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1.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(3): 68-76, 18-jul-2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379527

ABSTRACT

Introducción: uno de los efectos nocivos de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) es su uso sin control, lo que ha generado una adicción hacia ellas. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia de tecnoadicción de las TIC en estudiantes universitarios de nivel superior, posgrado y profesionistas de diferentes áreas. Metodología: estudio descriptivo cuya población fueron universitarios de nivel superior, posgrado y profesionistas de diferentes áreas de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) durante el ciclo escolar 2020-2. El muestreo fue no probabilístico. Resultados: al analizar los datos de la Escala de adicción de internet, el 49% respondió que permanece en internet más tiempo del que desea y el 38.2% mencionó que intenta reducir la cantidad de tiempo que pasa en línea. En cuanto al uso compulsivo, el 32.8% mencionó que sigue usando internet a pesar de que su intención es reducir su uso; el 30.5% dice que está corto de sueño debido al uso de internet. Conclusiones: existe tecnoadicción entre profesionistas y estudiantes universitarios de nivel superior y posgrado de la UNAM y del IPN. El personal de salud debe establecer estrategias de prevención del uso del internet para evitar trastornos de salud mental como depresión y aislamiento, entre otros.


Background: One of the harmful effects of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) is their uncontrolled use, which has generated an addiction to them. Objective: To know the prevalence of technology addiction of ICTs in university students of higher level, postgraduate and professionals from different areas. Methodology: Descriptive study whose population was university students of higher level, postgraduate degrees and professionals from different areas of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) during the 2020-2 school year. The sampling was non-probabilistic. Results: When analyzing the data of the Internet addiction scale, 49% responded that they stay on the internet much more time than what they want to, and 38.2% mentioned that they try to reduce the amount of time they spend online. As for compulsive use, 32.8% mentioned that they continue to use the internet despite the fact that their intention is to use it less; 30.5% say they are short of sleep due to internet use. Conclusions: There is technology addiction among professionals and university students of higher and postgraduate levels of UNAM and IPN. Health personnel must establish prevention strategies for the use of internet, in orded to avoid mental health disorders such as depression, isolation, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Students/statistics & numerical data , Internet Addiction Disorder/diagnosis , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Information Technology/statistics & numerical data
2.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 134-141, 24-feb-2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367303

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia por COVID-19 ha tenido un gran impacto y alto costo en la educación de los médicos en formación que no ha sido determinado a largo plazo. Objetivo: determinar el impacto del COVID-19 en médicos internos de pregrado y cómo repercutió en su formación académica. Material y métodos: estudio mixto en el que se revisaron las calificaciones del examen departamental bimestral del 2018 al 2020 de los médicos internos Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; se utilizó la técnica de grupos focales para indagar su experiencia y repercusiones durante la pandemia. Resultados: el promedio de calificaciones de los años 2018-2019 fue de 70.76 +/- 10.12. En el 2020 de 76.19 +/- 10.66 (p = 0.000). En la CDMX durante 2018-2019 se registró una media de 70.40 +/- 10.15 frente a 71.97 +/- 10.28 de las sedes foráneas (p > 0.05). En el 2020, las sedes de la capital tuvieron una media de 77.02 +/- 10.31 frente a 73.86 +/- 11.296 de las del interior (p = 0.000). Al comparar las calificaciones bimestrales, no hubo diferencias significativas en 2018 y 2019; sin embargo, en el 2020 hubo una elevación de 69.40 +/- 9.538 a 79.39 +/- 10.70. Conclusiones: se registraron mejores resultados en las calificaciones del 2020 en relación con las del 2018 y 2019, estas fueron más altas en las sedes capitalinas en relación con las foráneas. La percepción retrospectiva de los internos fue que dispusieron de más tiempo para el estudio de contenidos temáticos y menor presión en el trabajo asistencial; declararon que hubieran preferido quedarse en sus rotaciones, con el equipo de protección necesario para evitar contagiarse.


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact and hig+h cost on the education of physicians that has not been determined in the long term. Objective: To determine the impact of COVID-19 on undergraduate interns and how it affected their academic training. Material and methods: Mixed study. Qualifications of the bimonthly departmental exam from 2018 to 2020 of the FACMED-UNAM internal doctors were reviewed, the focus group technique was used to investigate their experience and repercussions during the pandemic. Results: The grade point average for 18-19 was 70.76+/10.12. In 2020 76.19+/-10.66 (p = 0.000). In the CDMX 2018-2019 an average 70,405+/-10,156 against 71.97+/10.28 of foreign headquarters (p > 0.05). In 2020, the capital's headquarters an average of 77.02+/-10.31 against 73.86+/-11.296 in the interior (p = 0.000). When comparing the bimonthly ratings, there were no significant differences in 2018 and 2019; However, in 2020 there is an increase from 69.40 +/-9.538 to 79.39 +/-10.709. Conclusions: The ratings for 2020 had better results in relation to 2018 and 2019, they were higher in capital cities in relation to foreign ones. The retrospective perception of the inmates was that they had more time to study thematic contents and less pressure in the care work; They stated that they would have preferred to stay in their rotations, with the necessary protective equipment to avoid getting infected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Education, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Academic Performance/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Mexico
3.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 1349-1353, jan.-dez. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291349

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Conhecer fatores relacionados à qualidade de vida e saúde de trabalhadores de um colégio universitário. Métodos: pesquisa quantitativa, realizada por meio de inquérito epidemiológico, utilizando-se questionário autoaplicado e dados clínicos. Resultados: participaram da pesquisa 106 trabalhadores, 74,5% do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 38 anos (DP±12,4), onde 92,5% relataram não fumar e 58,5% não beber álcool; 50,9% afirmou ser sedentário. Os dados clínicos demonstraram que 44,9% apresentaram pressão alterada e 11,3% glicemia elevada. Na análise dos quadrantes de exposição ao estresse, o trabalho ativo alocou maior número de profissionais (50%) e a suspeição de transtorno mental comum entre os trabalhadores foi de 22,6%. Na análise bivariada, observou-se associação entre ser solteiro e trabalho ativo (p=0,040). Conclusão: observa-se que há predominância de grau mediano de estresse no trabalho e hábitos de vida pouco saudáveis. Sabe-se que esses achados contribuem para maior ocorrência de problemas de saúde


