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1.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 38(1): 56-59, Jan.-Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-779108

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the case of a patient with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment who had an episode of heat stroke. Case description During a heat wave in January and February 2014, a patient with schizophrenia who was on treatment with clozapine was initially referred for differential diagnose between systemic infection and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, but was finally diagnosed with heat stroke and treated with control of body temperature and hydration. Comments This report aims to alert clinicians take this condition into consideration among other differential diagnoses, especially nowadays with the rise in global temperatures, and to highlight the need for accurate diagnosis of clinical events during pharmacological intervention, in order to improve treatment decisions and outcomes.


Objetivo Descrever o caso de um paciente com esquizofrenia em tratamento com clozapina acometido por um episódio de heat stroke. Descrição do caso Durante uma onda de calor em janeiro e fevereiro de 2014, um paciente com esquizofrenia em tratamento com clozapina foi inicialmente encaminhado para diagnóstico diferencial de infecção sistêmica e síndrome neuroléptica maligna, tendo obtido o diagnóstico final de heat stroke, tratado com controle de temperatura corporal e hidratação. Comentários Este relato de caso tem como objetivo alertar os clínicos para este diagnóstico diferencial, que pode surgir com mais frequência à medida que as temperaturas globais continuarem a aumentar, e também destacar a importância da realização de um diagnóstico mais acurado, que possa melhorar as decisões de tratamento e os desfechos clínicos para os pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Clozapine/adverse effects , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Heat Stroke/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/blood , Heat Stroke/complications , Heat Stroke/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Middle Aged , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome/diagnosis
2.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 37(2): 100-103, Apr. Jun. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-753216

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report the rare development of manic symptoms in a patient with schizophrenia and discuss its differential diagnosis. Case description: Diagnostic criteria were based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). A 63-year-old female (diagnosed with schizophrenia since she was 28) was brought to the emergency room with symptoms consistent with manic episode and physical examination suggestive of thyrotoxicosis. Graves' disease was confirmed by subsequent laboratory tests. She was treated successfully with radioiodine ablation, leading to full remission of manic symptoms. Comments: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that affects about 1% of the population worldwide. The main symptoms of the disorder are altered affection, delusions, and hallucinations. Graves' disease is an autoimmune condition in which antibodies increase the production and release of thyroid hormones. There are reports about the development of mood symptoms in patients with Graves' disease that remit with adequate treatment. .


Objetivo: Relatar um caso raro de desenvolvimento de sintomas maníacos em uma paciente com esquizofrenia e discutir o diagnóstico diferencial desses sintomas. Descrição do caso: Foram utilizados como base os critérios diagnósticos da Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 10ª edição (CID-10). Paciente de 63 anos do sexo feminino e com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia desde os 28 anos foi levada a emergência com sintomas compatíveis com episódio de mania e exame físico sugestivo de tireotoxicose. Doença de Graves foi confirmada por exames subsequentes. A paciente foi tratada com sucesso com ablação por iodo radioativo, levando à remissão dos sintomas maníacos. Comentários: A esquizofrenia é uma doença crônica que afeta cerca de 1% da população mundial. Os principais sintomas do transtorno são o embotamento afetivo, alucinações e delírios. A doença de Graves é uma doença autoimune em que o estímulo humoral aumenta a produção e liberação de hormônios pela tireoide. Há relatos na literatura sobre o desenvolvimento de sintomas maníacos em pacientes com doença de Graves, os quais remitem mediante tratamento adequado. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Bipolar Disorder/diagnosis , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/blood , Bipolar Disorder/complications , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Bipolar Disorder/blood , Graves Disease/complications , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Graves Disease/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(1): 20-27, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: lil-742030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the indexes and the main factors associated with non-adherence to medication treatment for systemic arterial hypertension between urban and rural areas. METHOD: analytical study based on an epidemiological survey with a sample of 247 hypertensive residents of rural and urban areas, with application of a socio-demographic and economic questionnaire, and treatment adherence assessment. The Pearson's Chi-square test was used and the odds ratio (OD) was calculated to analyze the factors related to non-adherence. RESULTS: the prevalence of non-adherence was 61.9% and it was higher in urban areas (63.4%). Factors significantly associated with non-adherence were: male gender (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.08-3.50), age 20-59 years old (OR=2.51; 95% CI 1.44-4.39), low economic status (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.09-3.47), alcohol consumption (OR=5.92, 95% CI 1.73-20.21), short time of hypertension diagnosis (OR=3.07; 95% CI 1.35-6.96) and not attending the health service for routine consultations (OR=2.45; 1.35-4.42). CONCLUSION: the socio-demographic/economic characteristics, lifestyle habits and how to relate to health services were the factors that presented association with non-adherence regardless of the place of residence. .


