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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 80-84, mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362715

ABSTRACT

El envenenamiento debido a picadora de escorpiones es reportado en diferentes países de Suramérica, en algunos, como México, es un problema de salud pública. En Colombia el accidente por escorpiones no es de reporte obligatorio, por lo que hay subregistro de casos. Los accidentes por este tipo de animales ponzoñosos se asocian a manifestaciones locales, y en casos de gravedad moderada a severa, a problemas cardiovasculares y neurológicos. Sin embargo, es importante reconocer manifestaciones que, aunque reportadas con menos frecuencia, implican gran morbilidad, como la pancreatitis y las alteraciones renales, entre las que está la nefritis. Se reporta el caso de un varón de 46 años, que presentó un accidente por Tytus, con nefritis intersticial. Este es el primer reporte de esta complicación en Colombia. Nuestro objetivo principal es resaltar la importancia de una pronta identificación de casos y un oportuno inicio del tratamiento por parte del personal de la salud, que permitan disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad de estos pacientes.


Scorpion poisoning is reported in different countries in South America, especially in Mexico, where it has become a public health issue. In Colombia this type of accident is not mandatory to report, therefore, there is underreporting of cases. Accidents caused by these poisonous animals are mainly associated with local manifestations and, in cases of moderate to severe severity, to cardiovascular and neurological problems. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize other manifestations which, despite being reported less frequently, are associated with high morbidity such as pancreatitis and renal alterations, among which is nephritis. The case of a 46-year-old male patient is reported, who had an accident due to Tytus and presented interstitial nephritis. This is the first report of this complication in Colombia, and based on this, the main objective is to highlight the importance of prompt identification and treatment by health personnel, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients.


O envenenamento devido a picadora de escorpiões é reportado em diferentes países da América Latina, em alguns, como México, é um problema de saúde pública. Na Colômbiao acidente por escorpiões não é de reporte obrigatório, porque há sub-registro de casos. Os acidentes por este tipo de animais peçonhentos se associam a manifestações locais, e em casos de gravidade moderada a severa, a problemas cardiovasculares e neurológicos. Entretanto, é importante reconhecer manifestações que, embora reportadas com menos frequência, implicam grande morbilidade, como a pancreatite e as alterações renais, entre as que está a nefrite. Se reporta o caso de um homem de 46 anos, que apresentou um acidente por Tytus, com nefrite intersticial. Este é o primeiro reporte desta complicação na Colômbia. Nosso objetivo principal é ressaltar a importância de uma breve identificação de casos e um oportuno início do tratamento por parte do pessoal da saúde, que permitam diminuir a morbilidade e mortalidade destes pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Scorpions , Acute Kidney Injury , Scorpion Stings , Animals, Poisonous , Nephritis
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210036, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356460

ABSTRACT

Background: Scorpions are arachnids that have a generalist diet, which use venom to subdue their prey. The study of their trophic ecology and capture behavior is still limited compared to other organisms, and aspects such as trophic specialization in this group have been little explored. Methods: In order to determine the relationship between feeding behavior and venom toxicity in the scorpion species Tityus fuhrmanni, 33 specimens were offered prey with different morphologies and defense mechanisms: spiders, cockroaches and crickets. In each of the experiments we recorded the following aspects: acceptance rate, immobilization time and the number of capture attempts. The median lethal dose of T. fuhrmanni venom against the three different types of prey was also evaluated. Results: We found that this species does not have a marked difference in acceptance for any of the evaluated prey, but the number of capture attempts of spiders is higher when compared to the other types of prey. The immobilization time is shorter in spiders compared to other prey and the LD50 was higher for cockroaches. Conclusions: These results indicate that T. fuhrmanni is a scorpion with a generalist diet, has a venom with a different potency among prey and is capable of discriminating between prey types and employing distinct strategies to subdue them.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Scorpions , Hunt , Toxicity , Feeding Behavior , Food Chain , Defense Mechanisms , Lethal Dose 50
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210050, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360569

