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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210108, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1386131

ABSTRACT

Background Eugenol shows both antibacterial and antiparasitic activities, suggesting that it might be evaluated as an option for the treatment of praziquantel-resistant schistosome. Methods The in vitro activities of three eugenol derivatives (FB1, FB4 and FB9) on adult worms from Schistosoma mansoni were examined by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy to analyze effects on the excretory system and integument damage, respectively. Biochemical tests with verapamil (a calcium channel antagonist) and ouabain (a Na+/K+-ATPase pump inhibitor) were used to characterize eugenol derivative interactions with calcium channels and the Na+/K+-ATPase, while in silico analysis identified potential Na+/K+-ATPase binding sites. Results The compounds showed effective doses (ED50) of 0.324 mM (FB1), 0.167 mM (FB4), and 0.340 mM (FB9). In addition, FB4 (0.322 mM), which showed the lowest ED50, ED90 and ED100 (p < 0.05), caused the most damage to the excretory system and integument, according to both fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The death of adult worms was delayed by ouabain treatment plus FB1 (192 versus 72 hours) and FB9 (192 versus 168 hours), but the response to FB4 was the same in the presence or absence of ouabain. Besides, no changes were noted when all of the eugenol derivatives were combined with verapamil. Moreover, FB1 and FB9 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase activity according to in silico analysis but FB4 did not show a time-dependent relationship and may act on targets other than the parasite Na+/K+-ATPase. Conclusion Eugenol derivatives, mainly FB4 when compared to FB1 and FB9, seem to act more effectively on the integument of adult S. mansoni worms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Schistosoma/drug effects , Schistosomiasis/drug therapy , Schistosomicides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Computer Simulation , Eugenol/analogs & derivatives , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 201-210, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177407

ABSTRACT

O trabalho dos educadores pode ser enriquecido com o uso de recursos pedagógicos importantes no processo de ensino e aprendizagem. Considerando este aspecto, uma animação baseada no livro O feitiço da lagoa, de Virginia Schall, que trata do tema esquistossomose foi construída para estimular o conhecimento sobre a doença entre escolares e exibida para alunos do ensino básico em quatro municípios endêmicos: Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta e Santa Luzia, em Minas Gerais; e João Pessoa, na Paraíba. Após sua exibição, um questionário foi aplicado com a finalidade de verificar a aceitação e o entendimento do material. De acordo com as respostas, o desenho animado apresentou boa aceitação. Todos identificaram a esquistossomose como a doença retratada e o caramujo como o transmissor do esquistossomo. Os resultados apontaram que o desenho pode ser um importante recurso pedagógico no processo educativo, auxiliando os programas de controle da endemia, especialmente quando desenvolvidos no espaço escolar.


The educators' work can be enriched with the use of pedagogical resources which are important in the teaching and learning process. With this aspect in mind, a cartoon with the theme schistosomiasis was created, so as to promote knowledge about the disease among middle school students, and exhibited in four endemic municipalities - Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta and Santa Luzia in the state of Minas Gerais; and João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. The animation was based on the book O feitiço da lagoa by Virginia Schall and it was shown to students in those four towns. A questionnaire was answered by them after the respective exhibitions in order to verify the acceptance and understanding of the material that was shown. According to the responses, the cartoon presented good acceptance. Everyone identified schistosomiasis as the disease displayed, and the snail that transmits the schistosome. The results showed that the cartoon can be an important pedagogical resource in the educational process, helping endemic control programs, especially when these programs are developed in the school environment.


El trabajo de los educadores puede ser enriquecido con el uso de recursos pedagógicos importantes en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Considerando este aspecto, un dibujo animado sobre el tema esquistosomiasis fue realizado para estimular el conocimiento, entre estudiantes del ciclo básico, acerca de la enfermedad y exhibido en cuatro municipios endémicos: Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta y Santa Luzia en Minas Gerais; y João Pessoa en Paraíba. La animación fue basada en el libro O feitiço da lagoa de Virginia Schall y fue mostrada a alumnos en las cuatro localidades. Un cuestionario fue aplicado, después de cada proyección, con la finalidad de verificar la aceptación y el entendimiento del material exhibido. De acuerdo con las respuestas, el dibujo tuvo buena aceptación. Todos identificaron la esquistosomiasis como la enfermedad retratada y el caracol como el transmisor del esquistosoma. Los resultados indicaran que el dibujo animado puede ser un importante recurso pedagógico en el proceso educativo, auxiliando a los programas de control de la endemia, especialmente cuando desarrollados en el espacio escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Health Education , Education, Primary and Secondary , Educational and Promotional Materials , Health Communication , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Drawing
3.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353272