OBJETIVO: avaliar os índices e os principais fatores associados a não adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial sistêmica, entre área urbana e rural. MÉTODO: estudo analítico baseado em inquérito epidemiológico, realizado com amostra de 247 hipertensos moradores das áreas rural e urbana, com aplicação de questionário sociodemográfico, econômico e avaliação da adesão. Foi utilizado o teste quiquadrado de Pearson e calculado o Odds Ratio (OD) para análise dos fatores relacionados a não adesão. RESULTADOS: a prevalência da não adesão foi de 61,9%, sendo maior na área urbana (63,4%). Os fatores que apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com a não adesão foram: gênero masculino (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,08-3,50), faixa etária entre 20 e 59 anos (OR=2,51; IC95% 1,44-4,39), baixa classe econômica (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,09-3,47), etilismo (OR=5,92; IC 95% 1,73-20,21), tempo curto de diagnóstico de hipertensão (OR=3,07; IC95% 1,35-6,96) e não procura pelo serviço de saúde para consultas de rotina (OR=2,45; 1,35-4,42). CONCLUSÃO: as características sociodemográficas, econômicas, hábitos de vida e o modo de relacionar-se com os serviços de saúde foram os fatores que apresentaram associação com a não adesão, independentemente do local de residência. .


OBJETIVO: evaluar los índices y los principales factores asociados a la no adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre área urbana y rural. MÉTODO: estudio analítico basado en investigación epidemiológica desarrollada con una muestra de 247 hipertensos moradores del área rural y urbana, con aplicación de un cuestionario sociodemográfico, económico y evaluación de la adhesión. Fue utilizado la prueba chi-cuadrado de Pearson y calculado el odds ratio (OD) para análisis de los factores relacionados a la no adhesión. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia de la no adhesión correspondió a 61,9%, siendo mayor en el área urbana (63,4%). Los factores que mostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa con la no adhesión fueron: género masculino (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,08-3,50), rango de edad entre 20 a 59 años (OR=2,51; IC95% 1,44-4,39), clase económica baja (OR=1,95; IC95% 1,09-3,47), etilismo (OR=5,92; IC 95% 1,73-20,21), tiempo corto de diagnóstico de hipertensión (OR=3,07; IC95% 1,35-6,96) y no procurar el servicio de salud para consultas de rutina (OR=2,45; 1,35-4,42). CONCLUSIÓN: las características sociodemográficas/económicas, hábitos de vida y el modo de relacionar con los servicios de salud fueron los factores que mostraron asociación con la no adhesión independientemente del local de residencia. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Proline Oxidase/deficiency , Schizophrenia , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/blood , Fasting/blood , Models, Statistical , Mutation/genetics , Proline Oxidase/blood , Proline Oxidase/genetics , Proline/metabolism , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/blood , Schizophrenia/etiology , Schizophrenia/genetics , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-157677

ABSTRACT

Deficiency and excess amount of trace elements play an important role in several well recognized diseases, studies are going on to establish their role in schizophrenia. Selenium and other trace elements are indispensable components for certain enzymes responsible for various metabolic processes in different tissues including the brain as they play important functional roles in peripheral and central nervous systems. Objectives: In this study, we examined the levels of selenium in serum of patients of schizophrenia and compare them with normal healthy controls. Selenium was also measured in acute and chronic stage of schizophrenia categorized on the basis of PANSS score and correlated by Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient (ρ) in total cases, acute cases and chronic cases. Method: The study population comprised 150 patients and 150 age matched controls. We measured levels of Selenium by AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). Results: We found that selenium levels were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia than in the control group. The levels of micronutrients studied were also correlated with disease severity and duration but found non-significant relation. Conclusion: Evaluation of selenium levels in patients with schizophrenia could prove useful. There may be role of Selenium in the pathogenesis and course of Schizophrenia and new therapeutic approaches warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/statistics & numerical data , Psychometrics , Schizophrenia/blood , Schizophrenia/classification , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Schizophrenia/etiology , Selenium/analysis , Selenium/blood , Selenium/deficiency , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Young Adult
7.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 34(supl.2): s149-s155, Oct. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-662765