ABSTRACT

Scorpionism is a worldwide problem that has already made thousands of victims, and multi-disciplinary approaches for controlling their populations are to be more successful. Hens are often mentioned as tools for controlling scorpions; however, systematic/experimental behavioral studies are not available. Moreover, there is no systematic information on the effect of scorpion venoms on hens. Using the venomous yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, the present study aimed to clarify the following aspects: (1) voracity of hens, (2) how hens react when stung, (3) the effect of scorpion stings on hen behavior during attacks, and (4) hen survivorship after feeding on scorpions. Methods: We attracted hens with corn powder, offered them scorpions and then recorded the hen-scorpion interaction. To test the effects of the sting we manually removed the scorpion's telson. Results: We found that some hens ate up to six scorpions within minutes. By means of an ethogram and drawings, we showed that they exhibited several aversive behaviors when capturing scorpions. Removal of the scorpion telson stopped the aversive reactions, which was not observed in the control group. Finally, hens did not exhibit atypical behaviors after 1, 7 and 30 days and were all alive after 30 days. Conclusion: This is the first empirical and video recorded study providing evidence that hens are clearly affected by scorpion venom but do not die. Therefore, they may have potential to be used in biological control of these arthropods.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpion Venoms/poisoning , Biological Products , Scorpion Stings , Scorpions , Chickens/metabolism , Zea mays
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238110, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249261

ABSTRACT

Abstract Scorpionic accidents are a major public health problem due to the high occurrence with potential seriousness. In this manner, the research aimed to analyze the occurrence of scorpionic accidents in a municipality in the northeastern of Brazil. An exploratory, descriptive study was made, with a quantitative approach, using secondary data which was gotten from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN), from 2008 to 2018. Data such as neighborhood, presence of street markets were also used, and the existence of sanitation and climatic data such as temperature and season. Geoprocessing was used to identify possible changes in the environment. In the analyzed period, 9,330 cases of scorpion accidents were recorded, with an average of 848 annual notifications. Scorpionic accidents occurred more frequently in women (5,686; 60.94%). Individuals aged 20 to 29 years (1.727; 18.51%) were more frequent to scorpion stings. Regarding the body parts where the stings were made, the highlights were on the foot (3.515; 37.67%) followed by the hand (2.818; 30.20%). No statistically significant relation was observed between climatic factors and scorpionic accidents. However, the high number of cases of scorpionic accidents was observed in the last 11 years studied. It was evident that during the study period there was no statistical relationship when climatic factors were correlated to scorpionic accidents. On its turn, when it was verified the results of the geoprocessing analysis, it was seen that anthropic factors have been motivating the potentiation of the occurrence of these accidents.


Resumo Os acidentes escorpiônicos apresentam-se como um grande problema de saúde pública em virtude da grande ocorrência com potencial gravidade. Nesse sentido, o trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de acidentes escorpiônicos em um município do nordeste brasileiro. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, de caráter exploratório, com abordagem quantitativa em que foram utilizados dados secundários obtidos no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN), no período de 2008 a 2018. Também foram utilizados dados como bairro, presença de feiras livres e a existência de saneamento básico e dados climáticos como temperatura e estação do ano. O geoprocessamento foi utilizado para identificar as possíveis alterações no ambiente. No período analisado, foram registrados 9,330 casos de acidentes com escorpião, com média de 848 notificações anuais. Os acidentes escorpiônicos ocorreram com mais frequência em mulheres (5,686; 60,94%). Em indivíduos na faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos (1,727; 18,51%) foram mais frequentes a picada de escorpião. Com relação ao local das picadas destacaram-se o pé (3,515; 37,67%), seguido da mão (2,818; 30,20%). Não foi observada relação estatisticamente significativa entre os fatores clímáticos e os acidentes escorpiônicos. Foi observado elevado número de casos de acidentes escorpiônicos nos últimos 11 anos estudados. Ficou evidente que durante o período de estudo não existiu relação estatística quando se correlacionou fatores climáticos aos acidentes escorpiônicos. Por sua vez, ao verificar os resultados da análise de geoprocessamento foi visto que fatores antrópicos têm sido motivadores da potencialização da ocorrência desses acidentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Scorpions , Accidents , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cities
5.
Iatreia ; 34(4): 295-306, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350829

