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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763819

ABSTRACT

Bar-code (tag) microarrays of yeast gene-deletion collections facilitate the systematic identification of genes required for growth in any condition of interest. Anti-sense strands of amplified bar-codes hybridize with ~10,000 (5,000 each for up- and down-tags) different kinds of sense-strand probes on an array. In this study, we optimized the hybridization processes of an array for fission yeast. Compared to the first version of the array (11 µm, 100K) consisting of three sectors with probe pairs (perfect match and mismatch), the second version (11 µm, 48K) could represent ~10,000 up-/down-tags in quadruplicate along with 1,508 negative controls in quadruplicate and a single set of 1,000 unique negative controls at random dispersed positions without mismatch pairs. For PCR, the optimal annealing temperature (maximizing yield and minimizing extra bands) was 58℃ for both tags. Intriguingly, up-tags required 3× higher amounts of blocking oligonucleotides than down-tags. A 1:1 mix ratio between up- and down-tags was satisfactory. A lower temperature (25℃) was optimal for cultivation instead of a normal temperature (30℃) because of extra temperature-sensitive mutants in a subset of the deletion library. Activation of frozen pooled cells for >1 day showed better resolution of intensity than no activation. A tag intensity analysis showed that tag(s) of 4,316 of the 4,526 strains tested were represented at least once; 3,706 strains were represented by both tags, 4,072 strains by up-tags only, and 3,950 strains by down-tags only. The results indicate that this microarray will be a powerful analytical platform for elucidating currently unknown gene functions.


Subject(s)
Oligonucleotides , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Schizosaccharomyces , Yeasts
2.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 12(1): 17-30, Jun.- 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980670

ABSTRACT

En Schizosaccharomyces pombe se han descrito tres cascadas de MAPKs: la de respuesta feromonas, con Spk1p como MAP kinasa; la de respuesta a estrés en la que Sty1p/Spc1p es la MAPK y la de mantenimiento de la integridad celular liderada por Pmk1p/Spm1p. La eliminación de cualquiera de las kinasas de la ruta de integridad provoca alteraciones morfo-lógicas y células multitabicadas en condiciones de estrés. Todos estos defectos sugieren una función en homeostasis iónica y en la biosíntesis de la pared celular por lo que nos propone-mos estudiar el papel de la ruta de señalización de MAPK Pmk1p en el mantenimiento de la integridad celular en S.pombe. En este trabajo el organismo mayoritariamente utilizado ha sido la levadura de fisión S. pombe y para realizar los trabajos de clonación molecular se utili-zaron también diferentes estirpes de Escherichia coli. Se emplearon diversas técnicas de clonación molecular, métodos genéticos, Western Blot y determinación de la actividad de Pmk1p bajo condiciones de estrés. Las conclusiones más importantes fueron: que los "senso-res" "Mtl2p y Wsc1p" señalizan hacia Rho1p, pero no son componentes "auténticos" de la cascada, y sus mutantes no presentan el fenotipo VIC (viable en presencia de inmunosupresor y de iones cloruro), característico de los mutantes en los componentes de la cascada. Mtl2p y Wsc1p no desempeñan un papel importante en la señalización en respuesta a estrés osmótico y daño en la pared celular a través de la ruta de integridad celular de Pmk1p.


Three cascades of MAPKs have been described about the Schizosaccharomyces pombe such as: the pheromone response with Spk1p as MAP kinase, the stress response in which Sty1p/Spc1p is MAPK, and the maintenance of cell integrity led by Pmk1p/Spm1p. The elimination of any of the kinases of the integrity path causes morphological alterations and multitabicated cells under stress conditions; suggesting a role in ionic homeostasis and cell wall biosynthesis. So, it was proposed to study the role of the MAPK Pmk1p signaling pathway in the maintenance of cell integrity in S.pombe. The organism mainly used was the fission yeast S. pombe and different molecular strains of Escherichia coli were used to carry out the molecular cloning work. Different techniques of molecular cloning, genetic methods, Western Blot and determination of the activity of Pmk1p under stress conditions were used. The most important conclusions were that the "sensors" "Mtl2p and Wsc1p" signal towards Rho1p but they are not "authentic" components of the cascade, and their mutants do not present the Vic phenotype (viable in the presence of immunosuppressant and chloride ion), characteristic of the mutants in the components of the cascade. Mtl2p and Wsc1p do not play an important role in signaling in response to osmotic stress and cell wall damage through the cellular integrity pathway of Pmk1p.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizosaccharomyces , Biomarkers , Cell Wall
3.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 22-29, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714916