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is still a serious public health concern in Brazil and Sergipe State presents the highest prevalence rate of the disease. Brazil implemented the Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE) with several strategies to control the disease, including health education actions in endemic areas. Herein, we assessed the impact of an educational intervention on knowledge concerning schistosomiasis in students from a riverside village of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out in 3 phases. 1) A questionnaire was applied to assess the students' knowledge about the biological, clinical, and epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni (pre-test). 2) Next, an educational intervention was conducted. Pamphlets about schistosomiasis were distributed to the entire school community, who were then invited to a lecture. 3) A post-test was performed using the questionnaire to assess acquired knowledge. 151 elementary school students were interviewed. 2.6% of the pre-test students and 4.3% of the post-test group had already been diagnosed with schistosomiasis. In the pre-test, only 24.5% knew the cause of the disease and 48.3% the transmission sites. In the post-test, 74.3% (OR= 8.9; p-value<0.0001) knew the etiology and 77.1% the possible transmission sites (OR= 3.6; p-value<0.0001). There was also significant improvement in knowledge regarding signs, symptoms and prophylactic measures. Most students were unaware of the risk of reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni after treatment. The educational intervention proved quite effective in increasing information on schistosomiasis. These results reinforce the importance of health education as an auxiliary tool in the control of schistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis , Public Health , Health Education
4.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1581, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345002

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The treatment of choice for patients with schistosomiasis with previous episode of varices is bleeding esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy (EGDS) in association with postoperative endoscopic therapy. However, studies have shown varices recurrence especially after long-term follow-up. Aim: To assess the impact on behavior of esophageal varices and bleeding recurrence after post-operative endoscopic treatment of patients submitted to EGDS. Methods: Thirty-six patients submitted to EGDS were followed for more than five years. They were divided into two groups, according to the portal pressure drop, more or less than 30%, and compared with the behavior of esophageal varices and the rate of bleeding recurrence. Results: A significant reduction on the early and late post-operative varices caliber when compared the pre-operative data was observed despite an increase in diameter during follow-up that was controlled by endoscopic therapy. Conclusion: The drop in portal pressure did not significantly influence the variation of variceal calibers when comparing pre-operative and early or late post-operative diameters. The comparison between the portal pressure drop and the rebleeding rates was also not significant.


RESUMO Racional: O tratamento de escolha para pacientes com hipertensão portal esquistossomótica com sangramento de varizes é a desconexão ázigo-portal mais esplenectomia (DAPE) associada à terapia endoscópica. Porém, estudos mostram aumento do calibre das varizes em alguns pacientes durante o seguimento em longo prazo. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da DAPE e tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório no comportamento das varizes esofágicas e recidiva hemorrágica, de pacientes esquistossomóticos. Métodos: Foram estudados 36 pacientes com seguimento superior a cinco anos, distribuídos em dois grupos: queda da pressão portal abaixo de 30% e acima de 30% comparados com o calibre das varizes esofágicas no pós-operatório precoce e tardio além do índice de recidiva hemorrágica. Resultados: Após a DAPE houve diminuição significativa no calibre das varizes esofágicas que, durante o seguimento aumentaram de calibre e foram controladas com tratamento endoscópico. A queda da pressão portal não influenciou significativamente o comportamento do calibre das varizes no pós-operatório precoce nem tardio nem os índices de recidiva hemorrágica. Conclusão: A queda na pressão portal não influenciou significativamente a variação dos calibres das varizes ao comparar os diâmetros pré e pós-operatórios precoces ou tardios. A comparação entre a queda de pressão do portal e as taxas de ressangramento também não foi significativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/surgery , Recurrence , Splenectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Portal Pressure , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08512020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288085

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley's K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Biomphalaria , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosoma mansoni , Sewage , Brazil/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Disease Vectors
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01452020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143891

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in exon 1 (A/O alleles) and promoter regions at positions -550 (H/L variant, rs11003125) and -221 (X/Y variant, rs7096206) MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving 114 Brazilians infected with Schistosoma mansoni, who were subjected to follow-up for three years after specific treatment for schistosomiasis to estimate the probability of periportal fibrosis regression. RESULTS: A risk association was observed between polymorphism at the exon 1 MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the polymorphism of exon 1 MBL2 may potentially be used to predict periportal fibrosis regression in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , Exons/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genotype , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922256