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: describir las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y paraclínicas de los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de Neiva, entre los años 2014 y 2018 e identificar los factores de riesgo que se asocien con la mortalidad. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional analítico retrospectivo. Se calcularon las medias, la desviación estándar, frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Se realizó un análisis de normalidad con el Test de Shapiro-Wilk. Se evaluó la asociación de diferentes variables sociodemográficas y clínicas con el riesgo de mortalidad usando regresión logística. Resultados: se registraron 305 eventos, predominantemente leves (117 casos). El 2018 fue el año con mayor número de reportes (35,45 %). La mayoría eran personas jóvenes con una edad media de 17 años, principalmente de los 0 a 11 años (61 %). Más del 90% eran pacientes residentes del departamento Huila y más de la mitad (67 %) pertenecían al régimen subsidiado. La mayoría de las picaduras ocurrieron durante el día, siendo las extremidades la ubicación más frecuentemente reportada (82 %). Se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre un cuadro grave y la mayor necesidad de UCI. Conclusiones: el escorpionismo es un problema de salud pública infravalorado en Colombia. La población pediátrica tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones y síntomas graves en la escorpiotoxicosis. Un cuadro grave en cualquier edad aumenta la probabilidad de ingreso a una UCI, requerimiento frecuente de soporte hídrico e inotrópico y la necesidad de antihipertensivos, al igual que dosis elevadas de antiveneno.


SUMMARY Objective: To describe the sociodemographic, clinical and paraclinical characteristics of the patients treated at the Neiva University Hospital between 2014 and 2018, and identify risk factors that are associated with mortality. Materials and Methods: Observational, analytic retrospective, study. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Normality analysis was performed with the Shapiro-Wilk Test. The relationship of different sociodemographic and clinical variables and the risk of mortality were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: 305 events were registered, predominantly mild (117 cases), being 2018 the year with the highest number of reports (35.45%). Most were young people, with a mean age of 17 years, mainly between 0-11 years (61%). More than 90% resided in the Huila department and more than half (67%) belonged to the subsidized regime. Most bites occurred during the day, with the extremities being the most frequently reported location (82%). A statistically significant association was found between a severe condition and an increased need for an ICU. Conclusions: Scorpionism is an undervalued public health problem in Colombia. The pediatric population is at increased risk of developing severe complications and symptoms in scorpiotoxicosis. A severe condition at any age increases the probability of ICU admission, more frequent requirement for inotropic and liquids supply, and the use of antihypertensive drugs and high doses of anti-venom.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mortality , Scorpion Stings , Scorpions , Signs and Symptoms , Bites and Stings , Public Health , Research Report
6.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(1): 11-29, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360067

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las picaduras por alacranes pueden producir cuadros de intoxicación aguda y conducir a la muerte por falla cardíaca y distrés respiratorio, siendo la población pediátrica la de mayor riesgo, tanto en Argentina como en el resto del mundo. Muchasde las especies de escorpiones en el mundo son sinantrópicas, y en Argentina, las que se han relacionado con muertes, comoTityus trivittatus y Tityus confluens, poseen esas características. La sinantropía, aumenta la posibilidad de contacto humano -escorpión y por lo tanto la ocurrencia de accidentes, por lo que las medidas de prevención en este caso, deben tomarse no soloconductualmente sino ambientalmente para evitar ese contacto. Las características biológicas de los escorpiones del géneroTityus dificultan las labores de prevención. Muchas son las herramientas para disminuir el contacto con los escorpiones y de esamanera prevenir los accidentes como los controles químicos, biológicos y ambientales, así como la búsqueda y eliminación deescorpiones. Sin embargo, no todas son efectivas si no son aplicadas racionalmente y si no son combinadas. En ocasiones lamala planificación o uso de las diferentes medidas para el combate de escorpiones pueden ser contraproducentes y no solo serinefectivas sino aumentar la probabilidad de ocurrencia de accidentes. En esta revisión se exponen los diferentes métodos deprevención del escorpionismo, con especial referencia a las especies de Tityus de Argentina.