ABSTRACT

For the last 40 years, schizophrenia has been considered to be the result primarily of a dysfunction in brain dopaminergic pathways. In this review, it is described and discussed findings concerning nitric oxide-mediated neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Studies were searched in PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS using the terms schizophrenia and nitric oxide plasma levels or nitric oxide serum levels, with no time limit. The reference lists of selected articles were also hand-searched for additional articles. From 15 potential reports, 10 were eligible to be included in the review and meta-analysis. These studies included a total of 505 patients with schizophrenia and 339 healthy volunteers. No significant difference was found between patients and healthy controls regarding total nitrite plasma/serum levels (effect size g = 0.285, 95%CI = -0.205 to 0.774, p = 0.254). However, when studies with patients under antipsychotic treatment were examined separately, there was a significant difference between patients and healthy volunteers (effect size g = 0.663, 95%CI = 0.365 to 0.961, p < 0.001), showing that patients under treatment have higher levels of plasma/serum nitric oxide than controls. These results suggest that antipsychotics increase nitric oxide plasma/serum levels and that the nitrergic pathway would be a fertile target for the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia.


Durante os últimos 40 anos, a esquizofrenia foi considerada, principalmente, como o resultado de disfunções dopaminérgicas no cérebro. Esta revisão descreve e discute algumas descobertas sobre a neurotransmissão mediada pelo óxido nítrico na esquizofrenia. A busca foi feita nas bases PubMed, SciELO e LILACS usando-se os termos schizophrenia e nitric oxide plasma levels ou nitric oxide serum levels, sem limites de tempo. As listas de referências dos artigos selecionados foram examinadas em busca de outras publicações pertinentes. Dentre 15 artigos passíveis de serem incluídos, 10 preenchiam os critérios estabelecidos para a revisão e metanálise. Esses estudos incluíram 505 pacientes com esquizofrenia e 339 voluntários saudáveis. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre pacientes e voluntários saudáveis quanto aos níveis plasmáticos de nitrito total (effect size g = 0,285, IC 95% = -0,205 a 0,774, p = 0,254). No entanto, o exame separado dos estudos envolvendo pacientes em tratamento antipsicótico apresentou diferenças significativas entre pacientes e voluntários saudáveis (effect size g = 0,663, IC 95% = 0,365 to 0,961, p < 0,001), demonstrando que pacientes em tratamento possuem níveis plasmáticos mais altos de óxido nítrico. Esses resultados sugerem que os antipsicóticos podem aumentar os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico e que a via nitrérgica (e sua estimulação) constituiria um alvo propício para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos para pacientes com esquizofrenia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nitric Oxide/blood , Schizophrenia/blood , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Empirical Research , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/physiopathology
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(10): 814-816, Oct. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-651598

ABSTRACT

Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, affecting cognitive, emotional, and behavioral conditions, ability to work, social functioning, family stability and self-esteem of the patient. People with schizophrenia show a two to three-fold increased risk to die prematurely than those without schizophrenia. Understanding the mechanisms behind sudden cardiac death in individuals with schizophrenia is a key to prevention. Although different mechanisms may be related, there are clear indications that cardiac abnormalities play a potential role. Some antipsychotics may be associated with cardiovascular adverse events, e.g., QT interval prolongation, metabolic dysfunction, blood pressure and heart rate alterations. Magnesium (Mg) abnormalities may lead to various morphological and functional dysfunctions of the heart and low levels of serum Mg are considered to be at high risk for sudden cardiac death. As low serum Mg is associated with detrimental effects on the heart and that antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia patients frequently affect the heart rate, possibly, these factors together must change the normal functioning of the heart and consequently being able to culminate in a catastrophic event.