ABSTRACT

Incorporation of unique barcodes into fission yeast gene deletion collections has enabled the identification of gene functions by growth fitness analysis. For fine tuning, it is important to examine barcode sequences, because mutations arise during strain construction. Out of 8,708 barcodes (4,354 strains) covering 88.5% of all 4,919 open reading frames, 7,734 barcodes (88.8%) were validated as high-fidelity to be inserted at the correct positions by Sanger sequencing. Sequence examination of the 7,734 high-fidelity barcodes revealed that 1,039 barcodes (13.4%) deviated from the original design. In total, 1,284 mutations (mutation rate of 16.6%) exist within the 1,039 mutated barcodes, which is comparable to budding yeast (18%). When the type of mutation was considered, substitutions accounted for 845 mutations (10.9%), deletions accounted for 319 mutations (4.1%), and insertions accounted for 121 mutations (1.6%). Peculiarly, the frequency of substitutions (67.6%) was unexpectedly higher than in budding yeast (~28%) and well above the predicted error of Sanger sequencing (~2%), which might have arisen during the solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and PCR amplification of the barcodes during strain construction. When the mutation rate was analyzed by position within 20-mer barcodes using the 1,284 mutations from the 7,734 sequenced barcodes, there was no significant difference between up-tags and down-tags at a given position. The mutation frequency at a given position was similar at most positions, ranging from 0.4% (32/7,734) to 1.1% (82/7,734), except at position 1, which was highest (3.1%), as in budding yeast. Together, well-defined barcode sequences, combined with the next-generation sequencing platform, promise to make the fission yeast gene deletion library a powerful tool for understanding gene function.


Subject(s)
DNA , Gene Deletion , Mutation Rate , Open Reading Frames , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saccharomycetales , Schizosaccharomyces
4.
Mycobiology ; : 236-241, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729775

ABSTRACT

The cation-dependent galactose-specific flocculation activity of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe null mutant of lkh1⁺, the gene encoding LAMMER kinase homolog, has previously been reported by our group. Here, we show that disruption of prk1⁺, another flocculation associated regulatory kinase encoding gene, also resulted in cation-dependent galactose-specific flocculation. Deletion of prk1 increased the flocculation phenotype of the lkh1⁺ null mutant and its overexpression reversed the flocculation of cells caused by lkh1 deletion. Transcript levels of prk1⁺ were also decreased by lkh1⁺ deletion. Cumulatively, these results indicate that Lkh1 is one of the negative regulators acting upstream of Prk1, regulating non-sexual flocculation in fission yeast.


Subject(s)
Flocculation , Phenotype , Phosphotransferases , Schizosaccharomyces
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 152-157
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158403

ABSTRACT

In systemic therapy, chemotherapeutic drugs, often, cause considerable side effects; and combination of natural compounds lessen the extent of such effects. In the present study, combined effect of citral and 5-fluorouracil was studied in Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells. The antagonistic combination index found was at 0.01 and 0.025 mM of citral with 40 µg or higher concentration of 5-fluorouracil. The combined treatment was so effective that higher number of cells underwent apoptosis compared to individual treatment of 5-fluorouracil. Citral controlled ROS levels and increased survival of normal cells. Several differentially expressed proteins observed in the citral treatment could further help understanding its mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fluorouracil/antagonists & inhibitors , Fluorouracil/toxicity , Fungal Proteins/analysis , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Schizosaccharomyces/drug effects , Schizosaccharomyces/growth & development , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolism
6.
Mycobiology ; : 272-279, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729636