ABSTRACT

To investigate the relationship between salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients complicated with chronic schistosomiasis. Tissue specimens were collected from 363 patients who were diagnosed as colorectal cancer by clinical and pathological examination in Wuhu Second People's Hospital from June 2015 to June 2020. Fifty-six patients were colorectal cancer complicated with schistosomiasis (CRC-S) and 307 patients were colorectal cancer not complicated with schistosomiasis (CRC-NS). The clinical and pathological data of the patients were analyzed to explore the relationship between chronic schistosomiasis and colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the distribution and expression of SIK2 in colorectal cancer specimens. The relationship between SIK2 and lymph node metastasis of CRC-S was analyzed. The rate of lymph node metastasis in CRC-S group was significantly higher than that in CRC-NS group (62.5% vs. 47.2%, <0.05). In CRC-S patients with lymph node metastasis, schistosome eggs were distributed mainly in tumor tissues (25/35, 71.4%), while in patients with CRC-S without lymph node metastasis, schistosome eggs were distributed mainly in paracancerous tissues (17/21, 81.0%) (14.243, <0.01). The SIK2 was mainly located in cytosol, and its expression in tumor tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues. Compared with CRC-NS patients, the expression of SIK2 in CRC-S patients was significantly increased; the expression of SIK2 in patients with lymph node metastasis was higher than that in patients without lymph node metastasis; and the expression of SIK2 in patients with schistosome eggs in cancer tissues was higher than that in patients with schistosome eggs in paracancerous tissues (all <0.01). Lymph node metastasis is more likely to be occurred in colorectal cancer patients with schistosomiasis, especially in those with schistosome eggs in tumor tissues. The expression of SIK2 may be correlated with chronic schistosomiasis, egg distribution and lymphatic metastasis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Schistosomiasis/complications
8.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1638, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360019

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: O tratamento endoscópico das varizes esofágicas tem sido utilizado como principal intervenção em pacientes com hipertensão portal secundária à esquistossomose, mas com taxas significativas de recorrência de varizes esofágicas e ressangramento. Os resultados em longo prazo do tratamento endoscópico exclusivo são pouco estudados quanto à relação das dimensões esplênicas neste contexto. OBJETIVO: Avaliar, por meio da ultrassonografia, o índice esplênico e a dimensão longitudinal (craniocaudal) do baço como preditores de ressangramento e recorrência de varizes no seguimento tardio de pacientes esquistossomóticos não operados, após erradicação endoscópica das varizes esofágicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional retrospectivo por meio da análise de prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de esquistossomose hepatoesplênica. A curva ROC foi usada para determinar o melhor ponto de corte para o índice esplênico médio como preditor de recorrência e sangramento. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 54 pacientes, durante o período de 2002 a 2018. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 8 anos. O índice esplênico provou ser um teste sensível em valores acima de 144 como preditor de ressangramento. Na análise da dimensão longitudinal, o valor acima de 20 cm apresentou teste estatisticamente significativo para recorrência de varizes e valor acima de 19 cm apresentou-se como teste muito sensível e estatisticamente significativo para ressangramento. CONCLUSÃO: A análise do índice esplênico e da dimensão craniocaudal, obtidos por ultrassonografia, podem predizer recorrência de varizes e ressangramento após erradicação endoscópica exclusiva.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Endoscopic treatment for esophageal variceal has been used as the main intervention in patients with portal hypertension secondary to schistosomiasis, but with significant rates of recurrence of esophageal variceal and rebleeding. The long-term results of exclusive endoscopic treatment are poorly studied as the relationship of the splenic dimensions in this context. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify, through ultrasonography, whether the splenic index and the longitudinal (craniocaudal) dimension of the spleen are the predictors of rebleeding and variceal recurrence in late follow-up of patients with nonoperated schistosomiasis, after endoscopic eradication of esophageal variceal. METHODS: This is a retrospective and observational study analyzing the medical records of patients diagnosed with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best cutoff point for the mean splenic index as a predictor of recurrence and bleeding. Results: A follow-up of 54 patients were analyzed during the period from 2002 to 2018. The mean follow-up time was 8 years. The splenic index with value >144 was proved to be a sensitive test for rebleeding. In the analysis of the longitudinal dimension, the spleen length of >20 cm showed a statistically significant test for recurrence of variceal and a length >19 cm presented as a very sensitive and statistically significant test for rebleeding. CONCLUSION: Splenic index and craniocaudal dimension analysis, obtained by ultrasonography, can predict recurrence of varicose veins and rebleeding after exclusive endoscopic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging , Spleen/surgery , Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
9.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(3): 224-227, 20200930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255086

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose mansônica é uma enfermidade parasitária causada por um trematódeo digenético da família Schistosomatidae, gênero Schistosoma, que vive na corrente sanguínea do hospedeiro definitivo, o homem. As suas formas variam quanto à evolução clínica de maneira assintomática até agudamente grave, podendo levar ao óbito. É um parasita que tem afinidade por regiões tropicais, como o Brasil, onde a temperatura é elevada, principalmente no Norte e Nordeste do país. Junto com a clínica do paciente e exames laboratoriais é possível ter-se um diagnóstico fidedigno dessa enfermidade. As formas de tratamento para essa patologia segue o farmacológico e depende da fase em que se encontra a infecção, havendo necessidade de implantação de medidas preventivas para o controle dessa doença. Com base no exposto, este estudo, por meio da revisão de literatura, tem como objetivo explorar os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais da esquistossomose mansônica, agente etiológico, tratamento e medida de profilaxia e controle. Portanto, a revisão literária foi feito a partir das bases de dados Scielo, Pubmed assim como livros, guias, textos sobre o assunto, visando conceber um apurado de publicações no sentido de sintetizar um objeto de consulta para uma melhor conscientização da comunidade médico-científica.


