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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 7-20, dic.2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117892

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio fue realizado para desarrollar una reflexión crítica acerca de la formación médica en la Venezuela del siglo XXI, interpretando realidades y consecuencias desde las voces de médicos expertos y jóvenes graduados formados en la Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). Es un estudio desde el paradigma cualitativo en la modalidad crítica interpretativa, la ruta metodológica fue la hermenéutica crítica y el análisis crítico del discurso. Se utilizó el muestreo intencional y la entrevista para recopilar la narrativa de los actores sociales, categorizándola e interpretándola contrastando voces de actores, teóricos y el autor como instrumento heurístico. Los resultados indican que la formación médica socializa el paradigma biomédico cuantitativo como opción única y válida en la producción de conocimiento y en el mundo académico, con un enfoque evolucionista, organicista, positivista y racional que fragmenta al ser humano. Esta formación académica se cumple en un sistema educativo dual: las universidades autónomas y la universidad bolivariana revolucionaria, con profundas diferencias entre ellas que generan perfiles de egresados contradictorios. La formación del futuro médico implica desarrollar el saber, el saber hacer, saber ser profesional y saber convivir. En conclusión, la formación médica debe cumplirse en centros universitarios calificados y certificados; sus egresados deben ser de alto perfil científico, tecnológico y humanístico los cuales deben dar respuestas pertinentes y oportunas a los problemas de salud de la población venezolana(AU)


This study was conducted to develop a reflective critic about medical training in Venezuela in the 21st century interpreting thoughts from the voices of expert doctors and young graduates from the Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). This is a qualitative sociocritical study using critical hermeneutics and critical analysis of speech. Intentional sampling and interviewing was used to collect the narrative of the medical professionals. The results shows that medical training socializes the quantitative biomedical paradigm as the only valid option in the production of knowledge and in the academic world, with an evolutionist, organicist, rational and positivist approach, which divides the human being in parts. In Venezuela, a dual educational system exists: autonomous universities and the Bolivarian University with deep differences between them, which generate conflicting graduate profiles. Training of the future doctors implies developing medical knowledge, the know-how, learning how to be a professional and coexist with others. In conclusion, medical training must be performed in qualified and certified university centers; their graduates should have high scientific, technological and humanistic profiles which will allow them to provide pertinent and timely answers to the health problems of the Venezuelan population(AU)


Subject(s)
Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , General Practice , Venezuela , Programs of Study , History of Medicine
2.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 204, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103539

ABSTRACT

Como parte de la evaluación de la asignatura Bioética e Investigación de la Maestría en Bioética, se solicitó a los estudiantes de la VI Cohorte que realizarán un análisis comparativo de las Pautas CIOMS 2016 con documentos anteriores. En esta segunda parte, se presentan las pautas relacionadas con el consentimiento informado, la recolección, almacenamiento y uso de materiales biológicos y datos relacionados, así como la rendición pública de cuentas y la publicación de las investigaciones. Estas pautas son fundamentales para la realización de investigaciones científicas en seres humanos por eso el objetivo de estos trabajos es proporcionar a los investigadores un aporte en su formación y una rápida adaptación a la nueva propuesta CIOMS(AU)


As part of the evaluation of the Bioethics and Research subject of the Master in Bioethics, students of the VI Cohort were asked to make a comparative analysis of the CIOMS 2016 Guidelines with previous documents. In this second part, the guidelines related to informed consent, collection, storage and use of biological materials and related data, as well as public accountability and publication of research are presented. These guidelines are fundamental for carrying out scientific research on human beings, and for this reason the objective of this work is to provide researchers with a contribution in their training and a rapid adaptation to the new CIOMS proposal(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bioethics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Biomedical Research/standards , Informed Consent , Patient Advocacy , Schools, Medical , Human Rights
4.
Edumecentro ; 12(2): 212-216, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090027

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La medicina basada en la evidencia es un paradigma no tan nuevo en teoría pero sí en la práctica. Su aplicación en las áreas de salud es garantía de mejora en la atención del paciente, y en los centros educativos de nivel superior fortalece la competencia de búsqueda, lectura crítica y evaluación de la evidencia ante un caso clínico por los estudiantes; a pesar de ello aún no se logra posicionar debido a que existe cierta resistencia por los que consideran más efectiva la medicina basada en la experiencia. Por lo expuesto, la presente comunicación ofrece un panorama sobre la necesidad de concientizar la eficacia de la práctica médica basada en la evidencia en los ámbitos asistencial y educativo.


