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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928148

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in improving scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice based on Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. ICR mice were randomized into blank group, model group, low-dose(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(400 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(800 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and donepezil hydrochloride group. The learning and memory impairment was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of scopola-mine. The learning and memory abilities of mice were detected by Morris water maze test, and the damage of hippocampal neurons and cortical neurons was detected based on Nissl staining. The expression of neuron specific nuclear protein(NeuN) in hippocampus and cortex of mice was determined by immunofluorescence assay, and the content of acetylcholine(Ach) and the activity of acetylcholines-terase(AchE) in hippocampus of mice by kits. Moreover, the content of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in serum of mice was detected. The content of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in hippocampus was determined by Western blot. The results showed that there were significant differences in the trajectory map of mice among different groups in the behavioral experiment. Moreover, the latency of ESP groups decreased significantly compared with that in the model group. The hippocampal neurons in the high-dose ESP group were significantly more than those in the model group and the cortical neurons in the high-dose and medium-dose ESP groups were significantly more than those in the model group. The expression of NeuN in the model group was significantly decreased compared with that in the blank group, and the expression in the ESP groups was significantly higher than that in the model group. The AchE activity and MDA level were significantly decreased, and Ach content and levels of SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the ESP groups were significantly increased in the ESP groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of Keap1 in the model group was significantly increased compared with that in the blank group, and the Keap1 expression increased insignificantly in ESP groups compared with that in the model group. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was significantly lower in the model group than in the blank group, and the expression was significantly higher in the medium-dose ESP group than in the model group. In conclusion, ESP protected mice against the scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment by regulating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Scopolamine/adverse effects , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921714

ABSTRACT

This study intended to explore the effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma in improving scopola-mine-induced learning and memory impairments in model mice. Ninety four-month-old Kunming(KM) mice were randomly divided into six groups. The ones in the model group and blank group were treated with intragastric administration of normal saline, while those in the medication groups separately received the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma, Kangnaoshuai Capsules, donepezil, as well as total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae plus estrogen receptor(ER) blocker by gavage. The mouse model of learning and memory impairments was established via intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine. Following the measurement of mouse learning and memory abilities in Morris water maze test, the hippocampal ERβ expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of ERβ and phosphorylated p38(p-p38) in the hippocampus and B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated death promoter(Bad), and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3(caspase-3) in the apoptotic system were assayed by Western blot. The contents of malondia-ldehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and nitric oxide(NO) in the hippocampus were then determined using corresponding kits. Compared with the control group, the model group exhibited significantly prolonged incubation period, reduced frequency of cros-sing the platform, shortened residence time in the target quadrant, lowered ERβ, Bcl-2 and SOD activity in the hippocampus, and increased p-p38/p38, Bad, caspase-3, MDA, and NO. Compared with the model group, the total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae increased the expression of ERβ and SOD in the hippocampus, down-regulated the expression of neuronal pro-apoptotic proteins, up-re-gulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, and reduced p-p38/p38, MDA, and NO. The effects of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma on the above indexes were reversed by ER blocker. It has been proved that the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma obviously alleviate scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice, which may be achieved by regulating the neuronal apoptotic system and oxidative stress via the ER-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(ER-p38 MAPK) signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids , Hippocampus , Maze Learning , Mice , Polypodiaceae , Receptors, Estrogen , Scopolamine/toxicity , Signal Transduction , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 595-606, nov. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102648

ABSTRACT

Petiveria alliacea (PA) have anxiolytic, antidepressant and cognitive effects. In the present paper the effect of PA water infusion and cholinergic drugs on cognitive behavior were studied. For that, 40 male NMRI mice were divided in 4 groups: Control (n=10), Drug Control (n=10), PA (n=10) and PA plus Drug (n=10). PA 1% was administered orally (7.59±1.39 ml/day); while scopolamine (2 mg/Kg), galantamine (1 mg/Kg) and nicotine (0.1 mg/Kg) were administered intraperitoneally. Behavioral tests included: anxiety maze (AM), open field (OF) and marble burying (MB). Habituation cognitive behavior was evaluated in 4 sessions, one week each session. PA had anxiolytic and antidepressant effect effect in AM, combined with nicotine potentiated an anxiogenic effect in AM, galantamine favored habituation in OF. Scopolamine potentiated the habituation in LA and decreased the obsessive-compulsive behavior in OF. In conclusion; PA had an anxiolytic effect and favored deshabituation, combined with nicotine induced an anxiogenic effect, galantamine favored habituation and scopolamine decreased obsessive-compulsive behavior and favored motor habituation indicated a possible anxiolytic effect.