Schistosomiasis mansoni is a parasitic disease caused by a digenético trematódeo of the family Schistosomatidae, genus Schistosoma that lives in the sanguineous blood of the definitive host, the man. Its forms vary in clinical evolution from asymptomatic to acutely severe, leading to death. It is a parasite that has affinity for tropical regions, such as Brazil, where the temperature is high, mainly in the North and Northeas of the country. Together with the patient's clinic and laboratory tests, it is possible to have a reliable diagnosis of this disease. The forms of treatment for this pathology follow the pharmacological and depends on the stage of the infection and there is a need to implement preventive measures for the control of this disease. Based on the foregoing, this study, through the literature review, aims to explore the clinical and laboratory aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni, etiologic agent, treatment and measurement of prophylaxis and control. Therefore, the literary review was done from the Scielo, Pubmed databases as well as books, guides, texts on the subject, aiming at conceiving a publication search to synthesize an object of consultation for a better awareness of the scientific medical community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis/drug therapy , Endemic Diseases
10.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 44(3): 143-159, 20200813.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371025

ABSTRACT

As doenças tropicais negligenciadas são associadas às populações desfavorecidas socioeconomicamente e muitas delas apresentam alta prevalência no Nordeste brasileiro. Diante disso, o objetivo desta revisão de literatura foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico da leishmaniose, da esquistossomose e da doença de Chagas nessa região, bem como os determinantes sociais envolvidos na manutenção dessas doenças. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa da literatura do tipo descritiva. Foram detectados cem artigos publicados entre 2012 e 2017 nas bases bibliográficas. Desses, 72 foram selecionados para leitura completa. Após leitura integral e aplicação dos critérios de seleção, restaram 39 artigos. Os resultados convergentes para as três doenças estudadas relacionaram-se às condições inadequadas de vida em sociedade, à baixa escolaridade e à organização falha da estrutura habitacional. A partir da descrição do perfil epidemiológico dessas enfermidades, foi possível ratificar que as variáveis sociais são determinantes para a manutenção dessas condições de saúde. Por fim, os fatores identificados neste estudo foram válidos visando a construção do mapeamento de áreas de risco, além de serem importantes para estudantes da área da saúde, uma vez que compõem o acervo de estudos disponíveis e necessários na capacitação de futuros profissionais no enfrentamento de tais problemas sociais.


Neglected Tropical Diseases are associated with socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, and many of them show high prevalence in Northeast Brazil. Hence, this descriptive narrative literature review describes the epidemiological profile of Leishmaniasis, Schistosomiasis and Chagas disease in the region, as well as the social determinants involved in their proliferation. The database search returned 100 articles published between 2012 and 2017, of which 72 were selected for full reading. After applying the selection criteria, 39 articles remained. The converging results for the three studied diseases were related to inadequate living conditions, low schooling levels, and poor housing infrastructure. From this epidemiological profile, the study confirmed that social variables are determinants for the proliferation of these diseases. Finally, the factors identified here were valid and useful for mapping risk areas, and proved important for healthcare students, since they make up the set of studies available for future professionals and necessary for addressing such social issues.


Las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas están asociadas a las poblaciones desfavorecidas socioeconómicamente y presentan, en la mayoría de los casos, alta prevalencia en el Nordeste brasileño. Con ello, el objetivo de esta revisión de literatura fue describir el perfil epidemiológico de la leishmaniasis, esquistosomiasis y enfermedad de Chagas en esa región, así como los determinantes sociales involucrados en su mantenimiento. Esta es una revisión narrativa de la literatura, de carácter descriptivo. En las bases bibliográficas se detectaron cien artículos publicados entre 2012 y 2017. De estos, setenta y dos fueron seleccionados para una lectura completa. Tras la lectura completa y aplicación de los criterios de selección, quedaron 39 artículos. Los resultados convergentes para las tres enfermedades estudiadas se relacionaron con las condiciones inadecuadas de vida en sociedad, a la baja escolaridad y a una inadecuada organización de la estructura habitacional. A partir de la descripción del perfil epidemiológico de esas enfermedades, fue posible ratificar que las variables sociales son determinantes para el mantenimiento de estas condiciones de salud. Los factores identificados en este estudio fueron válidos para elaborar un mapeo de áreas de riesgo, pero también son importantes para los estudiantes del área de la salud debido a que esta cuestión compone la temática disponible y necesaria a la formación de los futuros profesionales para enfrentar este tipo de problema social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Health Profile , Leishmaniasis , Chagas Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Neglected Diseases
11.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2): 191-202, jun./dez. 2020. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224294