Abstract Scorpion stings may produce acute envenoming and lead to death from heart failure and respiratory distress, being the pediatric population that with the highest risk of severe envenomation and death, in Argentina as in the rest of the world. Manyof the scorpion species in the world are synanthropic, including Tityus trivittatus and Tityus confluens, which are responsible forhuman deaths in Argentina. Synanthropy increases the possibility of human-scorpion contact and therefore the occurrence ofaccidents, so preventive measures to avoid the contact must be taken not only behaviorally but environmentally. The biologi-cal characteristics of scorpions of the genus Tityus make prevention of the contact with humans rather difficult. There are manychemical, biological and environmental tools to reduce the possibility of contact between humans and scorpions. However, notall these measures are effective if they are not rationally applied and if these are not combined. Sometimes the poor planningor use of different measures to control scorpions' population can be counterproductive and not only ineffective, increasing theprobability of accidents. In this review, we discuss the different methods of prevention and combat of scorpionism, with specialreference to the prevention of accidents with Tityus species from Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Scorpions , Pest Control, Biological , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Scorpion Stings/prevention & control , Arachnid Control/methods , Argentina/epidemiology , Scorpion Stings/epidemiology
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 29-40, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249056

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Los accidentes causados por animales venenosos ocurren con mucha frecuencia en comunidades pobres con acceso limitado a los servicios de salud. Se les consideran enfermedades desatendidas y son una de las causas importantes de morbimortalidad en varias naciones del mundo, incluida Venezuela. Objetivo. Evaluar la mortalidad por contacto traumático con animales venenosos (serie X20-X29) en Venezuela en el periodo de 2000 a 2009. Materiales y métodos. Los datos se obtuvieron de los anuarios de mortalidad del Ministerio de Salud. Resultados. Se registraron 759 decesos, la mayoría de ellos en el 2009. La primera causa fue la mordedura de serpientes (n=323; 42,6 %), seguida por la picadura de himenópteros (n=170; 22,4 %), la mordedura de centípedos (n=106; 14,0 %) y la picadura de escorpiones (n=76; 10,0 %). La mediana de la tasa de mortalidad general para el periodo fue de 0,285 fallecidos por 100.000 habitantes, en tanto que, por grupo específico, fue de 0,120 para ofidios, de 0,065 para himenópteros, de 0,035 para centípedos y de 0,025 para escorpiones. Conclusión. Al comparar estos datos con los antecedentes históricos, se evidenció la modificación del patrón de mortalidad en el país caracterizada por un aumento significativo de los decesos por centípedos, tercera causa de muerte, lo que reubica la picadura de escorpiones como la cuarta causa de mortalidad.


Abstract | Introduction: Injuries by venomous animals frequently occur in impoverished communities with limited access to health services. They are considered neglected diseases that stand out as important causes of morbidity and mortality in various countries, including Venezuela. Objective: To assess mortalities resulting from contact with venomous animals in Venezuela from 2000 to 2009 (X20-X29 series). Materials and Methods: The data were obtained from the annual mortality records of the Venezuelan Ministry of Health. Results: From 2000-2009, 759 fatalities were recorded with the greatest number taking place in 2009. Snakebites (n=323; 42.6%) accounted for the largest percentage of envenomation-related deaths in that period, followed by hymenopteran stings (n=170; 22.4%), centipede bites (n=106; 14.0%), and scorpion stings (n=76; 10.0%). The median value of envenomation-related deaths per 100,000 inhabitants (period 2000-2009) was 0.285: 0.120 corresponded to snakebites, 0.065 to hymenopteran stings, 0.035 to centipede bites, and 0.025 to scorpion stings. Conclusions: Taking into account previous records of animal envenomations in Venezuela, we provided evidence for a shift in the pattern of mortality. Deaths due to centipede bites have increased, making it the third leading cause of envenomation-related mortality in Venezuela. Scorpionism, on the other hand, has declined to the fourth most common cause of fatal envenomations in the country.