A esquizofrenia é uma doença mental que afeta as condições cognitivas, emocionais e comportamentais, a capacidade de trabalho, a estabilidade familiar e social e a auto-estima do paciente. Pessoas com esquizofrenia apresentam um risco de duas a três vezes maior de morrer prematuramente em relação às pessoas sem esquizofrenia. A compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos na morte súbita em indivíduos com esquizofrenia é de suma importância para sua prevenção. Apesar de diferentes mecanismos associados à doença, evidências mostram que as anormalidades cardíacas desempenham papel importante neste contexto. Alguns antipsicóticos podem estar associados com eventos cardiovasculares adversos, como o prolongamento do intervalo QT, disfunção metabólica e alterações na pressão arterial e no ritmo cardíaco. Anormalidades do magnésio (Mg) podem levar a várias alterações morfológicas e funcionais do coração assim como a um alto risco para a morte súbita. Como baixos níveis séricos de Mg estão associados a efeitos nocivos ao coração e indivíduos com esquizofrenia tratados com antipsicóticos frequentemente apresentam alteração do ritmo cardíaco, possivelmente, estes fatores em conjunto podem alterar o funcionamento normal do coração e, consequentemente, culminar em um evento catastrófico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Magnesium/blood , Schizophrenia/blood , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Biomarkers/blood , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
10.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 33(3): 268-274, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-609083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous reports suggest that cytokines act as potential mediators of the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and that a proinflammatory state may be associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The aim is to compare cytokine levels in both disorders. METHOD: Twenty euthymic bipolar disorder patients, 53 chronic stabilized schizophrenia patients and 80 healthy controls were recruited. Subjects were all non-smokers and non-obese. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were examined by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: IL-6 levels were increased in schizophrenia patients when compared to controls (p < 0.0001) and euthymic bipolar disorder patients (p < 0.0001). IL-6 levels were no different in controls compared to euthymic bipolar disorder patients (p = 0.357). IL-10 was lower in controls compared to schizophrenia patients (p = 0.001) or to bipolar disorder patients (p = 0.004). There was no significant difference in TNF-α serum levels among the groups (p = 0.284). Gender-based classification did not significantly alter these findings, and no correlation was found between the antipsychotic dose administered and cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia. DISCUSSION: These findings evidence a chronic immune activation in schizophrenia. Bipolar disorder seems to present an episode-related inflammatory syndrome. Increased anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia suggests different patterns of inflammatory balance between these two disorders. Results further support the need to investigate cytokines as possible biomarkers of disease activity or treatment response.


OBJETIVO: Pesquisas sugerem as citocinas como potenciais mediadores da interação entre os sistemas imune e neuroendócrino, e que existe um estado pró-inflamatório associado com transtorno bipolar e esquizofrenia. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar os níveis de citocinas entre os dois distúrbios. MÉTODO: Vinte pacientes com transtorno bipolar eutímicos, 53 pacientes com esquizofrenia crônica estabilizados e 80 controles saudáveis foram recrutados. Todos os indivíduos eram não-fumantes e não-obesos. As citocinas TNF-α, IL-6 e IL-10 foram examinadas por ELISA sanduíche. RESULTADOS: A IL-6 estava aumentada nos pacientes com esquizofrenia quando comparados aos controles (p < 0,0001) e aos pacientes bipolares eutímicos (p < 0,0001). Os níveis de IL-6 não foram diferentes nos controles em comparação com pacientes com transtorno bipolar eutímicos (p = 0,357). Os níveis de IL-10 foram menores nos controles quando comparados aos pacientes com esquizofrenia (p = 0,001) ou aos bipolares (p = 0,004). Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis séricos de TNF-α entre os grupos (p = 0,284). A separação por sexo não mostrou diferenças significativas e não houve correlação entre a dose de antipsicóticos e os níveis de citocinas em pacientes com esquizofrenia. DISCUSSÃO: Estes resultados evidenciam uma ativação imune crônica na esquizofrenia. O transtorno bipolar parece apresentar um aumento da atividade inflamatória relacionado ao episódio de humor. Níveis maiores de IL-10 no transtorno bipolar e esquizofrenia sugerem diferentes padrões de equilíbrio inflamatório entre esses dois transtornos. Resultados fornecem apoio adicional para a investigação de citocinas como possíveis biomarcadores para a atividade da doença ou resposta ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Bipolar Disorder/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , /blood , /blood , Schizophrenia/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Bipolar Disorder/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Inflammation/blood , Syndrome , Schizophrenia/immunology
11.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 30(4): 337-340, Dec. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-501864