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é uma doença parasitária endêmica em áreas tropicais, apresentando grande importância para a saúde pública no Brasil. Minas Gerais é um dos estados brasileiros que apresenta maior prevalência da doença. Objetivamos descrever os casos de esquistossomose nos municípios de Juatuba e Florestal, Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e identificar o perfil dos infectados. Realizamos consulta às informações contidas nas fichas de notificação da doença, referentes ao período de 2009-2012, fornecidas pelo Setor de Epidemiologia dos dois municípios. Constatamos que no ano de 2011 houve um pico de casos da doença em Juatuba. Observamos um maior número de casos da esquistossomose em indivíduos do sexo masculino e na faixa etária de 15- 49 anos, em ambos os municípios. No município de Juatuba, os casos de esquistossomose notificados foram, em sua maioria, de moradores residentes em área urbana. Finalmente, constatamos que os cursos hídricos, prováveis focos de esquistossomose, encontram-se em pontos periféricos e distintos, em ambos os municípios. Para o sucesso no controle da doença nos municípios, e em extensão para outros municípios brasileiros, sugerimos a implantação de medidas e ações de prevenção e controle ambiental e educação em saúde para a população.(AU)


Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasitic disease in tropical areas, of great importance for public health in Brazil. Minas Gerais is one of the Brazilian states with the highest prevalence of the disease. We objectived to describe the cases of schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Juatuba and Florestal, metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and to identify the profile of those infected. For this, we consulted the information contained in the disease notification forms provided by the epidemiology sector of the two municipalities between 2009-2012. We found that in 2011 the disease peaked in Juatuba. We observed a higher number of cases of schistosomiasis in males aged 15-49 years in both municipalities. In the municipality of Juatuba, most cases of schistosomiasis were reported to be residents of urban areas. Finally, we found that the water courses, probable foci of schistosomiasis, are in peripheral and distinct points in both municipalities. For the successful control of the disease in the municipalities, and in extension to other Brazilian municipalities, we suggest the implementation of measures and actions for prevention and environmental control and health education for the population.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Public Health , Epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases , Disease , Disease Notification
12.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257711

ABSTRACT

Background: Schistosomiasis is associated with agriculture and water development schemes, and farmworkers are particularly vulnerable to this disease because of their regular contact with water. Aim: To determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of farmworkers regarding schistosomiasis. Setting: This study was conducted in Vuvha, a rural community under Makhado municipality, Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional design was used. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Results: The majority were knowledgeable about the cause of schistosomiasis (84.3%), knew the mode of transmission of the disease (90.2%). However, about half of the participants knew the symptoms of schistosomiasis. Sixty-eight (33.4%) believed that schistosomiasis was not a problem in their community. The majority (77.9%) agreed that it was abnormal to pass blood in urine, while 85.8% agreed that medical consultation was the right thing to do when symptoms are observed. Fifty-five participants (27.0%) reported ever passing bloody urine. Among those who passed bloody urine, 43 (78.2%) consulted a doctor. Fifty-two (26.0%) participants reported ever being treated for schistosomiasis. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about the cause of schistosomiasis is high among the participants; similarly, there are positive attitudes and good practices shown in this study, but there are some gaps that need to be addressed. Efforts should be made to continue to educate farmworkers because they are at an increased risk for contracting schistosomiasis


Subject(s)
Farmers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Schistosomiasis , Schistosomiasis/statistics & numerical data , South Africa
13.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(2): e2019252, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101128

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: descrever as ações de controle e a situação epidemiológica da esquistossomose, em Pernambuco, Brasil, 2010-2016. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com dados do Sistema de Informação do Programa de Vigilância e Controle da Esquistossomose em 116 municípios, incluindo indicadores relacionados às ações de controle (população trabalhada, exames realizados, cobertura de tratamento) e epidemiológicas (positividade, carga parasitária, outras helmintoses). Resultados: as II, III, IV, V e XII regiões de saúde do estado, tradicionalmente endêmicas, registraram maiores percentuais médios para ações de controle (população trabalhada [6,5%, 6,0%, 2,0%, 12,0% e 13,0%], exames realizados [75,0%, 75,5%, 74,0%, 74,0% e 68,5%] e cobertura de tratamento [71,0%, 82,5%, 82,0%, 91,0% e 73,0%], respectivamente), e maiores percentuais médios para variáveis epidemiológicas (positividade [3,5%, 8,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 6,5%], alta carga parasitária [0,1%, 0,7%, 0,02%, 0,03% e 0,5%] e outras helmintoses [4,0%, 11,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% e 8,0%], respectivamente). Conclusão: deve-se ampliar as ações de controle nas regiões tradicionalmente endêmicas.