ABSTRACT Evidence-based medicine is not a new paradigm in theory but in practice. Its application in the areas of health is a guarantee of improvement in patient care, and in the higher level educational centers it strengthens the competence of searching, critical reading and evaluation of the evidence before a clinical case by the students; in spite of this, it is still not possible to position it because there is some resistance for those who consider the medicine based on experience more effective. Therefore, the present research paper offers an overview of the need to raise awareness of the efficacy of evidence-based medical practice in the medical care and education fields.


Subject(s)
Medicine , Schools, Medical , Evidence-Based Medicine , Education, Medical
5.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 23(8): 619-625, abr. 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100608

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite the great contribution of women to health systems, men still occupy most leadership positions. The gender gap in leadership roles in healthcare is prevalent worldwide. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that analyses the distribution of the types of appointments defined by hierarchy, duration of employment, and percentage of FTE and the positions occupied by women faculty compared with male counterparts. The unit of analysis corresponds to faculty positions in 2018 since each faculty can have more than one position with different hierarchy, duration, and percentage of FTE. We used logistic multivariate analysis to assess associations, considering the model with the lowest AIC. Results: Age group 31 to 50 years (AOR: 0.66; IC 95%: 0.50-0.87) and FTE appointments (AOR: 0.43; IC 95%: 0.29- 0.64) are significantly associated with positions assigned to women. For appointment type defined by hierarchy TA, is significantly occupied by a female when compared to each group of increased hierarchy, Assistant professor (AOR: 1.39; IC 95%: 1.14-1.70), Associate professor (AOR: 2.67: IC 95%: 1.95- 3.67), Full professor (AOR: 3.47; IC 95%: 2.27-5.30) and authorities (AOR: 5.57; IC 95%: 3.53-8.79). Conclusions: There is almost no representation of women in the highest-ranking positions, which are associated with academic recognition, decision-making, and higher pay. The higher prevalence of full-time positions occupied by women could be linked to women still being responsible for household and family tasks


Introducción: A pesar de la gran contribución de las mujeres a los sistemas de salud, a nivel mundial los hombres son mayoría en los puestos de liderazgo. A nivel mundial, la brecha de género en los cargos de liderazgo en atención médica es persistente. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal que analiza la distribución de los tipos de cargos docentes ocupados por mujeres de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Buenos Aires según jerarquía, dedicación y regularidad, comparados con su contraparte masculina. La unidad de análisis corresponde a las posiciones, ya que cada docente puede tener más de un cargo. Usamos regresión logística considerando el modelo con el AIC más bajo. Resultados: Grupo de edad de 31 a 50 años (ORA: 0.66; IC 95%: 0.50 a 0.87) y la dedicación exclusiva (ORA: 0.43; IC 95%: 0.29 a 0.64) están significativamente asociados con posiciones ocupadas por mujeres. Para el tipo de cargos definidos por jerarquía, "ayudante de cátedra" está ocupado significativamente por mujeres, en comparación con cada grupo de jerarquía creciente, Jefe de Trabajos Prácticos (ORA: 1.39; IC 95%: 1.14 a 1.70), Profesor Adjunto (ORA: 2.67; IC 95%: 1.95 a 3.67), Profesor Titular (ORA: 3.47; IC 95%: 2.27 a 5.30) y autoridades (ORA: 5.57; IC 95%: 3.53 a 8.79). Conclusiones: Escasa representación femenina en los puestos de mayor rango asociados con reconocimiento académico, toma de decisiones y mejor salario. La dedicación exclusiva en las mujeres podría estar relacionada con que ellas que siguen siendo responsables de las tareas domésticas y familiares


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical , Education, Medical/trends , Faculty , Gender Inequality , Gender Identity , Governing Board
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-810948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To help medical students learn anatomy effectively in limited hours, a regional anatomy book enhancing students' memorization was developed.METHODS: Only anatomical terms essential for basic cadaver dissection are included along with schematic figures which enable memorization of complicated anatomical structures. Learning comics and comic strips that depict anatomy mnemonics and jokes were appended and sentences were written to be comfortably readable. The electronic book titled “Visually Memorable Regional Anatomy” has been distributed without payment or registration. With the help of 246 volunteer students from three Korean medical schools, the book's learning effects were evaluated.RESULTS: These students' book reading led to increase in their anatomy scores, including written examination scores and tag examination scores. It was an encouraging result that almost 20% of students spontaneously read the book no matter who presented their lecture or examination. A webpage version of the book was visited by thousands of users.CONCLUSION: The book with unique features may suggest a new perspective in the field of anatomy learning. After having acquaintance with essential structures from reading the book, students are able to and willing to study more from other resources.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Regional , Books, Illustrated , Cadaver , Education , Humans , Internet , Learning , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Volunteers
7.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30: e-30102, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1118156