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The neurotrophins, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative markers have reciprocal interactions. This report verified in chronically stable medicated schizophrenic patients whether there are correlations between the serum levels of superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme in the antioxidant defense, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a direct index of lipid peroxidation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the most widely distributed neurotrophin. METHOD: Sixty DSM-IV schizophrenic patients were included (43 males, 17 females). Mean age was 34.7 ± 10.8 years, mean age at first episode was 19.8 ± 7.9 years, and mean illness duration was 14.9 ± 8.5 years. Each subject had a blood sample collected for the determination of serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. RESULTS: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels showed a positive correlation with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (r = 0.333, p = 0.009). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were not correlated with superoxide dismutase levels (r = - 0.181, p = 0.166), and superoxide dismutase levels were not correlated with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (r = 0.141, p = 0.284). CONCLUSIONS: The positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances suggests the need of further investigation on intracellular interactions of neurotrophins, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative markers. In addition, this opens a venue for investigation on treatments for the prevention of neurotoxicity along the course of schizophrenia.


OBJETIVO: As neurotrofinas, enzimas antioxidantes e marcadores de oxidação têm interações. Este estudo verificou se existem correlações entre os níveis séricos de superóxido-dismutase, uma enzima chave na defesa antioxidante, os produtos de reação com o ácido tiobarbitúrico, um indicador direto de peroxidação lipídica, e o fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro, a neurotrofina mais amplamente distribuída. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes portadores de Esquizofrenia pelo DSM-IV foram incluídos (43 homens, 17 mulheres), com idade média de 34,7 ± 10,8 anos, idade média no primeiro episódio de 19,8 ± 7,9 anos, e tempo médio de duração da doença de 14,9 ± 8,5 anos. Foi coletado sangue de cada sujeito para a determinação dos níveis séricos de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro, superóxido-dismutase e ácido tiobarbitúrico. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro se correlacionaram positivamente aos de ácido tiobarbitúrico (r = 0,333, p = 0,009) e não mostraram correlação com os de superóxido-dismutase (r = - 0,181, p = 0,166). Este último também não se correlacionou aos níveis de ácido tiobarbitúrico (r = 0,141, p = 0,284). CONCLUSÕES: A correlação positiva entre fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro e ácido tiobarbitúrico direciona para investigações na interação intracelular entre neurotrofinas, enzimas antioxidantes e marcadores de oxidação, além de abrir perspectives para pesquisa em tratamentos para a prevenção da neurotoxicidade ao longo do curso da esquizofrenia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Schizophrenia/blood , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/metabolism , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-9467

ABSTRACT

Although enhanced appetite and weight gain are potential side effects of treatment with antipsychotic agents, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, the mechanisms underlying these side effects are poorly understood. Leptin and ghrelin were recently identified as hormones that play crucial roles in the regulation of energy balance and glucose metabolism. To elucidate relationships between weight change and plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin, we investigated the circulating ghrelin and leptin levels and body weight during olanzapine treatment. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia were examined during 6-month administration of olanzapine. Ghrelin, leptin, weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured before and after 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks of olanzapine treatment. The concentration of glucose and various lipid metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and at 24 weeks. Significant increases in weight, BMI and leptin were observed at week 24. On the other hand, the serum levels of ghrelin decreased significantly after olanzapine treatment. In addition, the level of ghrelin was negatively correlated with the leptin level, BMI and weight. The leptin level was positively correlated with both BMI and weight. Ghrelin is associated with metabolic changes, in combination with leptin, during olanzapine treatment. However, further large-scale and longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate the metabolic changes involving ghrelin, leptin and insulin during treatment with antipsychotics.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Benzodiazepines/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Body Weight/drug effects , Ghrelin/blood , Humans , Leptin/blood , Male , Schizophrenia/blood
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 224-229, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-187377