Resumen Objetivo: describir las acciones de control y la situación epidemiológica de la esquistosomiasis, Pernambuco, Brasil, 2010-2016. Métodos: estudio descriptivo utilizando datos del Sistema de Información del Programa de Vigilancia y Control de Esquistosomiasis en 116 municipios, incluyendo indicadores relacionados con acciones de control (población trabajada, pruebas realizadas, cobertura del tratamiento) y epidemiológicas (positividad, carga parasitaria, otros helmintos). Resultados: las regiones de salud II, III, IV, V y XII del estado, tradicionalmente endémicas, registraron porcentajes promedios más altos para las acciones de control (población trabajada [6,5%, 6,0%, 2,0%, 12,0% y 13,0%], exámenes [75,0%, 75,5%, 74,0%, 74,0% y 68,5%] y tratamiento [71,0%, 82,5%, 82,0%, 91,0% y 73,0%], respectivamente), y porcentajes promedios más altos para variables epidemiológicas (positividad [3,5%, 8,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% y 6,5%], alta carga parasitaria [0,1%, 0,7%, 0,02%, 0,03% y 0,5%] y otros helmintos [4,0%, 11,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% y 8,0%], respectivamente). Conclusión: ampliar las acciones de control en regiones tradicionalmente endémicas.


Abstract Objective: to describe schistosomiasis control actions and its epidemiological situation in Pernambuco, Brazil, 2010-2016. Methods: this was a descriptive study using data from the Schistosomiasis Surveillance and Control Program Information System for 116 municipalities, including indicators related to control actions (population surveyed, tests performed, treatment coverage) and epidemiological actions (positivity, parasite load, other helminthiases). Results: Health Regions II, III, IV, V and XII, which are traditionally endemic, registered higher average percentages for control actions (population surveyed [6.5%, 6.0%, 2.0%, 12.0%, and 13.0%], tests performed [75.0%, 75.5%, 74.0%, 74.0%, and 68.5%], and treatment coverage [71.0%, 82.5%, 82.0%, 91.0%, and 73.0%], respectively), and higher average percentages for epidemiological variables (positivity [3.5%, 8.0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 6.5%], high parasite load [0.1%, 0.7%, 0.02%, 0.03%, and 0.5%], and other helminthiases [4.0%, 11.0%, 4.0%, 6.0%, and 8.0%], respectively). Conclusion: control actions need to be expanded in traditionally endemic regions.


Subject(s)
Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Information Systems , Epidemiologic Factors , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Public Health Surveillance
14.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(4)2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177494

ABSTRACT

The human species has an emotional connection with nature called "biophilia" (or, love for life). This connection goes from generation to generation, being one of the reasons why green spaces are present in large cities. Quinta da Boa Vista is a municipal park in Rio de Janeiro located in the São Cristóvão neighborhood in the northern part of the city. Its main attraction is the artificial lake system, a leisure attraction for the local community. This article reports the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata and Physa acuta snails around the main lake in the Quinta da Boa Vista Municipal Park in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Seventy-one B. glabrata and twenty-seven P. acuta snails were collected. The snails were measured and examined for the presence of trematode larvae according to standardized procedures. The prevalence rate of B. glabrata was estimated at 15.5%. Rediae and cercariae resembling those of the species Typhlocoelum cucumerinum (Typhlocoelidae, Digenea) which parasitizes aquatic birds of the order Anseriformes were found. This study reinforces the importance of monitoring park lakes and ponds to better understand the risk of helminth transmission by molluscan vectors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis , Snails , Vector Control of Diseases , Helminths
15.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(3): 177-190, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151954

ABSTRACT

In Latin America 96% of the cases of schistosomiasis occur in Brazil in low-socioeconomic status populations. The epidemiological characteristics and occurrence predictors of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined in the Bananeiras community, located in Capistrano, a town in Ceará state, Brazil. Sanitary, environmental, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. An investigation to assess S. mansoni infection was conducted using the Kato-Katz and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) methods. From the 258 subjects were analyzed, 54.3% (n=140) were women, median age 30 years. Thirty-three (12.8%) individuals were positive by either egg- and/or CCA-positivity. The highest positivity rate was found in the 30-39 year old group. There was no piped water supply, sewage network or municipal refuse collection service. Most individuals were illiterate or had not finished elementary school (66.3%). About 29.1% of the families had a monthly income below one Brazilian minimum wage and 91.1% reported contact with natural water sources. We found an association between infection and age group of 20-40 years, illiteracy, household with 7 inhabitants or more, household with up to 3 rooms and an outhouse. Contrarily, being 40 years old or older and household with up to 6 inhabitants were not risk factors. Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in this municipality, evidencing a strong association with low socioeconomic conditions and high vulnerability. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying the factors associated with the infection for more effective guidance in actions in control programs targeting schistosomiasis prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poverty , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis , Epidemiology , Infections , Antigens
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190418, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057263