ABSTRACT

To screen molecular chaperones similar to small heat shock proteins (sHsps), but without alpha-crystalline domain, heat-stable proteins from Schizosaccharomyces pombe were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sixteen proteins were identified, and four recombinant proteins, including cofilin, NTF2, pyridoxin biosynthesis protein (Snz1) and Wos2 that has an alpha-crystalline domain, were purified. Among these proteins, only Snz1 showed the anti-aggregation activity against thermal denaturation of citrate synthase. However, pre-heating of NTF2 and Wos2 at 70degrees C for 30 min, efficiently prevented thermal aggregation of citrate synthase. These results indicate that Snz1 and NTF2 possess molecular chaperone activity similar to sHsps, even though there is no alpha-crystalline domain in their sequences.


Subject(s)
alpha-Crystallins , Citrate (si)-Synthase , Electrophoresis , Heat-Shock Proteins, Small , Mass Screening , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Chaperones , Pyridoxine , Recombinant Proteins , Schizosaccharomyces
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 411-419, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757492

ABSTRACT

Genetic information stored in DNA is accurately copied and transferred to subsequent generations through DNA replication. This process is accomplished through the concerted actions of highly conserved DNA replication components. Epigenetic information stored in the form of histone modifications and DNA methylation, constitutes a second layer of regulatory information important for many cellular processes, such as gene expression regulation, chromatin organization, and genome stability. During DNA replication, epigenetic information must also be faithfully transmitted to subsequent generations. How this monumental task is achieved remains poorly understood. In this review, we will discuss recent advances on the role of DNA replication components in the inheritance of epigenetic marks, with a particular focus on epigenetic regulation in fission yeast. Based on these findings, we propose that specific DNA replication components function as key regulators in the replication of epigenetic information across the genome.


Subject(s)
Cdc20 Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Centromere , Metabolism , Chromatin , Metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone , Metabolism , DNA Replication , DNA, Fungal , Metabolism , Epigenesis, Genetic , Histones , Metabolism , Schizosaccharomyces , Genetics , Metabolism , Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
8.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-12, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and their products give rise to complex circuits known as gene regulatory networks (GRN) that enable cells to process information and respond to external stimuli. Several important processes for life, depend of an accurate and context-specific regulation of gene expression, such as the cell cycle, which can be analyzed through its GRN, where deregulation can lead to cancer in animals or a directed regulation could be applied for biotechnological processes using yeast. An approach to study the robustness of GRN is through the neutral space. In this paper, we explore the neutral space of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cell cycle network through an evolution strategy to generate a neutral graph, composed of Boolean regulatory networks that share the same state sequences of the fission yeast cell cycle. RESULTS: Through simulations it was found that in the generated neutral graph, the functional networks that are not in the wildtype connected component have in general a Hamming distance more than 3 with the wildtype, and more than 10 between the other disconnected functional networks. Significant differences were found between the functional networks in the connected component of the wildtype network and the rest of the network, not only at a topological level, but also at the state space level, where significant differences in the distribution of the basin of attraction for the G1 fixed point was found for deterministic updating schemes. CONCLUSIONS: In general, functional networks in the wildtype network connected component, can mutate up to no more than 3 times, then they reach a point of no return where the networks leave the connected component of the wildtype. The proposed method to construct a neutral graph is general and can be used to explore the neutral space of other biologically interesting networks, and also formulate new biological hypotheses studying the functional networks in the wildtype network connected component.