Objetivo: Conocer factores relacionados con calidad de vida y salud de trabajadores en un colegio universitario. Métodos: investigación cuantitativa, realizada mediante encuesta epidemiológica, utilizando cuestionario autoadministrado y datos clínicos. Resultados: 106 trabajadores participaron de la investigación, 74.5% mujeres, con edad media de 38 años (SD ± 12.4), donde 92.5% informaron no fumar y 58.5% no tomar alcohol; El 50,9% dijo que eran sedentarios. Los datos clínicos mostraron que el 44,9% tenía presión arterial anormal y el 11,3% de glucosa en sangre alta. En el análisis de los cuadrantes de exposición al estrés, el trabajo activo asignó un mayor número de profesionales (50%) y la sospecha de trastorno mental común entre los trabajadores fue del 22,6%. En el análisis bivariado, se observó asociación entre trabajo individual y trabajo activo (p = 0.040). Conclusión: se observa que hay un predominio del grado medio de estrés en trabajo y hábitos de vida poco saludables. Se sabe que estos hallazgos contribuyen a una mayor ocurrencia de problemas de salud


Objective:To know factors related to the quality of life and health of workers at a university college. Methods: quantitative research, carried out by means of an epidemiological survey, using a self-administered questionnaire and clinical data. Results: 106 workers participated in the research, 74.5% female, with a mean age of 38 years (SD ± 12.4), where 92.5% reported not smoking and 58.5% not drinking alcohol; 50.9% said they were sedentary. Clinical data showed that 44.9% had abnormal blood pressure and 11.3% high blood glucose. In the analysis of the stress exposure quadrants, active work allocated a greater number of professionals (50%) and the suspicion of common mental disorder among workers was 22.6%. In the bivariate analysis, an association was observed between being single and active work (p = 0.040). Conclusion: it is observed that there is a predominance of median degree of stress at work and unhealthy lifestyle habits. It is known that these findings contribute to a greater occurrence of health problems


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Health Behavior , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Educational Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Stress , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Working Conditions , Health Surveys , Life Style
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 127-131, sept. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129089

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los aspirantes a las residencias en salud pertenecen a una generación que suele preferir instituciones flexibles y poco estructuradas para avanzar en su desarrollo profesional. Objetivo: Nos propusimos explorar cuáles son las motivaciones de los aspirantes en la elección de la institución en donde llevarán a cabo su residencia. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal a través de una encuesta anónima a todos los aspirantes a las residencias médicas. Se evaluaron edad, sexo, universidad de procedencia, especialidad elegida, preferencia de tipo de gestión y la descripción de las tres condiciones que consideran más importantes para elegir una institución en orden de importancia. Resultados: Se analizaron 1113 encuestas y el 59% correspondieron a mujeres. Las primeras tres condiciones elegidas fueron: 1.°) calidad académica (65,4%), prestigio institucional (16%) y caudal y complejidad de pacientes (5,9%); 2.°) clima de aprendizaje (21,6%), calidad académica (20%) y prestigio institucional (18,8%) y 3.°) clima de aprendizaje (16,1%), condiciones laborales (16,1%) y calidad académica (14,5%). No se encontró asociación entre las motivaciones para elegir una institución y sexo, universidad de origen, tipo de especialidad o preferencia de gestión. Conclusión: Los aspirantes a las residencias valoran en primer lugar los aspectos vinculados con su formación académica. Por otra parte, es relevante la importancia adjudicada al clima de aprendizaje y las condiciones laborales. (AU)


Introduction: Applicants to health care residences belong to a generation that often prefers flexible and unstructured institutions to develop their professional development. Objective: We set out to explore what the applicants' motivations are in choosing the institution where they will carry out their residence. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an anonymous survey of all applicants to medical residences. Age, sex, university of origin, chosen specialty, management type preference and the description of the three conditions that they consider most important to choose an institution in order of importance were evaluated. Results: 1,113 surveys were analyzed and 59% were women. The first three conditions chosen were: 1st) academic quality (65.4%), institutional prestige (16%) and wealth and complexity of patients (5.9%); 2nd) learning climate (21.6%), academic quality (20%) and institutional prestige (18.8%) and 3rd) learning climate (16.1%), conditions labor (16.1%) and academic quality (14.5%). No association was found between the motivations for choosing an institution and sex, home university, type of specialty or management preference. Conclusion: Applicants to residences value first the aspects related to their academic training. On the other hand, the importance attached to the climate of learning and working conditions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/trends , Argentina , Physicians/trends , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Working Conditions , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Professional Training , Burnout, Psychological , Health Facility Environment/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Job Satisfaction
5.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 31: e3133, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134726

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize the pattern of rally times and complexes in school volleyball. A total of 52 matches were analyzed, all video recorded on a digital camera. Rally times were analyzed along with their intervals, and complexes as well as actions in the rallies were quantified and characterized. Results show that school volleyball has an interval time between rallies 2.5x higher than the rally time, characterizing it as an intermittent sport of short-length high intensity. Younger and female teams performed a lower number of complexes and actions, reducing the rally time, but had more interval times between rallies, promoting lower match density. The pattern of rally times, complex type frequencies and number of actions in volleyball are similar to those of high-performance game. It was also possible to observe that interval time did not change between rally times. However, they differ as to number of complexes per rally and to played time density for presenting longer rally times and shorter intervals. It is concluded that male Under-17 school volleyball has more similarities with the patterns of rallies and complexes as high-performance volleyball.