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O curso de Medicina da Universidade Estadual de Londrina no ano de 2013 completou 15 anos da implantaçao do ensino por problemática, uma metodologia de ensino ativa. A cada ano, 80 estudantes ingressam no curso, por meio do vestibular, sistema de seleçao que tem sofrido alteraçoes em seu formato como a implementaçao e ampliaçao da política de cotas raciais e sociais. Objetivo: analisar o perfil socioeconômico e educacional dos estudantes ingressantes no curso de Medicina da UEL entre os anos de 2004 e 2013. Metodologia: Pesquisa descritiva do tipo documental, com abordagem quantitativa, pela análise das informaçoes do questionário respondido pelos estudantes ingressantes no curso de medicina. Resultados e discussoes: Verificou-se taxas crescentes do ingresso de estudantes do sexo feminino, em especial no ano de 2006 com predomínio de 59,3% de mulheres, confirmando o fenômeno da "feminilizaçao da profissao médica". A renda familiar até 2012, na média, girava em torno de 7 a 10 salários mínimos, situaçao que se modificou em 2013, ano do acréscimo na porcentagem das cotas para estudantes de escola pública e racial, apresentando a renda de 1 a 3 salários mínimos. O acesso à internet pelos ingressantes é um instrumento de comunicaçao corriqueiro, o que vem potencializar o método de ensino preconizado. Conclusao: Reconhecer o perfil do estudante ingressante pode contribuir na formaçao qualificada, por meio de estratégias, que visem ao melhor aproveitamento e adaptaçao do discente durante o curso de graduaçao e consequentemente no alcance do profissional delineado e necessário ao mundo da saúde da atualidade. (AU)


Introduction: The medical school at the State University of Londrina in 2013 completed 15 years of the implementation of education for problem (PBL), an active teaching methodology. Every year 80 students enter the course through the college entrance examination, selection system that has undergone changes in its format as the implementation and expansion of the policy of racial and social quotas. Objective: To analyze the socio-economic and educational profile of freshmen in medical school UEL between the years 2004 and 2013. Methodology: The data collected from information derived from the questionnaire responses answered by the students in income in the course of medicine. Results and discussion: There was increasing rates of admission of female students, especially in 2006 with a prevalence of 59.3% of women confirms the phenomenon of "feminization of the medical profession" Family income by 2012 on. average was around 7 to 10 minimum wages, a situation that changed in 2013, the increase in the percentage of shares to public and racial school students, with income from 1 to 3 minimum wages. internet access is a everyday communication tool, which comes enhance the recommended teaching method. Conclusion: Recognizing the newcomer student profile can contribute to skills training, through strategies that aim to better use and adaptation of the student during the undergraduate course and consequently the scope of the outlined professional and necessary in the world of today's health. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Socioeconomic Analysis , Schools, Medical , Students , Students, Medical , Women , Medicine
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786177

ABSTRACT

Physicians play a central role in the fields of medical service, research, and industry, so it is imperative to produce well-qualified doctors. Medicine is composed of science and arts, both necessary for its practice, and thus, the education outcomes in basic medical education in a medical school include basic biomedical sciences, social sciences and clinical sciences. Adequate science competencies create a deeper and better understanding of scientific knowledge, concepts, and methods fundamental to clinical science, and contribute to the scientific, technological, and clinical developments. The science competencies are primarily obtained by studying basic medicine in basic medical education, which has been criticized for failing to do so sufficiently in Korea. The failure is attributed to insufficient education time, teachers, and budgets, but the most critical factor is the lack of awareness regarding the importance of the science competencies of the physicians. Such ignorance also affects the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE). The KMLE tests competency in clinical sciences, preventive medicine, and medical laws, but not in basic biomedical sciences, which might result in insufficient science competency of the physicians and a decrease in the overall quality of the medical health service. Tests must be urgently introduced in KMLE on the competencies of basic biomedical sciences to improve the science competency of the physicians. The representative organizations of the medical society should take vigorous actions for the introduction of the basic medicine examination in KMLE.