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in patients diagnosed as schizophrenia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight schizophrenic patients hospitalized at The Elazig Psychiatric Hospital were included in the study. Anti-Toxocara IgG and/or IgM antibodies were determined by using commercial Toxocara canis IgG and/or IgM ELISA kit. RESULTS: Seropositivity for T. canis was detected in 45 (45.9%) of 98 patients and 2 (2.0%) of 100 control subjects the difference was statistically significant (p 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the schizophrenic state seems to present a high risk for Toxocara infection in Turkey.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxocara/growth & development , Toxocariasis/blood , Turkey/epidemiology
14.
Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull ; 2005 Apr; 31(1): 15-20
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-178

ABSTRACT

The study presents for the first time the blood level of glutamate and aspartate in schizophrenic patients and in normal subjects in Bangladeshi population. The serum level of glutamate and aspartate were measured in thirty newly diagnosed schizophrenic patients and the same number of subjects matching age was taken from non-schizophrenic control. The age group of the patient was between 15 and 45 years and the male female ratio was 2.7:1. Serum concentration of glutamate (598.83 +/- 574.48 nmol/ml) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in schizophrenic group compared to control (196.16 +/- 171.31 nmol/ ml). The serum asparate concentration was also significantly higher in schizophrenic cases (282.91 +/- 299.94 nmol/ml) as compared to control (33.89 +/- 42.68 nmol/ml, p < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between serum glutamate and asparate was significant (p < 0.001). The increased serum glutamate and asparate levels may be the causative or contributing factor in the pathogenesis and progression of schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aspartic Acid/blood , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Excitatory Amino Acids/blood , Female , Glutamic Acid/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia/blood
15.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2004 Jan; 58(1): 3-9
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-65927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have implicated the abnormalities in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmmiter system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. There are also evidences indicating that steroids of central or peripheral origin may modulate GABAergic system through direct interaction with the GABAA receptor complex. These raise the possibility that alternations in serum steroid hormones may contribute to the pathophysiological process in the schizophrenia. AIMS: The purposes of this study were first, to determine whether alternations in steroid serum levels occur in schizophrenic patients, and secondly to determine whether such alternations normalize with clinical improvement. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Serum concentrations of testosterone (T), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) and cortisol (C) were determined in male schizophrenic patients (N = 49) before treatment, during treatment and after recovery and in age-matched healthy male subjects (N = 17). All steroid hormones were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis used: Differences in steroids concentrations between groups were assayed by One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's post hoc test. The level of significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The serum concentrations of E, P and C were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in male schizophrenic patients in all three stages of the study, compared with healthy subjects. Serum concentrations of T were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in male schizophrenic patients before and during treatment, but not after recovery, compared with healthy subjects. These findings support the occurrence of abnormal steroid concentrations in schizophrenic patients and suggest that lower T level in this disorder is related to the illness and normalizes with remission, while trait-related factors may contribute to lower serum E and C levels in schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Estradiol/blood , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Male , Progesterone/blood , Schizophrenia/blood , Testosterone/blood
16.
Neurol India ; 2000 Sep; 48(3): 231-8
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-121446