RESUMO Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o padrão dos tempos de rally e dos complexos no voleibol escolar. Analisou-se 52 jogos, que foram gravados em filmadora digital. Avaliou-se os tempos de rallies e seus intervalos, a densidade do set, além de quantificar e caracterizar os complexos e as ações nos rallies. Os resultados mostram que o voleibol escolar exibe tempo de intervalo entre rallies 2,5x maior que o tempo de rally, caracterizando-o como um esporte intermitente de alta intensidade em curta duração. Equipes escolares mais jovens e femininas realizam menores números de complexos e de ações, reduzindo o tempo de rally, porém, elevam o tempo de intervalos entre rallies promovendo menor densidade de jogo. O voleibol escolar exibe padrão dos tempos de rallies, frequências dos tipos de complexos e número de ações similares aos de alto rendimento. Também verificou-se que o tempo de intervalo não altera entre os tipos de rallies. Todavia, diferem na quantidade de complexos por rally e na densidade de tempo jogado, devido apresentar maior tempo de rally e menor de intervalos. Conclui-se que o voleibol escolar Sub17 masculino exibe maiores similaridades nos padrões de rallies e complexos ao voleibol de alto rendimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Time , Adolescent , Volleyball/education , Reference Values , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Sports/education , Athletic Performance/education
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094410

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if factors related to the mother's previous guidance on her children's dental health and the school attendance of children influence the regular dental care of preschoolers living in the rural area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS A population-based study was conducted with 264 children under five years of age and their mothers. Socioeconomic and behavioral data were collected using a questionnaire, and the children were subjected to dental health tests. The outcome was the regular use of dental services. The main exposure variables were children's care in daycare centers or schools and maternal guidance on the child's dental health. Poisson regression analysis with robust variance adjustment was used to estimate prevalence ratios, considering a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS The prevalence of regular use was 11.4% (95%CI 7.5-15.2). In the adjusted analysis, the regular use of services was associated with the child attending day care center/school (PR = 2.44; 95%CI 1.38-4.34), and the mother received dental health guidance (PR = 4.13; 95%CI 1.77-9.61), even with control for socioeconomic, maternal and child variables. CONCLUSION When mothers receive previous information on child dental health care and children attend schools or daycare centers, the likelihood of regular dental appointments in preschoolers living in rural locations increases.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se fatores relacionados à orientação prévia da mãe sobre saúde bucal dos seus filhos e a frequência escolar das crianças influenciam o atendimento odontológico regular de pré-escolares moradores da área rural de um município do Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS Um estudo de base populacional foi conduzido com 264 crianças menores de cinco anos e suas mães. Dados socioeconômicos e comportamentais foram coletados por meio de questionário e as crianças foram submetidas a exames de saúde bucal. O desfecho foi o uso regular de serviços odontológicos. As variáveis de exposição principais foram o atendimento infantil em creches ou escolas e orientação materna sobre a saúde bucal da criança. A análise de regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto de variância foi utilizada para estimar as razões de prevalência e intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS A prevalência de uso regular foi 11,4% (IC95% 7,5-15,2). Na análise ajustada o uso regular de serviços foi associado à criança frequentar creche/escola (RP = 2,44; IC95% 1,38-4,34) e a mãe ter recebido orientação de saúde bucal (RP = 4,13; IC95% 1,77-9,61), mesmo com controle para variáveis socioeconômicas, maternas e da criança. CONCLUSÃO Quando as mães recebem informações prévias sobre os cuidados com a saúde bucal infantil e as crianças frequentam escolas ou creches, aumenta a probabilidade de consultas odontológicas regulares em pré-escolares residentes em localidades rurais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Oral Health/education , Health Education, Dental , Dental Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Mother-Child Relations
7.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 42, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe students protected by laws and exposed to soft drinks sales and assess whether forbidding laws are associated with lower availability of these beverages. METHODS We identified laws forbidding non-government administered cafeterias or sales of soft drinks in schools in the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Data on soft drinks sales were obtained from Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar 2015 (PeNSE - National Survey of School Health 2015), for a representative sample of 9th graders from public and private schools. Students were attributed with the status of their school regarding the law and sale of soft drinks. Co-variables were school status (public or private), school size, geographic regions, mother's educational level, score of goods and services. We performed multivariate analyses using Poisson regression. RESULTS The total of 23 laws forbidding sales of soft drinks covered 63.0% of capitals, comprising 56.9% of students. Law coverage was higher among students from more developed regions (67.6%) and in public schools (60.6%), compared with those from less developed regions (38.0%) and private schools (45.8%). Soft drinks were available for 33.9% of students. Students attending public schools in less developed regions had the lowest availability of soft drinks, regardless of law coverage (14.8%; 12.0%); while students attending private schools in these regions had a high availability, regardless of law coverage (82.1%; 73.4%). Restrictive laws were associated with lower sales of soft drinks in more developed regions, and restrictions had a greater association with the availability of soft drinks in public schools (PR = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.15-0.41), compared with private schools (PR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.35-0.66). CONCLUSION Laws restricting soft drinks in schools were associated with fewer sales in more developed regions. Private schools were less compliant with the law than public schools. A broadly enforced national law could reduce the availability of soft drinks in schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Carbonated Beverages , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Sector/legislation & jurisprudence , Private Sector/legislation & jurisprudence , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092144

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the association between participation in physical activity (PA) and the clustering of health risk behaviors (HRB) in adolescents of both genders. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 862 adolescents (11 to 17 years old) enrolled in 14 randomly selected public schools from Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Participation in PA, screen time, consumption of fruit, vegetables, cigarettes and alcoholic beverages were the criteria evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression tested the association between participation in PA and clustering of HRB, and results are expressed Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Adolescents with high participation in PA had lower odds of clustering 2-3 HRB (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.21-0.68; p<0.01) and 4-5 HRB (OR 0.29; 95%IC 0.16-0.53; p<0.01). Boys with high participation in PA had lower chances of clustering 2-3 HRB (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.13-0.75; p=0.01), and girls had lower odds of clustering 2-3 HRB (OR 0.41; 95%CI 0.17-0.99; p=0.04) and 4-5 HRB (OR 0.25; 95%CI 0.10-0.61; p<0.01). Conclusions: High participation in PA was inversely associated with the clustering of HRB in adolescents.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre a participação em atividade física (AF) e a agregação de comportamentos de risco à saúde (CRS) em adolescentes de ambos os sexos. Métodos: Estudo transversal com participação de 862 adolescentes (11 a 17 anos) matriculados em 14 escolas públicas, selecionadas aleatoriamente, da cidade de Curitiba, Paraná. Foram avaliados a participação em AF, o tempo em tela, o consumo de frutas, vegetais, cigarros e de bebidas alcoólicas por meio de questionários. Para a associação entre os níveis de participação em AF e a agregação dos CRS, foi utilizada a regressão logística multinominal com obtenção de razão de chances (RC) com intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: Os adolescentes com alta participação em AF apresentaram menores chances de agregação de 2-3 CRS (RC 0,38; IC95% 0,21-0,68; p<0,01) e 4-5 CRS (RC 0,29; IC95% 0,16-0,53; p<0,01). Meninos com alta participação em AF apresentaram menores chances de agregarem 2-3 CRS (RC 0,31; IC95% 0,13-0,75; p=0,01), e meninas, menores chances de agregação de 2-3 CRS (RC 0,41; IC95% 0,17-0,99; p=0,04) e 4-5 CRS (RC 0,25; IC95% 0,10-0,61; p<0,01). Conclusões: A alta participação em AF esteve inversamente associada com a agregação de CRS em adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Exercise , Health Risk Behaviors , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Vegetables , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sedentary Behavior , Fruit
9.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136716