Subject(s)
Budgets , Education , Education, Medical , Fibrinogen , Health Services , Jurisprudence , Korea , Licensure , Preventive Medicine , Schools, Medical , Social Sciences , Societies, Medical
9.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 6(2): 61-72, jun.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1118338

ABSTRACT

La evolución de la educación médica en América tiene un momento clave en la historia, definido con el estudio de las escuelas de medicina de Estados Unidos y Canadá realizado por Abraham Flexner en 1910, el cual dividió en su momento a la educación médica en una etapa pre-flexneriana y post-flexneriana. Este estudio caracterizó al sistema educativo médico en Estados Unidos como un sistema deficiente, carente de regulación y sin estándares establecidos. La medicina, enseñada y ejercida con pocos principios científicos representaba un importante problema de salud y seguridad poblacional. Ante este panorama, la Asociación Americana de Medicina decide promover una evaluación de la mayoría de las escuelas de medicina con el fin de proponer cambios en el sistema educativo médico. Flexner, un teórico educativo, realiza el análisis curricular, de evaluación y prácticas ejercidas en 155 centros educativos. De su reporte se desprende la propuesta conocida como Revolución Flexneriana la cual hace tambalear el sistema educativo médico en Norteamérica en 1910. Enfatizando falta de estandarización, integración, investigación y deficiencia de la formación de médicos con identidad profesional, Flexner propuso cambios que en su momento llegaron a regir la enseñanza de los médicos en Norteamérica. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica utilizando búsqueda manual en PubMed y Google Scholar para hacer descripcion de los aspectos históricos de la educación médica en Norteamérica, su influencia en Latinoamérica y la prevalencia actual de la integración curricular en muchas escuelas de medicina...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Medical/history , Educational Measurement , Schools, Medical/ethics , Students, Medical/history
10.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 132(2): 32-35, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1026360

ABSTRACT

país, es estatal y gratuita y su matrícula supera los 300.000 alumnos. La Facultad de Medicina de la UBA concentra el mayor número de estudiantes de carreras universitarias dedicadas al estudio de la salud humana en la Argentina. El término "deserción universitaria" es utilizado para describir el comportamiento de los alumnos que abandonaron los estudios, sin reparar en las razones o circunstancias que determinaron el abandono. Presentamos un análisis cuantitativo del número de ingresantes y egresados de la carrera de Medicina y proponemos iniciar el debate sobre las causas de la deserción universitaria en nuestra carrera.


The University of Buenos Aires (UBA) integrates the university system of our country, is state and free and its enrollment exceeds 300,000 students. The Faculty of Medicine of the UBA concentrates the largest number of university students dedicated to the study of human health in Argentina. The term "college desertion" is used to describe the behavior of students who dropped out of school, regardless of the reasons or circumstances that led to the abandonment. We present a quantitative analysis of the number of entrants and graduates of the Medicine career and we propose to start the debate on the causes of the university dropout in our career.


Subject(s)
Schools, Medical , Student Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Academic Failure
13.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 326-340, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1013402

ABSTRACT

Abstract "Bad news", defined as information with huge emotional valence and potential to change personal perspectives, is, by definition, a challenge for physicians. However, the subject is not always taught in medical schools. This systematic literature review compiles all articles regarding communication of bad news after researching in databases for "medical school" and "bad news" in English, Portuguese and Spanish. The criterion was to include articles that elucidated about teaching techniques. From all 313 papers, we included 27 and classified their strategies. Most results showed that mixed strategies are more common and that, in general, the subject is well-received and appreciated by students, who reported an improvement in communicative capability after the training. We conclude that all techniques are valid and medical schools should focus on integrating this training in their regular curriculum.


Resumen "Mala noticia", definida como una información que conlleva un gran peso emocional y tiene el potencial de cambiar las perspectivas personales; constituye un desafío para los médicos. Sin embargo, este tema no siempre es enseñado en las facultades de medicina. Esta revisión sistemática de la literatura compila todos los artículos encontrados sobre la comunicación de malas noticias luego de buscar "medical school" y "bad news", en inglés, portugués y español, en bases de datos. El criterio empleado fue incluir artículos que tratasen sobre técnicas de enseñanza. De los 313 artículos, incluimos 27 y clasificamos sus estrategias. La mayoría de los resultados mostró que las estrategias mixtas son las más comunes y que, en general, el tema es bien recibido y valorado por los estudiantes, quienes informan que obtienen una mejora en la capacidad comunicativa luego de la formación. Concluimos que todas estas técnicas son válidas y que las facultades de medicina deben enfocarse en integrar esta capacitación en su currículo regular.