Subject(s)
Schizosaccharomyces/physiology , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Gene Regulatory Networks/physiology , Models, Biological , Schizosaccharomyces/genetics , Computer Graphics , Computer Simulation , G1 Phase/physiology , Neural Networks, Computer , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Computational Biology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351534

ABSTRACT

The flocculating yeast strain SPSC01 is a fusant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The use of SPSC01 to absorb Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) containing aqueous solution would greatly reduce the cost of post-adsorption separation, since the superior flocculating property of SPSC01 would allow easy separation of the Cr(VI)-biomass from the solution. In order to investigate the effects of flocculating proteins on Cr(VI) reduction and absorption by SPSC01, the absorption behaviors of SPSC01 and its parental strains were compared. The results showed that Cr(VI) removal rate of SPSC01 was almost the same as that of S. pombe, which also has flocculating ability, but was faster than that of S. cerevisiae, which has no flocculating ability. When the system reached equilibrium, the amount of total Cr adsorbed by S. pombe, SPSC01 and S. cerevisiae were 68.8%, 48.6% and 37.5%, respectively. This showed that flocculation was beneficial to Cr(VI) reduction and adsorption, and suggested that focculating proteins may play a role in enhancing the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of SPSC01 and S. pombe. We investigated the mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption by SPSC01 using chemical modification and FTIR. The results indicated that the major functional groups (amino, carboxyl and amide) of surface proteins may contribute to the absorption of Cr(VI).


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromium , Flocculation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Metabolism , Schizosaccharomyces , Metabolism , Surface Properties , Water Pollutants, Chemical
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1019-1024, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292176

ABSTRACT

This research aimed to study the effect of distillage recycling on ethanol fermentation, the key glycolytic enzymes and cell composition of the self-flocculating yeast. With the self-flocculating yeast SPSC01 and medium composed of 220 g/L glucose, 8 g/L yeast extract and 6 g/L peptone, continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out at the dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1) with a 1.5 L tank bioreactor. Fermentation broth was collected every 3 days, and ethanol and other volatile byproducts were removed by distillation, but the stillage with high boiling byproducts was recycled to prepare the medium instead of fresh water. The system was run for 20 days, during which ethanol and biomass concentrations in the effluent decreased continuously, indicating the significant inhibition of the high boiling byproducts accumulated within the system. Thus, the activities of the key enzymes of the glycolytic pathway: hexokinase, 6-phosphofructose kinase, and pyruvate kinase were analyzed, and it was observed that all of them were inhibited. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of the stress response metabolites glycerol and trehalose was investigated, and it was found that glycerol production that can protect yeast cells against osmotic pressure stress was enhanced, but trehalose biosynthesis that can protect yeast cells against ethanol inhibition was not improved, correspondingly. And in the meantime, the biosynthesis of the major intracellular components proteins and hydrocarbons was adjusted, correspondingly.


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Microbiology , Ethanol , Metabolism , Fermentation , Flocculation , Glycerol , Metabolism , Glycolysis , Hexokinase , Metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Phosphofructokinase-1 , Metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Genetics , Metabolism , Schizosaccharomyces , Genetics , Metabolism , Trehalose , Metabolism , Triticum , Metabolism , Zea mays , Metabolism
11.
Mycobiology ; : 108-112, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729537

ABSTRACT

To investigate the possible roles of LAMMER kinase homologue, Lkh1, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, whole proteins were extracted from wild type and lkh1-deletion mutant cells and subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and were compared with a protein database. In whole-cell extracts, 10 proteins were up-regulated and 9 proteins were down-regulated in the mutant. In extracellular preparations, 6 proteins were up-regulated in the lkh1 + null mutant and 4 proteins successfully identified: glycolipid anchored surface precursor, beta-glucosidase (Psu1), cell surface protein, glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase (Bgl2), and exo-1,3 beta-glucanase (Exg1). These results suggest that Lkh1 is involved in regulating cell wall assembly.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , beta-Glucosidase , Cell Wall , Databases, Protein , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase , Phosphotransferases , Proteins , Proteome , Schizosaccharomyces , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
J Genet ; 2009 Apr; 88(1): 33-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114423