La Petiveria alliacea (PA) está relacionada con efectos ansiolíticos, antidepresivos y cognitivos. El presente trabajo estudió el efecto de la infusión de PA y drogas colinérgicas sobre la habituación. 40 ratones NMRI machos fueron divididos en 4 grupos: Control (n=10), Control Drogas (n=10), PA (n=10) y PA plus Drogas (n=10). La PA (1%) fue administrada vía oral (7.59±1.39 ml/día); escopolamina (2 mg/Kg), galantamina (1 mg/Kg) y nicotina (0.1 mg/Kg) fueron administrados vía intraperitoneal. Los ensayos conductuales incluyeron: laberinto de ansiedad (LA), campo abierto (CA) y enterramiento aversivo (EA). La habituación fue evaluada en 4 sesiones con duración de una semana cada una. PA mostró un efecto ansiolítico en el LA, combinada con nicotina potenció un efecto ansiogénico en el LA. Galantamina favoreció la habituación en CA, y escopolamina potenció el fenómeno de habituación en LA y disminuyó la conducta obsesivo-compulsiva en CA. En conclusión, la PA mostró un efecto ansiolítico y antidepresivo que potencia la deshabituación, combinada con nicotina indujo un efecto ansiogénico, galantamina favoreció la habituación y escopolamina disminuyó la conducta obsesivo­ compulsiva y favoreció la habituación motora indicando un posible efecto ansiolítico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/drug effects , Scopolamine/pharmacology , Galantamine/pharmacology , Nicotine/pharmacology
4.
In. Pouy Aguilera, Artigas; Rossi Gonnet, Gabriel; Triaca Saldaña, Juan Mario. Pautas de evaluación y tratamiento de los consumos problemáticos de sustancias en los tres niveles de asistencia. Montevideo, Impronta Soluciones Gráficas, 2018. p.287-298.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1349072
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713481

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to investigate the effect of a concentrate of fermented wild ginseng root culture (HLJG0701) on memory improvement in the scopolamine (SPL)-induced memory-deficient mouse model. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were used to evaluate the protective effect of HLJG0701 against the SPL-induced memory loss animal model. The Morris water maze test, which measures hippocampus-dependent learning ability, and the Y-maze test, a short-term memory assessment test, were performed and related markers were analyzed. HLJG0701-treated groups displayed significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and increased acetylcholine level compared with the SPL-administered group (SPL-G) (P < 0.05). In the Y-maze test, the spontaneous alternation in al HLJG0711-treated groups was significantly increased compared with that in SPL-G (P < 0.05). In the Morris water maze test, the escape latency and time spent in the target quadrant in all HLJG0701-treated groups were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, compared with those in SPL-G (P < 0.05). In addition, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in groups treated with HLJG0701 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight was significantly increased compared with that in SPL-G (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the HLJG0701 may protect against memory loss by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and preventing acetylcholine deficiency.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Body Weight , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Ginsenosides , Humans , Learning , Male , Memory Disorders , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Models, Animal , Panax , Scopolamine , United Nations , Water
6.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 317-328, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718834

