S. mansoni dos casos para identificar os perfis genéticos de S. mansoni através do RAPDPCR. Usamos o Median Joining Network, para compreender a biogeografia evolutiva do parasito e a dinâmica de transmissão. Os ACC mostraram: 1) B. stramiena tem preferência por Nasturtium spp. e gramíneas, habitat semi- permantes, e os substratos argila, areia e pedra, e B. glabrata, por N. lotus, E. crassipes e P. estratioste, habitat temporais e o substrato barro; e 2) O gênero Biomphalaria esta separado tanto do ponto de vista geográfico como ecológico. As técnicas de diagnósticos mostraram que as duas espécies de Biomphalaria são responsáveis pelos focos do litoral. As interações parasito - molusco mais eficiente em Goiana é alopátrica. Identificamos uma variabilidade genética importante através dos primers usados. O MJN mostrou que a freqüência - dependência dos perfis genéticos é direcionada pela pressão de seleção do gênero Biomphalaria. Em conclusão o padrão geográfico dos perfis genéticos de S. mansoni presentes em Pernambuco depende dos níveis de compatibilidade do Biomphalaria. Em acréscimo, a existência de interconexão dos focos do ponto de vista geográfico e funcional explica o caráter focal e heterogêneo da transmissão da esquistossomose neste Estado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomphalaria/parasitology , Ecological Studies , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Brazil , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , Genetic Variation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Residence Characteristics
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