Subject(s)
Scorpions , Snakes , Mortality , Hymenoptera , Epidemiology
9.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-7, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1284450

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los envenenamientos producidos por escorpiones son un problema de salud pública en constante aumento en Argentina y el mundo. Por diversas causas, los ensambles de animales venenosos de una región varían en el tiempo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar la información reciente y actualizar el elenco de escorpiones de la provincia de Misiones. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional a partir de la revisión de los ejemplares depositados en la Colección de Herpetología y Arácnidos del Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron los primeros registros para la provincia de Tityus confluens, mientras que nuevos registros de accidentes con Tityus trivittatus ampliaron la zona de presencia de la especie en la provincia. El ensamble de escorpiones de Misiones reúne a las cuatro especies de interés médico del país. DISCUSIÓN: La detección del elenco de escorpiones de interés médico más importante del país fue consecuencia del trabajo conjunto entre los especialistas de los distintos grupos de animales ponzoñosos y los profesionales de la salud. Es importante generar y profundizar los espacios de interacción de saberes, con el objetivo de mejorar la Vigilancia de la Salud


Subject(s)
Scorpions , Toxicology , Travel Medicine , Public Health Surveillance , Ecoepidemiology
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e55, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252036

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives. To assess the productivity and visibility in research, clinical studies, treatment, use and production of antivenoms against poisonous snakes, scorpions and spiders. Methods. Bibliometric analysis of research and other activities. Articles on venoms and antivenoms published between 2000 and 2020 were retrieved from the Scopus database. The records were analyzed by bibliometric indicators including number of documents per year, journals, authors, and citation frequency. VOSviewer® v.1.6.13 was used to construct bibliometric networks for country co-authorships and co-occurrence of terms. Results. Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica and India were among the six top countries with most documents and were selected for more detailed analysis. Costa Rica was the country with the largest percentage of its publications dedicated to antivenom production and venomics. Only a few papers dealt with the issues of quality, safety, and efficacy of antivenoms or the role of the national regulatory authorities. The use of VOSviewer® allowed visualization through joint publications of networking between countries. Visualization by co-occurrence of terms showed differences in the research carried out. Conclusions. Working in a collaborative and coordinated manner these four countries could have a major impact on envenoming globally. Attention should be given not only to antivenom production but also to strengthening regulatory oversight of antivenom products.


RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la productividad y la visibilidad en la investigación, los estudios clínicos, el tratamiento, el uso y la producción de antivenenos contra las picaduras de serpientes, arañas y escorpiones venenosos. Métodos. Análisis bibliométrico de la investigación y de las otras actividades. Se tomaron los artículos sobre venenos y antivenenos publicados entre el 2000 y el 2020 en la base de datos de Scopus. Estos documentos se analizaron mediante indicadores bibliométricos como el número de documentos por año, revistas, autores o frecuencia en las citas. Se utilizó VOSviewer® v.1.6.13 para crear una red bibliométrica para coautorías de países y coapariciones de términos. Resultados. Australia, Brasil, Costa Rica e India estaban entre los seis primeros países con más documentos y se seleccionaron para un análisis más detallado. Costa Rica fue el país con el mayor porcentaje de sus publicaciones dedicadas a la producción de antivenenos y la venómica. Solo unos pocos artículos trataban los temas de la calidad, la seguridad y la eficacia de los antivenenos, o la función de las autoridades regulatorias nacionales. Gracias a VOSviewer® pudimos visualizar las publicaciones conjuntas de las colaboraciones entre países. La visualización por la coaparición de términos arrojó diferencias en la investigación realizada. Conclusiones. Si estos cuatro países trabajasen de forma colaborativa y coordinada, podrían tener una repercusión mayor en los envenenamientos por picaduras en el mundo. El foco no debe ponerse solo en la producción de antivenenos, sino también en fortalecer la supervisión regulatoria de estos productos.