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment responses are important research topics in the study of degenerative brain diseases as well as in understanding of human mental activities. To compare response to scopolamine (SPL)-induced cognitive impairment, we measured altered parameters for learning and memory ability, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, cholinergic dysfunction and neuronal cell damages, in Korl:ICR stock and two commercial breeder stocks (A:ICR and B:ICR) after relevant SPL exposure. In the water maze test, Korl:ICR showed no significant difference in SPL-induced learning and memory impairment compared to the two different ICRs, although escape latency was increased after SPL exposure. Although behavioral assessment using the manual avoidance test revealed reduced latency in all ICR mice after SPL treatment as compared to Vehicle, no differences were observed between the three ICR stocks. To determine cholinergic dysfunction induction by SPL exposure, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assessed in the three ICR stocks revealed no difference of acetylcholinesterase activity. Furthermore, low levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and high levels of inflammatory cytokines in SPL-treated group were maintained in all three ICR stocks, although some variations were observed between the SPLtreated groups. Neuronal cell damages induced by SPL showed similar response in all three ICR stocks, as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, Nissl staining analysis and expression analyses of apoptosis-related proteins. Thus, the results of this study provide strong evidence that Korl:ICR is similar to the other two ICR. Stocks in response to learning and memory capacity.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Brain Diseases , Cognition Disorders , Cytokines , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Humans , Learning , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Scopolamine , Superoxide Dismutase , United Nations , Water
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fermented Laminaria japonica (FL), a type sea tangle used as a functional food ingredient, has been reported to possess cognitive improving properties that may aid in the treatment of common neurodegenerative disorders, such as dementia. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the effects of FL on scopolamine (Sco)- and ethanol (EtOH)-induced hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, using the Passive avoidance (PA) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. To examine the underlying mechanisms associated with neuroprotective effects, we analyzed acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, brain tissue expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and immunohistochemical analysis, in the hippocampus of mice, compared to current drug therapy intervention. Biochemical blood analysis was carried out to determine the effects of FL on alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. 7 groups (n = 10) consisted of a control (CON), 3 Sco-induced dementia and 3 EtOH-induced dementia groups, with both dementia group types containing an untreated group (Sco and EtOH); a positive control, orally administered donepezil (Dpz) (4mg/kg) (Sco + Dpz and EtOH + Dpz); and an FL (50 mg/kg) treatment group (Sco + FL50 and EtOH + FL50), orally administered over the 4-week experimental period. RESULTS: FL50 significantly reduced EtOH-induced increase in AST and ALT levels. FL50 treatment reduced EtOH-impaired step-through latency time in the PA test, and Sco- and EtOH-induced dementia escape latency times in the MWM test. Moreover, anticholinergic effects of Sco and EtOH on the brain were reversed by FL50, through the attenuation of AChE activity and elevation of ACh concentration. FL50 elevated ERK1/2 protein expression and increased p-CREB (ser133) in hippocampus brain tissue, according to Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that FL may be considered an efficacious intervention for Sco- and EtOH-induced dementia, in terms of reversing cognitive impairment and neuroplastic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cholesterol , Cognition Disorders , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dementia , Drug Therapy , Ethanol , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Functional Food , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Laminaria , Memory , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuronal Plasticity , Neuroprotective Agents , Receptors, Muscarinic , Scopolamine , Triglycerides , United Nations , Water
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776421

ABSTRACT

Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are two main alkaloids in Atropa belladonna with great medicinal value. In this paper, the contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine, the upstream products in alkaloid synthesis, and the expression levels of key enzyme genes PMT, TRⅠ and H6H in secondary metabolism of A. belladonna seedlings were measured to clarify the mechanism of nitrogen forms regulating alkaloids synthesis.The results showed that the 50/50 (NH⁺₄/NO⁻₃) treatment was more favorable for the accumulation of alkaloids and the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine. The content of putrescine was almost consistent with the change of key enzymes activities in the synthesis of putrescine, they both increased with the rise of ammonium ratio, reaching the highest at 75/25 (NH⁺₄/NO⁻₃). The detection of signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) showed that the NO concentration decreased with the decrease of nitrate proportion. Further detection of gene expression levels of PMT, TRⅠ and H6H in TAs synthesis pathway showed that a certain amount of ammonium promoted the expression of PMT and H6H in roots. When the ratio of ammonium to nitrate was 50/50, PMT, TRⅠ and H6H in leaves and roots had higher expression levels. It can be speculated that the regulation of the formation of hyoscyamine to scopolamine by nitrogen forms mainly through affecting the expression of key enzyme genes. 50/50 (NH⁺₄/NO⁻₃) treatment increased the gene expression of TRⅠ in both leaves and roots as well as PMT and H6H in roots, promoting the synthesis of putrescine to hyoscyamine and the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine.