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe children's perception of risk and preventive factors related to traffic accidents using the Edutherapeutic Method. Methods: This is a qualitative descriptive study carried out with 173 students from public schools aged seven to 14 years in Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil. Data were collected in the second half of 2014. The first stage consisted of an activity with drawing/writing sheets in all classes selected by the Nursing undergraduate students. Next, the children answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic data. The qualitative analysis of the expressive language of the children's drawings generated two categories: positive and negative factors for the prevention of traffic accidents and their subcategories. Results: The children's perception regarding preventive and risk factors for traffic accidents was considered adequate according to other studies found in the literature on the same subject. The drawings and descriptions were used later to provide the students with a better understanding of these factors. Conclusions: The study lends support to educational activities and interventions about prevention with schoolchildren. This is one of the main goals proposed by Brazil in the National Plan of Action for Road Traffic Safety for the decade 2011-2020.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a percepção de crianças em relação aos fatores de risco e de prevenção relacionados aos acidentes de trânsito pelo Método Eduterapêutico. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado com 173 estudantes da rede pública do município de Lagarto, Sergipe, com idades entre sete e 14 anos. A coleta de dados ocorreu no segundo semestre de 2014 e se iniciou com a aplicação da ficha do desenho/escrita em todas as turmas selecionadas, pelas alunas do curso de Enfermagem, seguida da aplicação de um questionário sobre dados sociodemográficos. Após análise qualitativa da linguagem expressiva dos desenhos das crianças, emergiram duas categorias: fatores positivos e negativos para a prevenção de acidentes e suas subcategorias. Resultados: As crianças possuem percepção considerada adequada em relação aos fatores preventivos e de risco para acidentes no trânsito, de acordo com a descrição na literatura a respeito da temática. Os desenhos e as descrições foram utilizados posteriormente para trabalhar esses fatores com os próprios alunos. Conclusões: O estudo fornece subsídios para intervenções e atividades educativas de prevenção voltadas a escolares, o que se constitui uma das metas importantes da proposta do Brasil no Plano Nacional de Redução de Acidentes e Segurança Viária para a década 2011-2020.


Subject(s)
Perception/physiology , Students/psychology , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Qualitative Research , Education/methods , Accident Prevention/methods
10.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(6): 1692-1698, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042179

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the relation between the consumption of alcohol and other drugs and school absenteeism in high school students of public schools in the 30 days prior to data collection. Method: Cross-sectional study of quantitative character conducted from May to September 2017, with 282 high school students of public schools of Mossoró-RN. We used a closed questionnaire with questions about drug consumption as our instrument of analysis. We performed hierarchical binary logistic regression by using the SPSS 20.0. Results: In bivariate analysis, the relation between absenteeism and drug consumption patterns proved to be significant to those who engage in heavy episodic drinking of alcohol and in the use of tobacco, inhalants and marijuana. The adjusted regression model only included the variables tobacco and heavy episodic drinking of alcohol. Conclusion: The hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis corroborated with absenteeism outcomes, explaining it in 12.3% of cases.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y de otras drogas y el absentismo escolar en estudiantes de la enseñanza media pública durante 30 días anteriores a la recolección de datos. Método: Estudio transversal, cuantitativo, realizado entre mayo y septiembre de 2017, en el cual participaron 282 adolescentes, estudiantes de escuelas públicas de enseñanza media de la ciudad de Mossoró (RN, Brasil). Se utilizó un cuestionario cerrado con preguntas sobre el consumo de drogas. Se realizó una regresión logística binaria jerarquizada con el auxilio del SPSS 20.0. Resultados: En el análisis bivariado, la relación entre el absentismo escolar y los patrones de consumo de drogas se mostró significativa para quienes tenían un consumo excesivo episódico de alcohol y un consumo de tabaco, de inhalantes y de marihuana. El modelo de regresión ajustado incluyó solamente las variables consumo excesivo episódico de alcohol y consumo de tabaco. Conclusión: El análisis de la regresión logística binaria jerarquizada se mostró ajustada para el resultado del absentismo escolar, lo que explica el 12,3% de los casos.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação do consumo de álcool e outras drogas com o absenteísmo escolar em estudantes do ensino médio público nos 30 dias anteriores à coleta. Método: Estudo transversal, quantitativo, realizado de maio a setembro de 2017, com 282 adolescentes, estudantes de escolas públicas de ensino médio de Mossoró-RN. Utilizou-se um questionário fechado com questões sobre o uso de drogas. Realizou-se regressão logística binária hierarquizada com o apoio do SPSS 20.0. Resultados: Na análise bivariada, a relação entre o absenteísmo escolar e os padrões de consumo de drogas se mostrou significativa para aqueles com prática de beber pesado episódico de álcool e uso de tabaco, inalantes e maconha. O modelo de regressão ajustado incluiu apenas as variáveis beber pesado episódico de álcool e tabaco. Conclusão: A análise da regressão logística binária hierarquizada se mostrou ajustada para o desfecho do absenteísmo escolar, explicando-o em 12,3% dos casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Absenteeism , Schools/organization & administration , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
11.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(6): 518-529, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055339