RESUMO Objetivos. Avaliar a produtividade e visibilidade em pesquisa, estudos clínicos, tratamento, uso e produção de antivenenos contra peçonhas de serpentes, escorpiões e aranhas. Métodos. Análise bibliométrica de pesquisas e outras atividades. Artigos sobre venenos e antivenenos publicados entre 2000 e 2020 foram obtidos da base de dados Scopus. O conteúdo foi analisado segundo indicadores bibliométricos, como número de artigos por ano, periódicos, autores e frequência de citação. Utilizou-se o software VOSviewer® v.1.6.13 para construir redes bibliométricas de coautoria de países e co-ocorrência de termos. Resultados. Austrália, Brasil, Costa Rica e Índia figuraram entre os seis principais países com o maior número de artigos e, assim, foram selecionados para uma análise mais aprofundada. A Costa Rica teve a maior porcentagem de publicações dedicadas à produção de antivenenos e pesquisa em venômica. Apenas um pequeno número de artigos tratou de questões relacionadas à qualidade, segurança e eficácia dos antivenenos ou ao papel das autoridades nacionais reguladoras. O software VOSviewer® permitiu visualizar, através das publicações conjuntas, as redes formadas entre diferentes países. A visualização por co-ocorrência de termos revelou diferenças nas pesquisas realizadas. Conclusões. Trabalhando de forma colaborativa e coordenada, esses quatro países tiveram uma influência importante em nível mundial no campo de acidentes por animais peçonhentos. Deve-se atentar não apenas à produção de antivenenos, mas também ao fortalecimento da fiscalização regulatória destes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Venoms/poisoning , Bites and Stings/therapy , Bibliometrics , Animals, Poisonous/classification , Antidotes , Periodicals as Topic , Scorpions , Spiders , Elapidae , Bibliometric Indicators , Newspapers as Topic
11.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210012, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340185

ABSTRACT

Scorpionism is a relevant medical condition in Brazil. It is responsible for most accidents involving venomous animals in the country, which leads to severe symptoms that can evolve to death. In recent years, an increase of almost 50% in the incidence of scorpionism has been observed in the Northern Region, where the highest severity of envenoming has been notified since the beginning of the 21st century. This review aims to provide an in-depth assessment of public data and reports on symptoms and epidemiology of envenoming, ecological aspects of scorpions, and characterization of venoms and toxins to access the gaps that need to be filled in the knowledge of the scorpion species of medical importance from the Brazilian Amazon. A systematic search using the string words "Amazon" and "scorpion" was performed on 11 databases. No restriction on date, language or status of the publication was applied. Reports not related to the Brazilian Amazon were excluded. Therefore, 88 studies remained. It is shown that populations of scorpions of medical importance, even of the same species, may present significant toxic variations peculiar to some regions in the Brazilian Amazon, and commercial scorpion antivenoms were not able to shorten the intensity and duration of neurological manifestations in patients stung by T. silvestris, T. apiacas or T. obscurus. It is also highlighted that the toxins responsible for triggering these alterations have not been elucidated yet and this is a fruitful field for the development of more efficient antivenoms. Furthermore, the geographic distribution of scorpions of the genus Tityus in the Brazilian Amazon was revised and updated. The cumulative and detailed information provided in this review may help physicians and scientists interested in scorpionism in the Brazilian Amazon.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpions/classification , Endemic Diseases , Scorpion Stings , Animals, Poisonous
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210026, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351023

ABSTRACT

Pain is a common symptom induced during envenomation by spiders and scorpions. Toxins isolated from their venom have become essential tools for studying the functioning and physiopathological role of ion channels, as they modulate their activity. In particular, toxins that induce pain relief effects can serve as a molecular basis for the development of future analgesics in humans. This review provides a summary of the different scorpion and spider toxins that directly interact with pain-related ion channels, with inhibitory or stimulatory effects. Some of these toxins were shown to affect pain modalities in different animal models providing information on the role played by these channels in the pain process. The close interaction of certain gating-modifier toxins with membrane phospholipids close to ion channels is examined along with molecular approaches to improve selectivity, affinity or bioavailability in vivo for therapeutic purposes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pain , Scorpions , Spider Venoms , Models, Animal , Ion Channels , Phospholipids , Analgesics
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210005, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351019

ABSTRACT

Background: In the present study, we have tested whether specimens of the medically relevant scorpion Tityus pachyurus, collected from two climatically and ecologically different regions, differ in the biological activities of the venom. Methods: Scorpions were collected in Tolima and Huila, Colombia. Chemical profiles of the crude venom were obtained from 80 scorpions for each region, using SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Assays for phospholipase A2, direct and indirect hemolytic, proteolytic, neuromuscular, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities were carried out. Results: The electrophoretic profiles of venom from the two regions showed similar bands of 6-14 kDa, 36-45 kDa, 65 kDa and 97 kDa. However, bands between 36 kDa and 65 kDa were observed with more intensity in venoms from Tolima, and a 95 kDa band occurred only in venoms from Huila. The chromatographic profile of the venoms showed differences in the intensity of some peaks, which could be associated with changes in the abundance of some components between both populations. Phospholipase A2 and hemolytic activities were not observable, whereas both venoms showed proteolytic activity towards casein. Insecticidal activity of the venoms from both regions showed significant variation in potency, the bactericidal activity was variable and low for both venoms. Moreover, no differences were observed in the neuromuscular activity assay. Conclusion: Our results reveal some variation in the activity of the venom between both populations, which could be explained by the ecological adaptations like differences in feeding, altitude and/or diverse predator exposure. However more in-depth studies are necessary to determine the drivers behind the differences in venom composition and activities.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpions , Biological Products , Phospholipases A2 , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20210028, 2021. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351018