Subject(s)
Atropa belladonna , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Hyoscyamine , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Nitrogen , Metabolism , Scopolamine , Metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775381

ABSTRACT

Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are important secondary metabolites of tropane alkaloid in Atropa belladonna with pharmacological values in many aspects.In this study, the seedlings of A.belladonna were planted by soil culture and treated with different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The contents of hyoscyamine and scopolamine,the upstream products in alkaloid synthesis,and the expression levels of key enzyme genes PMT, TR Ⅰ and H6H in secondary metabolites of A. belladonna seedlings were measured to clarify the mechanism of MeJA regulating alkaloids synthesis.The results showed that MeJA(200 μmol·L⁻¹) treatment was more favorable for the accumulation of alkaloids.The content of putrescine was almost consistent with the change of key enzymes activities in the synthesis of putrescine,the both increased first and then decreased with the increased MeJA concentration and the content of putrescine reached the highest at 200 μmol·L⁻¹ MeJA.Further detection of gene expression of PMT, TR Ⅰ and H6H in TAs synthesis pathway showed that no significant trend in PMT gene expression levels.The expression levels of TR Ⅰ and H6H in leaves and roots under 200 μmol·L⁻¹ MeJA were the highest.It can be speculated that the regulation of the formation of hyoscyamine and scopolamine by MeJA mainly through affecting the expression of key enzyme genes.Appropriate concentration of MeJA increased the gene expression of TR Ⅰ in both leaves and roots as well as H6H in roots,promoting the accumulation of alkaloids and the conversion of hyoscyamine to scopolamine.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Pharmacology , Atropa belladonna , Genetics , Metabolism , Cyclopentanes , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Hyoscyamine , Metabolism , Oxylipins , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Scopolamine , Metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30380

ABSTRACT

Addictive drug use or prescribed medicine abuse can cause psychosis. Some representative symptoms frequently elicited by patients with psychosis are hallucination, anhedonia, and disrupted executive functions. These psychoses are categorized into three classifications of symptoms: positive, negative, and cognitive. The symptoms of DIP are not different from the symptoms of schizophrenia, and it is difficult to distinguish between them. Due to this ambiguity of distinction between the DIP and schizophrenia, the DIP animal model has been frequently used as the schizophrenia animal model. However, although the symptoms may be the same, its causes are clearly different in that DIP is acquired and schizophrenia is heritable. Therefore, in this review, we cover several DIP models such as of amphetamine, PCP/ketamine, scopolamine, and LSD, and then we also address three schizophrenia models through a genetic approach with a new perspective that distinguishes DIP from schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Amphetamine , Anhedonia , Classification , Executive Function , Hallucinations , Humans , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Models, Animal , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Scopolamine , Substance-Related Disorders
11.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 143-151, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21760

ABSTRACT

4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HBA) are natural phenolic compounds, which present in many plants and have diverse biological properties. In this study, we examined effects of vanillin and 4-HBA on learning and memory function, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Scopolamine (SCO; 1 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), vanillin, and 4-HBA (40 mg/kg/day, orally) were administered for 28 days. Treatment with scopolamine alone impaired learning and memory function in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests, in addition, the treatment significantly reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus, which were examined by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 (a classic marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblasts). However, treatment with vanillin or 4-HBA significantly attenuated SCO-induced learning and memory impairment as well as the reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. These results indicate that vanillin and 4-HBA may be helpful in improving cognitive function and in increasing endogenous neuronal proliferation in the brain.


Subject(s)
Amnesia , Animals , Brain , Cell Proliferation , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Learning , Memory , Mice , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Phenol , Scopolamine , Water
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728257