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze factors associated with the prevalence of maltreatment and bullying and to identify types of involvement (verbal, physical, social, sexual, cyberbullying) among high school students aged 15 to 19 years. Methods: A cross-sectional, school-based epidemiological survey was performed. The sample included 2,293 adolescents from public and private schools in the Greater Vitoria area (state of Espírito Santo, Brazil). A modified version of the Brazilian Portuguese Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used. Results: Among maltreatment behaviors, 43.3% of adolescents reported having been victims vs. 40.4% reporting to be aggressors. Among bullying behaviors, 41% reported victimization and 29.1% aggression. The most frequent types of bullying were verbal (victim = 33.8%, bully = 23.1%), social (victim = 21.8%, bully = 16.9%), and physical bullying (victim = 15.1%, bully = 8.7%). Of those reporting to be victims, 37.5% stated that they did not react as frequently as they were attacked. Almost half of the students (50.9%) identified themselves as victims, without practicing any type of aggression against another schoolmate. School network (public or private) and gender were significantly associated with victimization and aggression behaviors. Conclusion: The adolescents identified as victims did not generally attack other students, i.e., did not identify themselves as perpetrators. The high prevalence of maltreatment and bullying detected in this study, especially the verbal, social, and physical types, underscores the need for interventions addressing bullying in schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Students/statistics & numerical data , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Bullying/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Students/psychology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Crime Victims/psychology , Bullying/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4071-4082, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039519

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los efectos sobre los hábitos alimentarios de escolares en una intervención educativa alternativa al modelo convencional de promoción de alimentación a un centro con comedor y proyecto de huerto ecológico. Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal y comparativo de 111 niños y niñas entre 9 y 12 años, en el periodo 2013-15. Se comparó un colegio con intervención alternativa con otro que únicamente incluía contenidos propios del currículo de Educación Infantil y Primaria, mediante evaluación de adherencia a la dieta mediterránea del alumnado con cuestionario validado Kidmed. El centro de intervención presentó mayor adherencia a la dieta mediterránea que el centro control. En el centro de intervención el porcentaje de alumnado con dieta óptima (64,52%) fue mayor que los que necesitaban mejorar su dieta (33,87%), mientras que en el centro fue inferior (42,86% y 51,02% respectivamente). Los escolares del centro de intervención presentaron mayor porcentaje de respuestas afirmativas en ítems Kidmed. El programa de promoción de alimentación saludable alternativo del centro de intervención podría ser efectivo para la adquisición de una dieta de mayor adherencia a la dieta mediterránea.


Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effects on school feeding habits in an educational intervention alternative to the conventional model of feeding promotion to a center with school canteens and ecological garden project. Cross-sectional and comparative descriptive observational study of 111 boys and girls between 9 and 12 years old, in the 2013-15 period. A school with alternative intervention was compared with another one that only included contents of the Infant and Primary Education curriculum, by means of evaluation of adherence to the mediterranean diet of the students with a validated Kidmed questionnaire. The intervention center presented greater adherence to the mediterranean diet than the control center. In the intervention center, the percentage of students with optimal diet (64.52%) was higher than those who needed to improve their diet (33.87%), contrary to what occurs in control center (42.86% and 51.02% respectively). The students of the intervention center presented a higher percentage of affirmative answers in Kidmed test. The program of promotion of healthy alternative food of the intervention center could be effective for the acquisition of a diet of greater adherence to the mediterranean diet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diet, Mediterranean/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Food Services/statistics & numerical data
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4053-4060, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039506

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o consumo de produtos ultraprocessados e fatores associados em crianças pré-púberes. Estudo transversal realizado com 378 crianças de 8 e 9 anos matriculadas em escolas públicas e privadas de Viçosa-MG. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por três recordatórios de 24h. Os dados dietéticos foram tabulados no software Diet Pro® 5i, para quantificar o consumo energético. Para análise dos grupos de consumo alimentar foi utilizada a técnica Two-Step Cluster, por meio do software Stata versão 13.0. Os alimentos foram agrupados e classificados como marcadores de alimentação "saudável" e "não saudável". A associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e os grupos formados foi verificada por meio da Regressão de Poisson. Obteve-se a formação de dois grupos alimentares: "saudável" e "não saudável". A ingestão calórica de ultraprocessados foi menor no grupo "saudável" (20,5%) em relação ao "não saudável" (24,1%; P=0,043). No modelo multivariado, crianças de escola privada (RP = 1,25, P<0,001), que não recebiam Bolsa Família (RP=1,13, P=0,036) e cuja mãe trabalhava (RP=1,38, P<0,001) apresentaram maior chance de consumo "não saudável". O consumo de produtos ultraprocessados associou-se ao maior poder aquisitivo das famílias de crianças pré-púberes.


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of ultra-processed foods and associated factors in prepubertal children. It is a cross-sectional study with 378 children aged 8 and 9 years enrolled in public and private schools in Viçosa-MG. Food intake was assessed by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary data were entered into the Diet Pro® 5i software to quantify energy intake. The Two-Step Cluster technique was used to analyze food consumption groups, with the Stata 13 software package. The foods were grouped and classified as "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating markers. The association between the sociodemographic variables and the groups formed was examined by Poisson Regression. Two food groups were formed: "healthy" and "unhealthy". The caloric intake of ultra-processed foods was lower in the "healthy" group (20.5%) than in the "unhealthy" group (24.1%; P = 0.043). The multivariate model showed that private school children (PR = 1.25, P <0.001), who did not receive Bolsa Familia (PR = 1.13, P = 0.036) and had working mothers (PR = 1.38, P <0.001) had increased probability of unhealthy food consumption. Ultra-processed food intake was associated with greater purchasing power of families of prepubertal children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Energy Intake , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Family , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/economics , Feeding Behavior , Fast Foods/economics , Diet, Healthy/economics , Mothers/statistics & numerical data
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3805-3814, Oct. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039469