ABSTRACT

Venom from Amazonian scorpions of the genus Tityus contains components capable of eliciting a distinct clinical, mostly neurological, syndrome. This contrasts with the mainly autonomic manifestations produced after envenomation by congeneric southern and northern South American species. Herein, we summarize Pan-Amazonian scorpionism by synthesizing available toxinological, clinical, and molecular data gathered from all affected areas in Amazonia, including Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, and French Guiana. We searched multiple databases, as well as our own records, for reports of scorpion envenomations in Amazonia by confirmed Tityus spp., and compared the clinical manifestations. To help uncover clinical and venom relationships among problematic species, we explored phylogenetic relationships with a rate-calibrated analysis of mitochondrial COI data from available species. The possible existence of diversity gradients for venom toxic and immunogenic components despite the predicted strong phylogenetic association among species is underscored by discussed clinical and toxinological findings. A multicentric effort, involving all nations affected by this neglected disease, is urgently needed to offer alternatives for treating and understanding this pathology, including the preparation of neutralizing antibodies with a broad range of efficacy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Scorpions , Toxicology , Antibodies, Neutralizing
15.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 20 ene. 2020. a) f: 31 l:36 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 22).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1104325

ABSTRACT

Presentación de un caso, notificado el 9 de enero de 2017, a la Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires por un efector privado de la Ciudad, de envenenamiento por animal ponzoñoso (Alacranismo) en un paciente residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se describen el cuadro clínico y el tratamiento recibido, la evolución del caso, la importancia de distintas acciones de vigilancia epidemiológica, el procedimiento de notificación, medidas de protección, y medidas de prevención y control de accidentes. Incluye datos de centros públicos nacionales y de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires especializados en asistencia y/o in-formación sobre animales venenosos


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Adult , Scorpions/pathogenicity , Antivenins/administration & dosage , Antivenins/therapeutic use , Scorpion Stings/complications , Scorpion Stings/pathology , Scorpion Stings/prevention & control , Scorpion Stings/therapy , Scorpion Stings/epidemiology , Accident Prevention/instrumentation , Accident Prevention/methods , Animals, Poisonous
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190285, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092206

ABSTRACT

Abstract This reports a case of scorpionism caused by Tityus serrulatus. A male adult was stung while unloading bananas at the supply center in Belém, Pará, Brazil. The bananas originated in another state (Bahia) and were brought to Belém by truck. The patient presented with pain, edema, and erythema at the sting site, and was classified as low-risk. The specimen was identified as T. serrulatus and symptomatic treatment and clinical observation were advised. The patient was discharged later without further complications. This is the first known envenomation caused by T. serrulatus, a non-native species to Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Scorpions/classification , Scorpion Stings/diagnosis , Pain/etiology , Brazil , Scorpion Stings/complications
17.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200128, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135154

ABSTRACT

As in previous contributions to the JVATiTD, the aim of this note is to bring some general information on a particular aspect of the scorpion biology. An attempt is made to explain the possible coevolution of telson morphology and venom glands, which took place during several hundred million years and in particular since scorpions migrated from aquatic to terrestrial environments. Three components can be directly associated with predation and defensive behaviours: (1) morphology of the chelae and structure of the chelae fingers granulations; (2) morphology of the metasoma and in particular of the telson; (3) evolution of tegumentary glands in the telson toward different types of venom glands. Since a number of recent contributions already treated some of these aspects, I will limit my comments to the possible evolution of the telson in relation to the evolution of venom glands. As in previous contributions, the content of this article is basically addressed to non-specialists on scorpions whose research embraces scorpions in several fields such as venom toxins and public health.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poisons , Predatory Behavior , Scorpions , Biological Coevolution
18.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e202000038, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135142