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious pulmonary circulation disease caused by several etiologies, including schistosomiasis. The present study retrospectively evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of patients with schistosomal PAH (PAH-Sch) compared to those of non-Sch PAH patients (non-Sch PAH). METHODS: Patients treated at the Pronto-Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco and diagnosed by right cardiac catheterization were divided into PAH-Sch and non-Sch PAH groups. Their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and echocardiography and hemodynamic parameters were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Among the included 98 patients (mean age, 45 ± 14 years; 68 women [69.4%]), we found 56 PAH-Sch and 42 non-Sch PAH. The age distribution was heterogeneous in the PAH-Sch group, with patients predominantly ranging from 50-59 (p <0.004). Dyspnea was the most common symptom, reported by 92 patients (93.8%), and commonly present for over two years prior to diagnosis. Clinical symptoms were similar in both groups, with no differences in functional class, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p = 0.102), 6-minute walk test score (p = 0.234), NT-proBNP serum levels (p = 0.081), or hemodynamic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PAH-Sch present clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic profiles similar to those with PAH resulting from other etiologies of poor prognosis. PAH is an important manifestation of schistosomiasis in endemic regions that is often diagnosed late.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Protein Precursors/blood , Schistosomiasis/complications , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/blood , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Echocardiography , Biomarkers/blood , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/blood , Middle Aged
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 508-518, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283650

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of the essential oil (EO) from Ocotea pulchella leaves as an alternative in the control of schistosomiasis. It was tested O. pulchella EO nanoformulation to assess its activity against adult Biomphalaria glabrata, their spawning and Schistossoma mansoni cercariae. Additionally, the EO chemical composition was investigated by gas-chromatography. Nanoemulsion were elaborated by the low energy method. The adult mollusks, their spawning and cercariae were placed in contact with nanoemulsion to calculate lethal concentrations. Myristicin, bicyclogermacrene and α-Pinene were the main substances in the EO. Nanoemulsion caused mortality of adult B. glabrata, its egg embryos and S. mansoni. These results suggest the use of this nanoemulsion as an alternative in the control of the schistosomiasis cycle.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial de los aceites esenciales (AE) de las hojas de Ocotea pulchellacomo una alternativa en el control de esquistosomiasis. Se probó una nanoformulación de AE de O. pulchellapara evaluar su actividad ante adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata, sus huevos y cercarías de Schistossoma mansoni. La nanoemulsión fue elaborada por el método de baja energía. Los moluscos adultos, sus huevos y cercarías se colocaron en contacto con la nanoemulsión para calcular concentraciones letales. Los compuestos mayoritarios en el AE fueron miristicina, biciclogermacreno y α-pineno. La nanoemulsión causó mortalidad en adultos de B. glabrata, sus huevos y a S. mansoni. Los resultados sugieren el uso de esta nanoemulsión como una alternativa en el control del ciclo de esquistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Ocotea/chemistry , Emulsions/administration & dosage , Mollusca/drug effects , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas , Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane/analysis , Dioxolanes/analysis , Emulsions/pharmacology , Cercaria/drug effects , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Allylbenzene Derivatives/analysis , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/analysis
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200411, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136850