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se caracterizar a oferta de alimentos nas cantinas de escolas públicas estaduais de Curitiba, Paraná, e investigar associação da oferta de alimentos permitidos/não permitidos pela Lei das Cantinas, com variáveis da escola e da cantina. Foi realizado estudo transversal com entrevista aos administradores de cantinas em 27 escolas estaduais e foi utilizado o teste de Mann Whitney para investigar associações. Verificou-se maior frequência de administração das cantinas por autogestão (n = 25; 92,6%); local adequado na escola para realização das refeições (n = 20; 74,1%); tempo na administração do local superior a 10 anos (n = 13; 48,2%) e de administradores que referiram conhecer a Lei (n = 22; 81,5%). Mais de 2/3 das cantinas comercializava alimentos não permitidos, tais como bebidas açucaradas (n = 22; 81,5%) e doces, pipocas e salgadinhos industrializados (n = 13; 48,2%). Apenas uma (3,7%) ofertava salgados fritos. Somente a oferta de ensino técnico associou-se à maior disponibilidade de alimentos permitidos pela legislação (p = 0,033). As cantinas avaliadas podem ser caracterizadas como locais de oferta de alimentos não permitidos pela Lei da Cantina Saudável. Destaca-se a importância da regulação e da fiscalização da comercialização de alimentos nas cantinas para promoção de saúde nas escolas.


Abstract The scope of this study was to determine the food on offer in state public school canteens of Curitiba, Paraná, and to investigate the association between the permitted/prohibited food supplied under the Canteen Law, with school and canteen variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with interviews with canteen administrators in 27 state schools. The Mann Whitney test was used to investigate associations. There was a higher frequency of administration of the canteens under the self-management regime (n = 25, 92.6%); appropriate location in the school for serving meals (n = 20, 74.1%); length of time in administration of over 10 years (n = 13, 48.2%) and administrators who reported knowing the Canteen Law (n = 22, 81.5%). More than 2/3 of canteens sold prohibited food, such as sweetened beverages (n = 22, 81.5%) and candies, industrialized popcorn and salty snacks (n = 13, 48.2%). Only one school provided fried snacks (n = 1, 3.7%). The offer of technical education alone was associated with greater availability of food allowed by the legislation (p = 0.033). The school canteens evaluated can be described as places of commercialization of food not permitted by the Healthy Canteen Law. It is important to highlight the regulation and inspection of food sales in canteens for the promotion of health in schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Legislation, Food , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Food Supply/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Promotion
15.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(5): 1203-1210, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042139

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the playful educational interventions in the knowledge of schoolchildren about intestinal parasitosis. Method: This is a quasi-experimental, non-randomized study, based on pre- and post-intervention, conducted in a public elementary school in a peripheric neighborhood in the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP). The study population consisted of 101 students enrolled in the 5th and 6th grade. For comparison, we used the generalized version of the McNemar chi-squared test. Results: Of the 101 schoolchildren who participated in the study, 48 (47.5%) were female and 53 (52.5%) were male, aged from 9 to 14 years. Students' knowledge on intestinal parasitic infections has increased significantly after the playful educational intervention. Conclusion: Playful educational interventions are an excellent didactical resource in the teaching-learning process of schoolchildren.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar las intervenciones educativas lúdicas en el conocimiento de escolares sobre enteroparasitosis. Método: Se trata de estudio casi-experimental, no aleatorizado, basado en la pre y pos-intervención, que ha sido ocurrido en escuela pública de enseñanza primaria de un barrio de la periferia en la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto (SP). La población del estudio ha sido conformada por 101 alumnos que cursaban el 5º y el 6º año. Para realizar la comparación ha sido utilizada la versión generalizada de la prueba chi-cuadrada de McNemar. Resultados: De los 101 escolares que han participado del estudio, 48 (el 47,5%) eran del sexo femenino y 53 (el 52,5%) del sexo masculino, con edad entre 9 a 14 años. El conocimiento de los alumnos sobre enteroparasitosis después de la intervención educativa lúdica se ha incrementado significativamente. Conclusión: Las intervenciones educativas lúdicas son un excelente recurso didáctico en el contexto del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje de escolares.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as intervenções educativas lúdicas no conhecimento de escolares sobre enteroparasitoses. Método: Trata-se de estudo quase-experimental, não randomizado, baseado na pré e pós-intervenção, ocorrido em escola pública de ensino fundamental de um bairro da periferia na cidade de Ribeirão Preto (SP). A população do estudo foi composta por 101 alunos que cursavam o 5º e o 6º ano. Para efetuar a comparação foi utilizada a versão generalizada do teste qui-quadrado de McNemar. Resultados: Dos 101 escolares que participaram do estudo, 48 (47,5%) eram do sexo feminino e 53 (52,5%) do sexo masculino, com idade entre 9 a 14 anos. O conhecimento dos alunos sobre enteroparasitoses após a intervenção educativa lúdica aumentou significativamente. Conclusão: As intervenções educativas lúdicas são um excelente recurso didático no contexto do processo ensino-aprendizagem de escolares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Play Therapy/methods , Health Education/methods , Intestinal Diseases/psychology , Play Therapy/instrumentation , Play Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Schools/organization & administration , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Giardiasis/psychology , Amebiasis/psychology , Intestinal Diseases/therapy
16.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 35(3): e2483, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156407