ABSTRACT

Progressive memory impairment such as that associated with depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) can interfere with daily life. In particular, AD, which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, prominently features a memory and learning impairment that is related to changes in acetylcholine and abnormal β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dehydroevodiamine·HCl (DHED) on cognitive improvement and the related mechanism in memory-impaired rat models, namely, a scopolamine-induced amnesia model and a Aβ₁₋₄₂-infused model. The cognitive effects of DHED were measured using a water maze test and a passive avoidance test in the memory-impaired rat models. The results demonstrate that DHED (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and Donepezil (1 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated the spatial memory impairment in the scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Moreover, DHED significantly improved learning and memory in the Aβ₁₋₄₂-infused rat model. Furthermore, the mechanism of these behavioral effects of DHED was investigated using a cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, and intracellular calcium measurement in primary cortical neurons. DHED reduced neurotoxicity and the production of Aβ-induced ROS in primary cortical neurons. In addition, similar to the effect of MK801, DHED decreased intracellular calcium levels in primary cortical neurons. Our results suggest that DHED has strong protective effects against cognitive impairments through its antioxidant activity and inhibition of neurotoxicity and intracellular calcium. Thus, DHED may be an important therapeutic agent for memory-impaired symptoms.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Alzheimer Disease , Amnesia , Animals , Brain , Calcium , Cell Survival , Cognition Disorders , Cognition , Depression , Dizocilpine Maleate , Learning , Memory , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Scopolamine , Spatial Memory , Stroke , Water
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(8): 520-526, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated the long-term effect of scopolamine and sesame oil on spatial memory. METHODS: Memory impairment induced by Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of scopolamine hydrochloride (10 μg/ rat). Animals were gavaged for 4 weeks with saline, sesame oil (0.5, 1, or 2 mL/kg/day), or 3 weeks with memantine (30 mg/kg/day) in advance to induction of amnesia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted 6 days after microinjection of scopolamine. Then, blood and brain samples were collected and evaluated for the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, and total antioxidant status (TAS) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). RESULTS: Scopolamine significantly decreased traveled distance and time spent in target quadrant in probe test. Pretreatment of rats with sesame oil (0.5 mg/kg) mitigated scopolamine-induced behavioral alterations. Measurement of MDA, SOD, and GPX in brain tissue, and FRAP and TAS in blood showed little changes in animals which had received scopolamine or sesame oil. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebroventricular injection of scopolamine has a residual effect on memory after six days. Sesame oil has an improving effect on spatial memory; however this effect is possibly mediated by mechanisms other than antioxidant effect of sesame oil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Scopolamine/adverse effects , Sesame Oil/administration & dosage , Amnesia/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/chemistry , Ferric Compounds/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Maze Learning , Disease Models, Animal , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Glutathione Peroxidase/chemistry , Amnesia/chemically induced , Injections, Intraventricular , Memory/drug effects , Antioxidants/chemistry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51943

ABSTRACT

Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Acetylcholinesterase , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Carbuncle , Dianthus , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory , Mice , Scopolamine , Up-Regulation , Urethritis , Water
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 859-863, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179839

ABSTRACT

Hypercontractile esophagus (nicknamed jackhammer esophagus) is a recently defined disease within the esophageal motility disorders classification. Responses to treatments for jackhammer esophagus have been inconsistent in previous trials, possibly due to its heterogeneous manifestation. Thus, we reviewed 10 patients diagnosed with jackhammer esophagus and compared their clinical and manometric features at baseline. Additionally, manometric and symptomatic responses after treatment with known smooth muscle relaxants, including anticholinergic drugs (cimetropium bromide and scopolamine butylbromide) and a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil) were compared. We observed two distinct subgroups in the findings: one with hypercontractility and normal distal latencies (“classic jackhammer esophagus,” n=7) and the other with hypercontractility and short distal latencies (“spastic jackhammer esophagus,” n=3). The two types also differed in their responses to medications in that symptoms improved upon treatment with an anticholinergic agent in classic jackhammer esophagus patients, while spastic jackhammer esophagus was unresponsive to both the anticholinergic drugs and the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. In conclusion, hypercontractile esophagus may be a heterogeneous disease with different underlying pathophysiologies. We introduced two novel terms, “classic jackhammer esophagus” and “spastic jackhammer esophagus,” to distinguish the two types.