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil's southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul (RGS), was considered schistosomiasis-free until 1998 when a low endemic focus was identified in Esteio, a city located next to the capital of RGS. In the last two decades, the control interventions applied in the region have been apparently successful, and the absence of new cases indicated the possibility of interrupted schistosomiasis transmission. The objective of this study was to update the clinical and epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Esteio. METHODS: We reviewed all 28 individuals diagnosed with the infection since 1997 and a survey was applied to a group of 29 school-aged children residing in Vila Pedreira, one of the most affected neighborhoods. RESULTS No eggs were detected in fecal samples using the Helmintex method, and all samples were negative for serum antibodies on examination by the western blot technique using the Schistosoma mansoni microsomal antigen (MAMA- WB). In contrast, 23 individuals (79%) tested positive for the cathodic circulating antigen with the point-of-care immunochromatographic test (POC-CCA) on urine samples. Of the 28 formerly infected individuals, only eight were located, of which four tested positive, and four tested negative for serum antibodies using the MAMA-WB technique. CONCLUSIONS: Current adverse conditions for S. mansoni transmission in Esteio and the absence of a confirmed diagnosis suggests that there is (i) a lack of specificity of the POC-CCA test in low endemic settings, and (ii) a high probability that interruption of schistosomiasis has been achieved in Esteio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Schistosomiasis , Brazil , Antibodies, Helminth
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190378, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Key genes control the infectivity of the Schistosoma haematobium causing schistosomiasis. A method for understanding the regulation of these genes might help in developing new disease strategies to control schistosomiasis, such as the silencing mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The miRNAs have been studied in schistosome species and they play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in parasite-host interactions. However, genome-wide identification and characterisation of novel miRNAs and their pathway genes and their gene expression have not been explored deeply in the genome and transcriptome of S. haematobium. OBJECTIVES Identify and characterise mature and precursor miRNAs and their pathway genes in the S. haematobium genome. METHODS Computational prediction and characterisation of miRNAs and genes involved in miRNA pathway from S. haematobium genome on SchistoDB. Conserved domain analysis was performed using PFAM and CDD databases. A robust algorithm was applied to identify mature miRNAs and their precursors. The characterisation of the precursor miRNAs was performed using RNAfold, RNAalifold and Perl scripts. FINDINGS We identified and characterised 14 putative proteins involved in miRNA pathway including ARGONAUTE and DICER in S. haematobium. Besides that, 149 mature miRNAs and 131 precursor miRNAs were identified in the genome including novel miRNAs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS miRNA pathway occurs in the S. haematobium, including endogenous miRNAs and miRNA pathway components, suggesting a role of this type of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation in the parasite. The results found in this work will open up a new avenue for studying miRNAs in the S. haematobium biology in helping to understand the mechanism of gene silencing in the human parasite Schistosome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosoma haematobium/genetics , Schistosomiasis/parasitology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , MicroRNAs/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome/genetics
20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00215720, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132886

ABSTRACT

As doenças tropicais negligenciadas constituem um grupo heterogêneo de enfermidades que apresentam como característica comum afetarem populações pobres e desassistidas, com pouca capacidade de vocalização e de poder político. Em consequência, recebem pouca atenção da indústria farmacêutica e da academia. O presente estudo teve como propósito resumir o estado da arte quanto ao desenvolvimento de vacinas para três doenças tropicais negligenciadas de relevância no Brasil, a doença de Chagas, a esquistossomose mansoni e as leishmanioses. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão narrativa da literatura científica, na qual foram incluídas publicações que permitiram traçar um panorama atual do desenvolvimento de vacinas para as três doenças. Essas vacinas estão em estágios distintos de desenvolvimento. Os projetos de desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a tripanossomíase americana ainda não chegaram à fase clínica de avaliação. Já para a esquistossomose há candidatos à vacina em fase avançada de avaliação clínica. Para as leishmanioses já existem vacinas veterinárias licenciadas e produtos candidatos à vacina humana em etapa intermediária de avaliação clínica. O reduzido financiamento para esses projetos tem contribuído para retardar o desenvolvimento dos produtos.


Las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades, que presentan como característica común el hecho de que afectan a poblaciones pobres y desasistidas, con poca capacidad de interlocución y poder político. En consecuencia, reciben poca atención de la industria farmacéutica, así como de la academia. Este estudio tuvo como propósito resumir el estado de la cuestión, respecto al desarrollo de vacunas para tres enfermedades tropicales desatendidas relevantes en Brasil como son: la enfermedad de Chagas, la esquistosomiasis y leishmaniosis. Para ello, se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura científica, en la que se incluyeron publicaciones que permitieron trazar un panorama actual del desarrollo de vacunas para las tres enfermedades. Estas vacunas están en estadios distintos de desarrollo. Los proyectos de desarrollo de vacunas contra la tripanosomiasis americana todavía no llegaron a la fase clínica de evaluación. Ya en el caso de la esquistosomiasis hay candidatos a la vacuna en fase avanzada de evaluación clínica. Para las leishmaniosis ya existen vacunas veterinarias licenciadas y productos candidatos a la vacuna humana en etapa intermedia de evaluación clínica. La reducida financiación para esos proyectos ha contribuido al retraso en el desarrollo de los productos.


Neglected tropical diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases that have as a common characteristic to affect poor and unassisted populations with little vocalization capacity and political power. As a result, they receive little attention from the pharmaceutical industry and academia. The present study aimed to summarize the state of the art regarding vaccine development for three relevant neglected tropical diseases in Brazil: Chagas disease, schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni), and leishmaniasis. To this end, we conducted a narrative review of the scientific literature, including publications that allowed us to outline a current overview on the vaccine development for the three diseases. Vaccines against the three diseases are in different stages of development. Vaccine development projects against American trypanosomiasis have yet to reach the clinical evaluation phase. For schistosomiasis, we have candidates for the vaccine in the advanced phase of clinical evaluation. For leishmaniasis, there are already licensed veterinary vaccines, and product candidates for human vaccine in the intermediate stage of clinical evaluation. The reduced funding for these projects has contributed to slow product development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Vaccines , Schistosoma mansoni , Brazil , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control
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