ABSTRACT

Catabolism of tryptophan and tyrosine in relation to the isoprenoid pathway was studied in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The concentration of trytophan, quinolinic acid, kynurenic acid, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was found to be higher in the plasma of patients with all these disorders; while that of tyrosine, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine was lower. There was increase in free fatty acids and decrease in albumin (factors modulating tryptophan transport) in the plasma of these patients. Concentration of digoxin, a modulator of amino acid transport, and the activity of HMG CoA reductase, which synthesizes digoxin, were higher in these patients; while RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity showed a decrease. Concentration of plasma ubiquinone (part of which is synthesised from tyrosine) and magnesium was also lower in these patients. No morphine could be detected in the plasma of these patients except in MS. On the other hand, strychnine and nicotine were detectable. These results indicate hypercatabolism of tryptophan and hypocatabolism of tyrosine in these disorders, which could be a consequence of the modulating effect of hypothalamic digoxin on amino acid transport.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biogenic Monoamines/blood , Brain Diseases/blood , Brain Neoplasms/blood , Digoxin/analysis , Epilepsy, Generalized/blood , Erythrocytes/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/blood , Female , Glioma/blood , Glycine Agents/blood , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/blood , Kynurenic Acid/blood , Magnesium/analysis , Male , Microvascular Angina/blood , Middle Aged , Morphine/blood , Narcotics/blood , Nicotine/blood , Nicotinic Agonists/blood , Parkinson Disease/blood , Quinolinic Acid/blood , Schizophrenia/blood , Serum Albumin , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/analysis , Strychnine/blood , Tryptophan/blood , Tyrosine/blood , Ubiquinone/analysis
17.
Rev. Hosp. Psiquiátr. La Habana ; 39(2): 126-8, mayo-ago. 1999. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-271140

ABSTRACT

Se realiza una prueba biológica con pruebas de sangre de 30 pacientes esquizofrénicos y 20 controles. Las alteraciones ultrestructurales encontradas en las plaquetas y la presencia de partículas semejantes a virus, son elementos útiles para el diagnóstico, pronóstico, la investigación, epidemiología y medicina forense, ya que nos permite distinguir entre un paciente esquizofrénico y un control y constituye un nuevo elemento a favor de la hipótesis viral de esta enfermedad. Se aplicó una escala de evaluación diagnóstica agrupando todas las alteraciones encontradas relacionándose las mayores puntuaciones a las peores condiciones de la enfermedad, dándonos un rango por encima del cual se considera patológica


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Blood Platelets/ultrastructure , Schizophrenia/blood
18.
Ciudad de La Habana; s.n; 1997. 7 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-186710

ABSTRACT

Alteraciones en la forma y tamano de las plaquetas fueron encontradas en 6 de 9 pacientes esquizofrenicos con la aparicion de grandes cisternas las que contenian particulas con igual morfologia a las particulas virales descritas en trabajos anteriores con tecnicas inmuno-electromicroscopicas en el sistema nervisoso central de pacientes esquizofrenicos fallecidos, fetos de madres esquizofrenicas y animales inoculados con liquido cefalo-raquideo. Se pudo establecer una relacion entre la presencia de estas alteraciones y el periodo critico de la enfermedad. En los pacientes en periodos intercriticos, 3 en total , en los controles sanos y en pacientes portadores de otras patologias, 10 en total, no estuvieron presente, lo cual descarta entre otras posibilidades, la influencia del tratamiento antipsicotico como elemento generador de las mismas y relaciona estas alteraciones con la propia enfermedad


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Platelets/ultrastructure , Schizophrenia/blood
19.
Ciudad de La Habana; s.n; 1997. 8 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-186711

ABSTRACT

Se realiza un estudio ultraestructurall comparativo entre los hallazgos obtenidos en la sangre periferica de pacientes esquizofrenicos y los observados en un estudio similar en la sangre de un nino con autismo infantil. La presencia de vacuolizacion en las plaquetas fue un elemento comun aunque con caracteristicas distintas en cada patologia. Cuerpos de inclusion intranucleares y bacterias relacionadas con particulas semejantes a virus fueron observadas en ambas condiciones patologicas. La ausencia de estudios similares en la literatura mundial destaca la importancia de los resultados obtenidos


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autistic Disorder/blood , Blood Platelets/ultrastructure , Leukocytes/ultrastructure , Schizophrenia/blood
20.
Rev. Hosp. Psiquiátr. La Habana ; 36(1): 13-7, ene.-jun. 1995. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-168983

ABSTRACT

Cuatro proteinas en la plasma, ceruloplasmina haptoglobinas y transferinas), fueron analizadas en un grupo control de cuatro provincias de Costa Rica. No se encontro ningun dato significativo; sin embargo, en la provincia de Cartago fueron encontrados una asociacion positiva en relacion a haptoglobinas (X2-5,01 > p >0,05)


Subject(s)
Albumins/analysis , Ceruloplasmin/analysis , Haptoglobins/analysis , Schizophrenia/blood , Transferrin/analysis
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