ABSTRACT

The Neurospora crassa fmf-1 mutation exerts an unusual 'perithecium-dominant' developmental arrest; fmf-1 x fmf-1+ cross becomes arrested in perithecial development regardless of whether the mutant participates in the cross as the male or female parent. We localized fmf-1 to the LG IL genome segment between the centromere-proximal breakpoint of the chromosome segment duplication Dp(IL)39311 and the centromere. By mapping crossovers with respect to RFLP markers in this region we further localized fmf-1 to an approximately 34-kb-genome segment. Partial sequencing of this segment revealed a point mutation in the gene NCU 09387.1, a homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ste11+ regulator of sexual development. The fmf-1 mutation did not complement a NCU 09387.1 deletion mutation, and transformation with wild-type NCU 09387.1 complemented fmf-1. S. pombe Ste11 protein (Ste11p) is a transcription factor required for sexual differentiation and for the expression of genes required for mating pheromone signalling in matP and matM cells. If FMF-1 also plays a corresponding role in mating pheromone signalling in Neurospora, then protoperithecia in an fmf-1 x fmf-1+ cross would be unable to either send or receive sexual differentiation signals and thus become arrested in development.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Genome, Fungal , Models, Genetic , Mutation , Neurospora crassa/genetics , Schizosaccharomyces/genetics , Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254147

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Goal of this study was to test the potential regulatory effects of Vpr on Vif and Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Vpr effect was first tested in a fission yeast RE007 strain that carries a single integrated copy of vpr gene in the chromosome and transformed with a vif-expressing plasmid. Similar tests were also carried out in a muristerone A vpr-inducing HEK293 mammalian cell line that were transfected with the plasmids expressing vif and/or APOBEC3G. Western Blot analyses were used to measure the corresponding protein levels under different experimental conditions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Expression of HIV-1 vpr appears to enhance the protein levels of Vif both in fission yeast and mammalian cells. A similar enhancement effect of APOBEC3G by Vpr was also detected in mammalian cells. Interestingly, however, the increased Vif protein level by Vpr did not result in more APOBEC3G degradation than without Vpr, indicating a potential regulatory effect of Vpr on Vif-mediated proteolysis of APOBEC3G.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a potentially conserved and regulatory effect of HIV-1 Vpr on Vif and Vif-mediated protein degradation of APOBEC3G.</p>


Subject(s)
APOBEC-3G Deaminase , Animals , Cell Line , Cytidine Deaminase , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Gene Products, vif , Metabolism , Gene Products, vpr , Metabolism , HIV-1 , Humans , Schizosaccharomyces , Genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 592-597, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342865

ABSTRACT

One pair of primers were designed and synthesized on the base of the cDNA sequence encoding Schizosaccharomyces pombe N-glycanase reported on the GenBank. The cDNA sequence encoding Peptide N-glycanase was cloned from the Schizosaccharomyces pombe by RT-PCR. And then the RT-PCR product was cloned into the expression vector pET-15b. The expression vector pET-15b(+)/Png1p was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). The results showed that the relative molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be approximately 39 kD using SDS-PAGE. The expression products after induction and purification can catalyze the cleavage of N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoprotein coped with heat, but have no action on the native glycoprotein with the help of DTT. The percentage of deglycosylated RNase B treated with equate Png1p in different reaction temperature, pH, concentration of DTT and denatured temperature showed that the optimum temperature, the optimum pH is 30 degrees C; the optimum concentration of DTT is 10 mmol/L and the optimum denatured temperature is 100 degrees C.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Metabolism , Glycosylation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase , Genetics , Metabolism , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Schizosaccharomyces , Genetics , Temperature
15.
J Genet ; 2007 Aug; 86(2): 139-48
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114337

ABSTRACT

Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) elements are the genetic determinants of replication origin function in yeasts. They can be easily identified as the plasmids containing them transform yeast cells at a high frequency. As the first step towards identifying all potential replication origins in a 73-kb region of the long arm of fission yeast chromosome II, we have mapped five new ARS elements using systematic subcloning and transformation assay. 2D analysis of one of the ARS plasmids that showed highest transformation frequency localized the replication origin activity within the cloned genomic DNA. All the new ARS elements are localized in two clusters in centromere proximal 40 kb of the region. The presence of at least six ARS elements, including the previously reported ars727, is suggestive of a higher origin density in this region than that predicted earlier using a computer based search.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Mapping , Chromosomes, Fungal , DNA Replication/genetics , Models, Biological , Plasmids/analysis , Replication Origin , Schizosaccharomyces/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
16.
J Biosci ; 2007 Jan; 32(1): 145-55
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111317