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Según la alta incidencia de desnutrición en el país, se realizan estudios que evidencian un bajo rendimiento físico y mental en el niño, relacionado a una inadecuada merienda escolar. Objetivo: Evaluar la composición de la merienda escolar y los factores determinantes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal correlacional, realizado en preescolares de 10 centros de educación inicial de la provincia de Santa Elena, en 2017. El universo quedó constituido por 785 niños, con una muestra de 150 binomios padres/preescolares. Se utilizó el método observacional y la encuesta aplicada, las variables estudiadas fueron: edad de los padres, sexo, nivel de instrucción, peso y talla (evaluadas según las Tablas de Valoración Nutricional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud), alimentos incluidos en la merienda y capacitación sobre alimentación saludable. En el análisis de los datos se utilizó el software SPSSS versión 21 y las medidas de tendencia central, de dispersión e intervalos de confianza. Resultados: El 84,44 por ciento de los padres incorporan alimentos saludables, 81,14 por ciento entre 21 a 25 años de edad. En la escuela "Carmen Montenegro" suministran en la merienda escolar alimentos saludables a diferencia del centro de educación "Luz Esmeralda Valdivia" en la cual añaden alimentos de bajo nivel proteico y donde 58,73 por ciento manifestó no haber recibido capacitación sobre alimentación saludable. Conclusión: Los alimentos más incorporados en la merienda escolar fueron: frutas, lácteos, legumbres y jugos naturales; y los menos añadidos fueron: dulces, jugos envasados, gaseosas y snacks(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: With respect to the high incidence of malnutrition in the country, studies are being carried out that show a low physical and mental performance in the child, associated with inadequate school snack. Objective: To evaluate the composition of the school snack and the determining factors. Methods: A descriptive, correlation, cross-sectional study was carried out in preschools children from 10 education centers in Santa Elena Province, in 2017. The study population was made up of 785 children, with a sample of 150 parent/ preschool binomials. The observational method and the applied survey were used, the variables studied were age of the parents, sex, level of instruction, weight and height (evaluated according to the Nutritional Assessment Tables of the World Health Organization), foods included in the snack, and training on healthy eating. The software SPSS v. 21 and the measures of central tendency, dispersion and confidence intervals were used in the data analysis. Results: 84.44 percent of the parents incorporate healthy foods, 81.14 percent between 21 and 25 years of age. At Carmen Montenegro School, they provide healthy food in the school snack, unlike Luz Esmeralda Valdivia Education Center, in which they add low-protein foods and where 58.73 percent said that they had not received training on healthy eating. Conclusion: The most incorporated foods in the school snack were fruits, dairy products, legumes, and natural juices; while the least added were sweets, packaged juices, soda, and snacks(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Nutrition Assessment , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Snacks , Diet, Healthy/trends , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Data Analysis
17.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(4): 964-972, Jul.-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1020516

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To understand adolescents' perceptions on school health. Method: Qualitative and descriptive research grounded on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology, which was developed with 90 adolescent students from a federal school of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Data were produced by gathering answers to the following question: what is your perception on school health? Those who chose to write their answer to the guiding question deposited the manuscripts in polls. Results: School health is linked to hygienist practices and to the hegemonic assistentialist model. Nevertheless, we assigned senses and meanings to the practice of physical activity and health education by integrating and expanding behavioral strategies and healthy habits. Final considerations: a healthy school environment implies the protagonism of adolescents in school health promotion actions.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Comprender las percepciones del ser adolescente sobre la salud en la escuela. Método: Investigación cualitativa, descriptiva, basada en la fenomenología de Maurice Merleau-Ponty, desarrollada con 90 alumnos adolescentes de una escuela federal del estado de Río de Janeiro. Se recogieron los datos por medio del discurso hablado en respuesta al cuestionamiento: ¿cuál es su percepción sobre la salud en la escuela? Aquellos que optaron por escribir la respuesta a esta cuestión principal la depositaron en urnas. Resultados: La salud en la escuela se encuentra vinculada a las prácticas higienistas y al modelo hegemónico asistencialista. Sin embargo, sentidos y significados fueron asignados a la práctica de actividad física y educación en salud -estrategias integradoras y multiplicadoras de comportamientos y hábitos saludables. Consideraciones finales: El hacer salud en la escuela pasa por el protagonismo del ser adolescente sobre su salud en la reorganización de las acciones de promoción de la salud en la escuela.


RESUMO Objetivo: Compreender as percepções do ser adolescente acerca da saúde na escola. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa e descritiva apoiada na fenomenologia de Maurice Merleau-Ponty, desenvolvida com 90 alunos adolescentes de uma escola federal do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram produzidos pelo discurso falado em resposta ao questionamento: conte para mim qual a sua percepção sobre a saúde na escola. Aqueles que optaram pela resposta escrita à questão norteadora depositaram os manuscritos nas urnas. Resultados: A saúde escolar encontra-se presa às práticas higienistas e ao modelo hegemônico assistencialista. No entanto, sentidos e significados foram atribuídos à prática da atividade física e de educação em saúde - estratégias integradoras e multiplicadoras de comportamentos e hábitos saudáveis. Considerações finais: O fazer saúde na escola passa pelo protagonismo do ser adolescente sobre sua saúde na reorganização das ações de promoção em saúde escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Perception , School Nursing/standards , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , School Nursing/methods , School Nursing/trends , Schools/standards , Schools/organization & administration , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Health Education/methods , Health Education/standards , Qualitative Research , Health Promotion/methods , Health Promotion/trends
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(7): 2399-2410, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011848

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar a ambiência escolar e o estado nutricional de pré-escolares da rede pública de Macaé. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com dados antropométricos secundários, coletados entre 2012 e 2014. Foram analisadas 962 crianças, de 2,1 a 6,6 anos, de quatro escolas, segundo recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A ambiência foi avaliada, qualitativamente, por observação direta. Por regressão logística, foi verificado se a chance de ocorrer desvios nutricionais diferia entre as escolas. A prevalência de excesso nutricional foi alarmante, principalmente nos menores de cinco anos (13,7%). Em crianças com cinco anos ou mais, as duas escolas, com ampla rede social de apoio no entorno, tiveram menor chance de ocorrer excesso nutricional (Odds Ratio de 0,40 e 0,33; p < 0,05). A escola com mais lanchonetes e propagandas de alimentos no território teve maior proporção de obesidade. Fatores positivos de ambiência dentro da escola, como ausência de cantina comercial, não conseguiram evitar o excesso nutricional. Este estudo adverte a respeito da relevância do entorno, sobretudo do apoio social. Esse é pouco abordado na literatura em nutrição, mas pode ser diferencial no perfil nutricional, em especial quando aspectos-chave de proteção no interior da escola estão adequados.