Subject(s)
Classification , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophagus , Humans , Muscle Spasticity , Muscle, Smooth , Scopolamine
16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 30(4): 668-673, sep.-dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O leiomioma cutâneo piloeretor (LCP) é um tumor benigno de pele, de incidência rara, proveniente do músculo eretor do pelo. Sua apresentação clínica mais frequente é o aparecimento de nódulos isolados ou em grande número. Em geral, são dolorosos, sensíveis ao frio, toque, pressão e à emoção. Vários agentes farmacológicos têm sido utilizados com algum sucesso para redução da dor e do desconforto local. Entretanto, em casos nos quais os sintomas dolorosos são intensos ou causam restrição social, a cirurgia torna-se uma abordagem alternativa a ser considerada. Neste artigo relatamos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, portador de múltiplos leiomiomas cutâneos na parede torácica anterior à esquerda e no abdome, bem como a terapêutica utilizada para seu caso. Métodos: O tratamento compreendeu a ressecção cirúrgica total da lesão, com fechamento da ferida com o uso de enxerto de pele parcial, retirado da região anterolateral da coxa direita. Resultados: A reconstrução imediata do defeito resultante, com enxerto de pele parcial, assegurou a cicatrização sem intercorrências. Após o tratamento, houve completa remissão do quadro doloroso, o que permitiu completa reintegração social do paciente, tendo sido alcançado ainda resultado estético aceitável. Conclusão: O LCP constitui patologia de difícil tratamento, embora tenha várias possibilidades terapêuticas. A ressecção cirúrgica completa de múltiplos leiomiomas cutâneos pode impedir a recorrência da doença, embora alguma recidiva local seja relatada na literatura.


Introduction: Cutaneous pilar leiomyoma (CPL) is a rare benign skin tumor arising from arrector pili muscles. Its most common clinical manifestation is the appearance of nodules that may either be isolated or clustered. In general, these tumors are painful and sensitive to cold, touch, pressure, and emotional stimuli. Several pharmacological agents have been used with some success to reduce local pain and discomfort. However, in cases with intensely painful symptoms or that cause social constraints to the patient, surgery becomes an alternative approach. Here, we report the case of a male patient with multiple cutaneous leiomyomas in the left anterior chest wall and abdomen, and the therapeutic approaches used for this case. Methods: The treatment included a complete surgical resection of the tumor and wound closure with partial skin graft taken from the anterolateral region of the right thigh. Results: The immediate reconstruction of the resulting defect with a partial skin graft ensured healing without complications. After the treatment, complete remission of the pain symptoms occurred, in addition to an acceptable aesthetic outcome, which allowed the full social reintegration of the patient. Conclusion: CPL is a disease that is difficult to treat; however, several therapeutic approaches can be used. The complete surgical resection of multiple cutaneous leiomyomas can prevent the recurrence of the disease, although some local recurrences have been reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , History, 21st Century , Scopolamine , Skin , Skin Neoplasms , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Wounds and Injuries , Skin Transplantation , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Thoracic Wall , Clinical Study , Hip , Leiomyoma , Scopolamine/therapeutic use , Skin/injuries , Skin/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/surgery , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/complications , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy , Skin Transplantation/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Thoracic Wall/surgery , Hip/surgery , Leiomyoma/surgery , Leiomyoma/pathology
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 191-198, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251796

ABSTRACT

A series of [1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]isoindolone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterases (AChE). Furthermore, their effects on memory impairment of mice induced by scopolamine were investigated with step-through test. The results suggested that most of the target compounds exhibited potential inhibition on AChE with IC50 values at micromolar range. Compounds I1 (IC50 value of 0.086 μmol · L(-1)) and I2 (IC50 value of 0.080 μmol · L(-1)) showed the strongest AChE inhibitory activity, which are equipotent to donepezil (IC50 value of 0.094 μmol · L(-1)). Moreover, compounds I1-I4 could improve the memory impairment induced by scopolamine in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Chemistry , Dioxoles , Chemistry , Drug Design , Indans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Isoindoles , Chemistry , Memory Disorders , Drug Therapy , Mice , Piperidines , Scopolamine
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1346-1355, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320078