ABSTRACT

Many databases propose their own structure and format to provide data describing biological processes. This heterogeneity contributes to the difficulty of large systematic and automatic functional comparisons. To overcome these problems, we have used the BioPsi formal description scheme which allows multi-level representations of biological process information. Applied to the description of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), we show that BioPsi allows the formal integration of functional information existing in current databases and make them available for further automated analysis. In addition such a formal TCA cycle process description leads to a more accurate biological process annotation which takes in account the biological context. This enables us to perform an automated comparison of the TCA cycles for seven different species based on processes rather than protein sequences. From current databases, BioPsi is able to unravel information that are already known by the biologists but are not available for automated analysis tools and simulation software, because of the lack of formal process descriptions. This use of the BioPsi description scheme to describe the TCA cycle was a key step of the MitoScop project that aims to describe and simulate mitochondrial metabolism in silico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans/enzymology , Citric Acid Cycle , Databases, Protein , Drosophila melanogaster/enzymology , Humans , Mice , Mitochondria/enzymology , Rats , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology , Schizosaccharomyces/enzymology , Software
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2006 Jun; 43(3): 143-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26850

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of inositol addition on maltase activity and expression of MAL1+ gene encoding maltase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe were investigated. The maximum specific maltase activity was observed, when the concentration of inositol reached 6.0 microg/ml in the synthetic medium containing 2.0% glucose. At 1.0 microg/ml inositol concentration, the maltase activity continuously decreased, as initial glucose concentration was higher than 0.1%. mRNA encoding maltase and phosphatidylinositol (PI) content were higher in the cells grown in the synthetic medium with 6.0 microg/ml of inositol and 2.0% glucose than those with 1.0 microg/ml of inositol. These results demonstrated that higher inositol concentration in the synthetic medium could derepress MAL1+ gene expression in S. pombe and PI might be involved in derepression of MAL1+ gene expression in S. pombe probably by PI-type signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal/drug effects , Genes, Fungal , Glucose/pharmacology , Inositol/pharmacology , Phospholipids/biosynthesis , Schizosaccharomyces/drug effects , alpha-Glucosidases/genetics
18.
Genet. mol. biol ; 29(3): 551-557, 2006. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-450297

ABSTRACT

The gua1 gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which catalyses the first step in de novo biosynthesis of guanosine monophosphate (GMP), was cloned in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by functional complementation of a gua1ura4-D18 mutant strain from a S. pombe DNA genomic library. Complementation analysis revealed a 1.2 kb fragment which segregation analysis confirmed did not code for a suppressor gene. Only 446 nucleotides of the gua1 gene encoding the IMPDH C-terminal residues were found within this 1.2 kb sequence (GenBank, AJ293460). The comparison of this wild-type fragment with the same fragment from the gua1ura4-D18 mutant revealed that there was a point mutation at position 1261 (guanine -> adenine) from the 5' end, corresponding to the amino acid residue 421 (glycine -> serine) of the enzyme. Dot and Northern analyses showed that the gua1 gene was expressed in transformants as well as in the wild-type and the gua1ura4-D18 mutant, but enzyme activity was only detected in wild-type and transformant cells. It seems likely that a 446 bp fragment from the 3' end of the gua1 gene abolished the point mutation in the mutant strain, suggesting that this fragment participates in the sequences encoding the active domain of IMPDH in S. pombe.