Resumo "Má notícia", definida como informação que carrega grande peso emocional e potencial de mudar perspectivas pessoais, é, por definição, desafio para os médicos. Entretanto, nem sempre esse assunto é abordado em faculdades de medicina. Esta revisão sistemática contém todos os artigos encontrados sobre comunicação de más notícias em bases de dados por "medical school" e "bad news" em inglês, português e espanhol. O critério de inclusão abrangia artigos que elucidavam técnicas de ensino. De todos os 313 artigos, 27 foram incluídos, tendo suas estratégias classificadas. A maioria dos resultados mostrou que as estratégias mistas são mais comuns e que, em geral, o tema é bem aceito e valorizado pelos estudantes, que afirmam melhora na capacidade comunicativa depois do treinamento. Conclui-se que todas as técnicas são válidas e que as faculdades de medicina devem focar em integrar esse treinamento no currículo regular.


Subject(s)
Physician-Patient Relations , Schools, Medical , Teaching , Truth Disclosure , Clinical Competence , Education, Medical , Methods
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(2): e181-e187, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038456

ABSTRACT

El programa de reanimación neonatal es un buen ejemplo de una intervención educativa eficaz que ha mejorado las tasas de mortalidad perinatal en muchos países. En este artículo, compartimos nuestra experiencia con la planificación de un programa de reanimación neonatal para estudiantes universitarios con fundamento en los principios básicos de las teorías de la educación del currículo en espiral, la taxonomía de Bloom para planificar los resultados del aprendizaje, el modelo de estilos de aprendizaje de Kolb y el marco para la evaluación clínica de Miller. La participación de los médicos clínicos en las teorías pedagógicas podría no estar en línea con la manera en que estos consideraban que aprendían mejor tradicionalmente; aun así, es clave para mejorar el concepto del aprendizaje y los resultados de las intervenciones educativas en el campo de las profesiones relacionadas con la atención médica. Este artículo apunta a ilustrar la aplicación de estas teorías de la educación con un ejemplo de la práctica. Estructuramos este artículo en el marco del contenido, la presentación y la evaluación de la planificación de una actividad de aprendizaje psicomotor.


The Neonatal Resuscitation Programme is a good example of an effective educational intervention that has improved perinatal mortality rates in many countries. This paper shares our experience of planning an undergraduate Neonatal Resuscitation Programme using basic principles of education theory of spiral curriculum, Bloom's taxonomy in planning learning outcomes, Kolb's learning model and Miller's model of clinical assessment. Engaging clinicians in pedagogical theories may not be well aligned with how clinicians traditionally thought they learnt best, yet it is key to improving learning concept and educational intervention outcomes in the healthcare professions. This article aims to illustrate the application of such educational theories into one example of practice. We structured this paper in the scope of content, delivery and assessment when planning a psychomotor learning activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Schools, Medical , Teaching , Education, Medical , Planning , Learning
15.
Rev. méd. hered ; 30(2): 94-99, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIPECS | ID: biblio-1058674

ABSTRACT

El uso de internet ha aumentado en la última década. Los estudiantes universitarios utilizan el internet con las redes sociales, no solo en actividades de recreación sino también durante sus actividades educativas. Incluso, algunas facultades de medicina las usan como recurso pedagógico en algunos cursos. Objetivo: Describir algunas formas de uso de algunas redes sociales por los estudiantes de pregrado de una facultad de medicina. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se realizó una encuesta a alumnos del quinto año de una Facultad de Medicina de Lima, Perú. Se preguntó sobre las redes sociales en las que tení­an cuenta, frecuencia de uso, y tiempo que pasan en Facebook y YouTube. Resultados: Respondieron 52 alumnos. Todos tenían cuenta en Facebook, 46,2% en Instagram, 34,6% en Twitter, 15,4% en SlideShare y 7,7% en LinkedIn. De los que tenían Facebook,50% lo utilizaban una hora o más diariamente. El 63,5% visualizaban videos en YouTube una o más veces al día. Conclusiones: Se encontró que todos los estudiantes tienen al menos una cuenta en redes sociales, de preferencia en Facebook, y lo usan al menos una vez al dí­a, similar a lo encontrado en otros países. (AU)