ABSTRACT

Hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase (H6H) is the last rate-limiting enzyme directly catalyzing the formation of scopolamine in tropane alkaloids (TAs) biosynthesis pathway. It is the primary target gene in the genetic modification of TAs metabolic pathway. Full-length cDNA and gDNA sequences of a novel H6H gene were cloned from Datura arborea (DaH6H, GenBank accession numbers for cDNA and gDNA are KR006981 and KR006983, respectively). Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 1375 bp encoding 347 amino acids in the cDNA of DaH6H, while the gDNA of DaH6H contains four exons and three introns, with the highest similarity to the gDNA of H6H from D. stramonium. DaH6H also exhibited the most identity of 90.5% with DsH6H in amino acids and harbored conserved 2-oxoglutarate binding motif and two iron binding motifs. The expression level of DaH6H was highest in the mature leaf, followed by the secondary root, and with no expression in the primary root based on qPCR analysis. Its expression was inhibited by MeJA. DaH6H was expressed in E. coli and a 39 kD recombinant protein was detected in SDS-PAGE. Comparison of the contents of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in various TAs-producing plants revealed that D. arborea was one of the rare scopolamine predominant plants. Cloning of DaH6H gene will allow more research in the molecular regulatory mechanism of TAs biosynthesis in distinct plants and provide a new candidate gene for scopolamine metabolic engineering.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Datura , Genetics , Escherichia coli , Hyoscyamine , Chemistry , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Genetics , Plant Leaves , Plant Roots , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Scopolamine , Chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267151

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effect of Nigella sativa (NS) extract on memory performance and its possible mechanisms in scopolamine (Sco)-induced spatial memory impairment model using Morris water maze test.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received saline instead of both NS extract and Sco. The Sco group was treated by saline for two weeks, and was injected by Sco (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before each trail in Morris water maze test. Sco+NS 200 and Sco+NS 400 groups were daily treated by 200 or 400 mg/kg of NS (intraperitoneally) for two weeks, respectively, and were finally injected by Sco 30 min before Morris water maze test. The brains of animals were removed to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress criteria in cortical tissues.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Time latency and path length in the Sco group were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.01), while the Sco+NS 400 group showed a significantly shorter traveled path length and time latency compared with the Sco group (P<0.01). AChE activity in the cortical tissues of the Sco group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.01), while AChE activity in the Sco+NS 200 and Sco+NS 400 groups was lower than the Sco group (P<0.01). Following Sco administration, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased (P<0.01) in comparison with the control group, while cortical total thiol content decreased (P<0.01). Pretreatment with extracts caused a significant elevation in cortical total thiol content (P<0.01) and reduction in cortical MDA concentration (P<0.01) compared with the Sco group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Hydro-alcoholic extract of NS prevents Sco-induced spatial memory deficits and decreases the AChE activity as well as oxidative stress of brain tissues in rats. Our results support the traditional belief about the beneficial effects of NS in nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are needed for better understanding of this protective effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Ethanol , Chemistry , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Maze Learning , Memory Disorders , Drug Therapy , Nigella sativa , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Wistar , Reaction Time , Scopolamine , Spatial Memory , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Metabolism , Water , Chemistry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167399

ABSTRACT

Clozapine has been demonstrated to be useful for treating refractory schizophrenia. However, hypersalivation occurs in 31.0-97.4% of the patients treated with clozapine. Accordingly, some patients who are disturbed by their hypersalivation refuse to continue with clozapine treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of the anticholinergic agent scopolamine butylbromide against clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Five schizophrenia patients were coadministered scopolamine butylbromide (30-60 mg/day) for 4 weeks. At the baseline and after 4 weeks' treatment, we subjectively evaluated hypersalivation using a visual analog scale and objectively assessed it using the Drooling Severity Scale and Drooling Frequency Scale. As a result, improvements in the patients' Drooling Severity Scale and Drooling Frequency Scale scores, but no improvements in their visual analog scale scores, were observed after scopolamine butylbromide treatment. These results indicate that at least some schizophrenic patients with clozapine-induced hypersalivation would benefit from scopolamine butylbromide treatment. We conclude that clozapine-induced hypersalivation is one factor of stress to patients. Subjective hypersalivation was not improved, but objective hypersalivation was, by scopolamine butylbromide treatment. However, scopolamine butylbromide and clozapine possess anticholinergic effects so clinicians should closely monitor patients who take scopolamine butylbromide.


Subject(s)
Clozapine , Humans , Schizophrenia , Scopolamine , Sialorrhea , Visual Analog Scale
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