Subject(s)
Inosine Monophosphate , Schizosaccharomyces/genetics , Yeasts/genetics , Purine Nucleotides
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 113-117, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270138

ABSTRACT

A continuous ethanol fermentation system composed of four-stage tank fermentors in series and with a total working volume of 4000 mL was established. The first fermentor was designated as the seed fermentor and the others for ethanol fermentation. A self-flocculating yeast strain developed by protoplast fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe was applied. Two-stage corn powder enzymatic hydrolyzate containing reducing sugar 100 g/L, together with 2.0 g/L (NH4)2HPO4 and KH2PO4, was used as yeast seed culture medium and fed into the seed fermentor at the dilution rate of 0.017h (-1). Meanwhile, the hydrolyzate containing reducing sugar 220 g/L, added with 1.5 g/L (NH4)2HPO4 and 2.5 g/L KH2PO4, was used as ethanol fermentation substrate and fed into the second fermentor at the dilution rates of 0.017, 0.025, 0.033, 0.040 and 0.050 h(-1) (based on the total working volume of the three fermentors), respectively. The chemostat states on which all of the monitoring parameters, including residual sugar, ethanol and yeast cell biomass concentrations, were maintained relatively constant were observed for seed cultivation and ethanol fermentations when the fermentation system was operated at the dilution rates of 0.017, 0.025, 0.033 and 0.050 h(-1). Yeast cells were observed being partly immobilized because significant yeast cell biomass concentration differences between the broth out of and inside the fermentors were detected. Moreover, the oscillations of residual sugar, ethanol and yeast cell biomass concentrations were observed when the fermentation system was operated at the dilution rate of 0.040 h(-1). The broth containing more than 12% (V/V) ethanol and less than 0.11% (W/V) residual reducing sugar and 0.35% (W/V) residual total sugar was produced when the dilution rate was controlled at no more than 0.033 h(-1). The ethanol productivity was calculated to be 3.32(g x L(-1) x h(-1)) for the dilution rate of 0.033 h(-1), which increased nearly 100% compared with that for conventional ethanol fermentation technologies using freely suspended yeast cells.


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Microbiology , Carbohydrates , Ethanol , Metabolism , Fermentation , Flocculation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Metabolism , Schizosaccharomyces , Metabolism , Zea mays , Metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 123-128, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270136

ABSTRACT

Investigation was undertaken for the purpose of examining any possible correlation between flocculence of a self-flocculating fusant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant (called fusant SPSC for short) and the tolerance of this strain to ethanol. When exposed to 18% (V/V) ethanol for 7 h at 30 degrees C, 52%, 37% and 9% of viability levels remained for the cells of fusant SPSC and its two parental strains, Sch. pombe mutant and S. cerevisiae mutant respectively. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma membrane showed that the content of palmitic acid of each flocculating yeast (fusant SPSC or Sch. pombe mutant) was around 2-fold higher than that of free S. cerevisiae mutant, with remarkably lower contents of palmitoleic and oleic acids than the latter. When 0.1 mol/L sodium citrate was initially included in the medium in which cells of each flocculating yeast were grown, free cells rather than aggregates were finally obtained. Furthermore, the content of palmitic acid in the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the plasma membranes of the free cells of each flocculating yeast was found to decrease significantly, with a marked increase in the contents of palmitoleic and oleic acids. As a result, the characteristics of the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the plasma membranes of the free cells of each flocculating yeast were similar to those of S. cerevisiae mutant. Meanwhile, the disappearance of flocculence of each flocculating yeast caused by the action of sodium citrate brought about a steeply decreased tolerance of the free cells to ethanol, thus being equivalent to that of S. cerevisiae mutant. These data suggest that the stronger ethanol tolerance of each flocculating yeast is related to the higher content of palmitic acid in the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the plasma membranes. Thus, the enhancement by flocculence on the tolerance of yeast cells to ethanol as well as its mechanism are first reported in this work.


Subject(s)
Bioreactors , Microbiology , Carbohydrates , Cell Membrane , Metabolism , Drug Tolerance , Ethanol , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Fatty Acids , Metabolism , Fermentation , Flocculation , Phospholipids , Metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Metabolism , Schizosaccharomyces , Metabolism , Zea mays , Metabolism
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