The use of the internet has increased significantly over the last decade. Pre-graduate students use the internet and social networks not only for recreational activities but also for academic activities. Moreover, some schools of medicine use these resources to teach medical students. Objective: To describe the use of social networks by pre- graduate medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried-out by using a questionnaire among pre- graduate medical students of the fifth year. Wes asked about which social network the student has an active account, time spent using the network and how frequent the network was visited focusing on Facebook® y YouTube®. Results: 52 students participated; all of them had an account in Facebook®, 46.2% in Instagram®, 34.6% in Twitter®, 15.4% in SlideShare® y 7.7% in LinkedIn®. Among those who had an account in Facebook®, 50% use it at least one-hour per day; 65.3% watched videos in YouTube®. Conclusions: All students used at least one social network, mostly Facebook®, and use it at least once per day, this finding is similar to what has been reported elsewhere. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Schools, Medical , Teaching , Education , Social Networking , Learning , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(1): 34-44, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-991323

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el comienzo la Docencia Médica Superior en Matanzas en el mes de enero de 1969 con un grupo de 32 alumnos en el sexto año de la carrera de medicina promueve un intenso trabajo para lograr la formación total de los médicos en la propia provincia, para lo que era necesario comenzar la enseñanza de las Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas y dentro de éstas, las disciplinas morfológicas (Anatomía, Histología y Embriología) y con ello propiciar la creación del Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas. Objetivo: caracterizar al departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas y la calidad de su claustro hasta el año 2015. Materiales y métodos: se emplean en esta investigación métodos cualitativos del nivel teórico y del empírico, de este último las entrevistas, revisión de documentos y análisis porcentual. Resultados: fue un departamento creado en mayo de 1981 que alcanza importantes resultados en la calidad del claustro en 2011 donde el 84% del claustro tiene categoría docente principal de titular o auxiliar, el 90,9% es especialista de segundo grado y el 88 % ostentaba la categoría de Máster o Doctor en Ciencias. Conclusiones: se consideró un departamento de relevancia en la Universidad y que en 2015 es fusionado con el departamento de Ciencias Fisiológicas, pasando a formar parte de un departamento denominado Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas a lo que los autores de la investigación no le encuentran justificación, ni científica, ni didáctica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the beginning of the high medical education in Matanzas on January 1969, with a group of 32 sixth-year student of the Medicine curriculum promoted an intense work to achieve the total training of the doctors in the province; therefore, it was necessary to begin teaching the Biomedical Basic Sciences, among them, the morphologic disciplines (Anatomy, Histology and Embryology), what lead to the creation of the Department of Morphological Sciences. Objective: to characterize the Department of Morphological Sciences and its staff quality up to 2015. Material and methods: there are used qualitative research methods of the theoretical and empiric levels like interviews, documental review and percentage analysis. Results: the department was created on May 1981; the quality of the staff reached important results in 2011, when 84 % of the staff accomplished the main teaching category of titular or auxiliary professor; 90.9 % of them are second grade specialists, and 88 % has the scientific category of Master or Doctor in Sciences. Conclusions: the Department was considered a relevant department in the University; in 2015 it was merged with the Department of Physiologic Sciences, in a department named Biomedical Basic Sciences. The authors consider that fact has neither scientific nor didactical justification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical , Faculty, Medical/standards
17.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 17(1): e0018317, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-986158

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo identificou o padrão de evolução, distribuição e expansão dos cursos de medicina no Brasil e descreveu os processos governamentais relacionados à ampliação da oferta de vagas. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, baseado em dados disponíveis no sistema do Ministério da Educação sobre escolas médicas. Com as informações sobre os cursos, desde os primeiros implantados, estabelecem-se seis períodos de governo para análise: de 1808 a 1963 (monarquia e governos republicanos iniciais), de 1964 a 1988 (governos militares - José Sarney), de 1989 a 1994 (Fernando Collor - Itamar Franco), de 1995 a 2002 (Fernando Henrique Cardoso), de 2003 a 2010 (Lula) e 2011 a 2018 (Dilma Rousseff - Michel Temer). Observou-se relevante expansão de escolas a partir dos governos militares, com pico em 2014 (Dilma Rousseff), frente à implementação do Programa Mais Médicos. Ao longo dos períodos analisados, o ensino médico tornou-se progressivamente privatizado e parcialmente deslocado para as Regiões Norte, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste e para cidades de médio e pequeno portes populacionais no interior dos estados. Os resultados apontam que a combinação de gestão governamental das políticas de saúde e educação e de desenvolvimento socioeconômico influenciaram a expansão dos cursos de medicina e as marcadas diferenças intra e interregionais.