Abstract This study evaluated school ambience and the nutritional status of preschoolers in the Macaé city public system. This is a cross-sectional study with secondary anthropometric data collected between 2012 and 2014. In all, 962 children, aged 2.1 to 6.6 years from four schools were analyzed as per the World Health Organization recommendation. Ambience was assessed qualitatively by direct observation. Logistic regression verified the probability of different nutritional deviations among schools. The prevalence of nutritional excess was alarming, especially for children under five (13.7%). In children aged five years and over, the two schools with large social support network in their surroundings had a lower probability of nutritional excess (OR = 0.40 and OR = 0.33; p < 0.05). The school with more cafeterias and food advertisements in the territory had higher proportion of obesity. Positive factors of ambience within schools, such as the lack of commercial canteen, could not avoid nutritional excess. This paper warns about the importance of surroundings, especially social support. This is poorly addressed in nutrition literature, but may be a differential in the nutritional profile, mainly when key aspects of protection within school are adequate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Social Support , Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutritional Status , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(7): 2649-2658, jul. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011833

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although regular physical activity is recommended for health, highly contaminated air exposure acts to the detriment of the benefits produced in individuals. The purpose of the present study was to compare the accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior during the whole day, in-school time, out-of-school time, and school breaks between highly contaminated air days and non-highly contaminated air days in Chilean adolescents. Nineteen adolescents from Santiago of Chile were assessed by a GT3X accelerometer. The vertical axis and steps per minute for the whole day, and both of these variables together with the percentage of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level in the out-of-school time period were higher in highly contaminated air days than in non-highly contaminated air days (p < 0.05; with effect sizes from r = 0.36 to r = 0.46). Results for sedentary behavior were similar in both conditions for every period of time analyzed. These results allow us to conclude the lack of awareness of the participants in this research regarding the health repercussions in relation to the physical activity performed during air pollution exposure. Some strategies in order to improve the Chilean adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior are suggested and discussed.


Resumo Embora a atividade física regular seja recomendada para saúde, a exposição de indivíduos ao ar altamente contaminado pode levar a perda dos benefícios produzidos. O propósito do presente estudo foi comparar o nível de atividade fisica e o comportamento sedentário durante e fora das aulas escolares, e nos recessos escolares entre dias altamente contaminados e dias não contaminados em adolescentes chilenos. Dezenove adolescentes de Santiago foram avaliados por um acelerômetro GT3X. O eixo vertical e os passos por minuto durante um dia inteiro, e as duas variáveis assim como a porcentagem de tempo de atividade fisica moderada a vigorosa no período do tempo fora da escola foi superior em dias altamente contaminados do que em dias não altamente contaminados (p < 0.05; r = 0.36 a r = 0.46). O resultado do comportamento sedentário foi similar em ambas as condições para cada período do tempo analisado. Esses resultados permitem concluir que a falta de consciência dos participantes nessa pesquisa relativa à repercussão na saúde com relação a atividade física executado durante exposição da poluição atmosférica. Algumas estratégias a fim de melhorar o nível de atividade fisica de adolescentes chilenos e comportamentos sedentários são sugeridas e discutidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Time Factors , Exercise/psychology , Chile
20.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 173-180, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013294

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare and analyze the consumption of minimally processed and ultra-processed foods among students from public and private schools. Methods: Study conducted in Uberlândia, MG, with fifth-grade students from three private and six public schools, selected by stratified cluster sampling. We collected data on food consumption using the 24-hour recall. Foods were classified into four groups (G) according to extent and purpose of processing: fresh/minimally processed foods (G1) culinary ingredients (G2), processed foods (G3), and ultra-processed foods (G4). Total energy intake (kcal) of each group, amount of sugar (g), sodium (mg), and fiber (g) were quantified and compared according to administrative affiliation (private or public). Results: Percentage of total energy intake was: G1 - 52%; G2 - 12%; G3 - 5%; e G4 - 31%. Energy intake from G1 (53 vs. 47%), G2 (12 vs. 9%), and G3 (6.0 vs. 0.1%), and amount of sodium (3,293 vs. 2,724 mg) and fiber (23 vs. 18 g) were higher among students from public schools. Energy intake from G4 (36 vs. 28%) and amount of sugar (20 vs. 14%) were higher among students from private schools. The consumption of foods from G1 in the school environment was higher among students from public schools (40 vs. 9%). Conclusions: Foods from G1 represent the highest percentage of total energy intake, while those from G4 constitute a third of calories consumed. Processed juice, sandwich cookie, processed cake, and breakfast cereals are more frequent among private school students; snacks and juice powder are more common for students from public schools.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar e analisar o consumo de alimentos minimamente processados e ultraprocessados entre escolares das redes pública e privada. Métodos: Estudo realizado em Uberlândia, MG, com escolares do quinto ano do ensino fundamental em nove escolas (três privadas e seis públicas), selecionados por amostragem estratificada por conglomerado. O consumo alimentar foi analisado utilizando recordatório de 24 horas. Os alimentos foram classificados segundo extensão e propósito do seu processamento em quatro grupos (G): alimentos in natura/minimamente processados (G1), ingredientes culinários (G2), alimentos processados (G3) e ultraprocessados (G4). Os valores energéticos totais (kcal) provenientes de cada grupo, quantidade de açúcar (g), sódio (mg) e fibras (g) foram quantificados e comparados segundo dependência administrativa. Resultados: O consumo de energia foi: G1, 52%; G2, 12%; G3, 5%; e G4, 31%. Os valores energéticos provenientes de G1 (53 vs. 47%), G2 (12 vs. 9%) e G3 (6,0 vs. 0,1%), a quantidade de sódio (3.293 vs. 2.724 mg) e a de fibras (23 vs. 18 g) foram superiores em escolares da rede pública. O valor percentual energético do G4 (36 vs. 28%) e a quantidade de açúcar (20 vs. 14%) foram superiores em escolares da rede privada. O consumo do G1 na escola foi superior nos escolares da rede pública (40 vs. 9%). Conclusões: Alimentos do G1 representam o maior percentual do valor energético total e do G4, um terço das calorias ingeridas. Suco pronto, biscoito recheado, bolo industrializado, cereais matinais são mais frequentes em escolares da rede privada e salgadinhos e suco em pó nos da rede pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Energy Intake , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/classification , Fast Foods , Raw Foods , Schools/classification , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Diet Surveys , Nutritive Value
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