Abstract The study identified the pattern of evolution, distribution and expansion of the undergraduate medicine courses in Brazil and described the governmental processes related to the increase in the capacity of the courses. It is a descriptive study based on data available in the system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education about medical schools. With information about the courses dating back to the first that were implemented in the country, we could establish six periods of government for the analysis: from 1808 to 1963 (from the Monarchy to the first republican governments); from 1964 to 1988 (from the military dictatorship to the government of José Sarney); From 1989 to 1994 (Fernando Collor - Itamar Franco); from 1995 to 2002 (Fernando Henrique Cardoso); from 2003 to 2010 (Lula); and from 2011 to 2018 (Dilma Rousseff - Michel Temer). We observed a significant expansion of the schools starting with the military dictatorship and peaking in 2014 (Dilma Rousseff), and the implementation of the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, in Portuguese). Throughout the analyzed periods, the teaching of Medicine became ever more privatized, and was partially shifted to the Northern, Northeastern and Midwestern regions of Brazil, and to medium-sized and small municipalities in the countryside of the states. The results indicate that the combination of the management by the government of the health, education and socioeconomic development policies had an influence on the expansion of the Medicine undergraduate courses and the marked intra- and interregional differences.


Resumen El estudio identificó el patrón de evolución, distribución y expansión de las carreras de Medicina en Brasil y describió los procesos gubernamentales relacionados al aumento de la oferta de vacantes. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, con base en datos disponibles en el sistema del Ministerio de Educación sobre escuelas de medicina. Con la información sobre las carreras, desde las primeras implantadas, se establecen seis períodos de gobierno para análisis: desde 1808 hasta 1963 (monarquía y gobiernos republicanos iniciales), desde 1964 hasta 1988 (gobiernos militares - José Sarney), desde 1989 hasta 1994 (Fernando Collor - Itamar Franco), desde 1995 hasta 2002 (Fernando Henrique Cardoso), desde 2003 hasta 2010 (Lula) y desde 2011 hasta 2018 (Dilma Rousseff - Michel Temer). Se observó una importante aumento de las escuelas a partir de los gobiernos militares, con un pico en el 2014 (Dilma Rousseff), frente a la implementación del Programa Más Médicos. A lo largo de los períodos analizados la educación médica se ha ido privatizando progresivamente y se trasladó parcialmente hacia las Regiones Norte, Nordeste y Centro-Oeste, y a ciudades de tamaño medio y pequeño en el interior de los estados. Los resultados indican que la combinación de la gestión gubernamental de las políticas de salud y educación y de desarrollo socioeconómico influyeron en la expansión de las carreras de medicina y las marcadas diferencias intra e interregionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical , Education, Medical , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Health Policy , History of Medicine
18.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180063, 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-990121

ABSTRACT

As ligas acadêmicas são organizações estudantis extracurriculares que contam com a supervisão de um docente vinculado à instituição de ensino e visam aprimorar o conhecimento em determinadas áreas. Verificou-se, nos últimos anos, um crescimento do número de novas ligas, nas quais os graduandos têm acesso a informações complementares através de aulas, estágios e congressos. A especialidade de angiologia e cirurgia vascular encontra-se entre aquelas que dispõem dessas organizações. Objetivos Determinar o perfil acadêmico das ligas de angiologia e cirurgia vascular das faculdades de Medicina do estado de São Paulo e verificar o desempenho dos membros dessas ligas no ensino. Métodos Este estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico incluiu graduandos de Medicina membros de ligas acadêmicas de angiologia e cirurgia vascular do estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizados questionários on-line para determinação dos dados de cada liga e foram aplicadas provas para verificação do desempenho. Resultados O ingresso ocorreu prioritariamente por prova, com curso introdutório obrigatório. Realizaram-se aulas teóricas mensalmente em 42,9% das ligas. Quanto a atividades práticas, 85,7% das ligas as realizaram. A maioria das ligas (71,4%) relataram realizar atividades científicas. A comparação pareada do desempenho dos alunos nas provas demonstrou um aumento significativo na média, de 61,1 para 72,6 (p < 0,05). Conclusões As ligas acadêmicas de angiologia e cirurgia vascular do estado de São Paulo apresentam modos de funcionamento semelhantes e um perfil heterogêneo quanto a atividades teóricas, práticas e científicas. A partir da presente amostra, as ligas acadêmicas aparentam ser efetivas no ensino de angiologia e cirurgia vascular durante a graduação


Academic leagues are extracurricular student organizations that are supervised by professors on the faculty of a higher education institution and are dedicated to improving knowledge in certain areas. There has recently been a marked growth in the number of new leagues, giving undergraduate students access to additional information, lectures, internships, and conferences. Angiology and vascular surgery is one of the specialties that have such organizations. Objectives To determine the academic profile of the angiology and vascular surgery academic leagues at medical schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and investigate the academic performance of their members. Methods This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study that recruited undergraduate medical students who had joined angiology and vascular surgery academic leagues in the state of São Paulo. On-line questionnaires were used to collect data on each league and the students took examinations to determine their performance. Results Most leagues had an entrance exam for enrollment, with an obligatory introductory course. Monthly theoretical lectures were held by 42.9% of the leagues. Practical activities were provided by 85.7% of the leagues. The majority of the leagues (71.4%) were involved in scientific research. Paired-sample comparison of students' performance in the exams revealed a significant increase in mean scores, from 61.1 to 72.6 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The angiology and vascular surgery academic leagues in the state of São Paulo all function in a similar manner, but the range of theoretical, practical and scientific activities they offer are not uniform. For the sample investigated, the academic leagues appear to be effective at teaching angiology and vascular surgery during undergraduate courses


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Education, Medical , Academic Performance , Schools, Medical , Training Support , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Education, Higher , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Scientific and Technical Activities
19.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 209-217, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Educa | ID: biblio-1015469

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The turnover and inability to consistently retain academic facial plastic surgeons is an issue that many academic departments of otolaryngology face. In addition to the financial costs of staff turnover and gaps in patient care, insufficient exposure of residents to key surgical procedures is a significant problem for residency programs. Objective: To identify themost important reasons that lead faculty members to leave an academic facial plastic surgery (FPS) practice as well as features that may be associated with retention of FPS faculty. Methods: Members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) and the Association of Academic Departments of Otolaryngology (AADO) were administered an anonymous, online survey. For both groups, we evaluated demographic factors, reasons for choosing academic careers, contributors to faculty turnover, as well as strategies for retention. The frequency of the responses was analyzed. Results: A total of 11.3% (135/1,200) of facial plastic surgery faculty responded to the faculty survey, with 59.1% (68/115) of current, academic surgeons participating, and a total of 16.7% (20/120) of department chairs responded to the chairs' survey. If a faculty member had left/was to leave, more control over practice was the most common reason between the two respondent groups. Of the fivemost important ways to increase faculty retention, more control over practice was the number one reason. Conclusion: Chairs and facial plastic surgery faculty should strive to agree upon the amount of control over the academic practice to lead to higher retention, better patient care, and continued resident education (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Otolaryngology , Personnel Turnover , Surgery, Plastic , Faculty, Medical , Schools, Medical , United States , Career Mobility , Surveys and Questionnaires , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
20.
Health Communication ; (2): 133-138, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-788107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Team-based learning is known for its effective and satisfying education methods in the study of various medical schools. This study was prepared to confirm the satisfaction of applying this team-based learning to the training course of emergency medical technician.METHODS: A total of 165 new members of the course of second grade National Emergency medical technician at 2019 were finally enrolled in the study. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. The team-based learning method was organized with eight students per group to conduct pre-learning and then proceed to open book to encourage active discussion among individuals. The questionnaire consisted of questions about the satisfaction of the discussion process, such as whether the knowledge gained from the discussion was appropriate, and whether collaboration between colleagues was successful during the discussion, and about the benefits of team-based learning, how well knowledge transfer compared to existing lectures, and the replacement of existing lectures. The questionnaire used a Likert 5 point scale, and the data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS version 22.0.RESULTS: The overall rating of team-based learning was 7.8 ± 1.5 out of 10. Many students answered positively (88.5%) for benefits, while 87.9% responded positively to whether the knowledge transfer effect was better compared to existing lectures. In addition, the satisfaction of team-based learning was generally high, with more than 90 percent of education students giving positive answers to the replacement of other lectures with team-based learning.CONCLUSION: The learners gave positive answers to the satisfaction, usefulness and learning effects of team-based learning. Team-based learning is a discussion-based study, so it is a good way to improve communication skills. Since communication and teamwork are important in first aid activities, the characteristics of team-based learning could lead to improvements in first aid services, leading to high-quality emergency medical services.


Subject(s)
Cooperative Behavior , Education , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medical Technicians , First Aid , Humans , Learning , Lecture , Methods , Schools, Medical
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