ABSTRACT

The Amazon basin is one of the seven major geographical areas where scorpionism is recorded. In French Guiana, 90 stings per 100,000 inhabitants are registered per year. As the severity of cases is higher in children, descriptive studies are needed to have a better understanding of this pathology. The aim of the present study is to describe pediatric scorpionism in French Guiana. Methods: We conducted a monocentric descriptive retrospective study on scorpion stings in all pediatric patients admitted to Cayenne General Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2018. Results: In this survey, 132 patients were included. Of them, 63% were male. Patients with general signs of envenomation were younger and lighter (p = 0.04). The picture was "one sting" (95.3%) by a "big" (47.6%), "black" (60%) and "small pincer" (58%) scorpion on the extremity of the body (84%). Stings occurred mainly during the day, while patients changed clothes. There was no envenomation during night. The monthly evaluation highlights that the number of stings and percentage of general signs of envenomation were closely connected to a composite variable including the variation of the level of rivers (p = 0.005). Cardiac symptoms were recorded in 82% of cases with general signs of envenomation. The presence of pulmonary; ear, nose, and throat (ENT); or gastrointestinal symptoms are related to major envenomation (p = 0.001, p = 0.01, and p = 0.02 respectively). Leukocytosis and glycemia increased according to the envenomation grade whereas serum potassium and alkaline reserve decreased. Forty-six patients needed hospitalization and seven of them required intensive care. No patient died nor presented sequelae at discharge from the hospital. Conclusion: Pediatric scorpionism in French Guiana is closely associated with child activities and climatic conditions. Severe envenomation presented most of the time with cardiac, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal symptoms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpions , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Environmental Statistics , Scorpion Stings/epidemiology , Poisoning/diagnosis
19.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200041, 2020. mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135139

ABSTRACT

The aim of this contribution is to bring some precise information on the reasons why the number of noxious scorpion species is constantly growing. This fact is directly associated with the zoological research on the domains generally defined as systematics and taxonomy. The classification of any zoological group is in most cases a source of problem for most biologists not directly involved with this almost confidential aspect of the zoological research. Much information has been gathered and published over two centuries on the classification but it is remains poorly accessible and too technical for non-experts. The exposed example could be taken from several groups of scorpions possessing infamous species, but the choice went to the genus Leiurus Ehrenberg, 1828 distributed from North Africa to the Middle East. Maybe this contribution will help to explain why so numerous cases of species misidentification are regularly present in the general literature devoted to scorpion venoms and incidents.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpion Venoms , Scorpions
20.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190039, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1101268

ABSTRACT

Scorpionism is one of the most important health problems in tropical regions, which unfortunately results in thousands of deaths annually. Pregnant women are potential victims in areas with high scorpion-sting prevalence. Limited medical data are available on the effects of scorpion envenomation in pregnant women. This study aimed to examine the effect of scorpion envenomation on pregnancy outcomes in 66 cases. Methods: The present descriptive/analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 66 scorpion-envenomed pregnant women referred to the clinical toxicology unit of Ahvaz Razi Hospital in Iran during 2015-2017. The variables assessed in all cases, via questionnaire and hospital medical records, were: age, patient residency, gestational week, status of the fetus, laboratory anomalies, clinical severity of envenomation, sting site and scorpion species. Pregnancy outcome (miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, normal delivery) and status of the newborns were also evaluated. Data were analyzed using SPSS ® software (version 24.0). Results: The following pregnancy outcomes were recorded from envenomed pregnant women: miscarriage = 1.5% (n = 1), stillbirth = 4.5% (n = 3), preterm birth = 10.6% (n = 7), normal birth = 83% (n = 55). Among participants whose pregnancy led to birth, 11(17.7%) cases had prenatal-neonatal complications. Neonatal complications, including Apgar score less than 8 points at 5 min, were found in 7 (11.3%) preterm birth cases and in 4 (6.4%) normal birth cases, along with birth weight below 2500 g in normal births. A significant relationship was found between adverse pregnancy outcomes and bite location, as well as scorpion species, but no relationship was found with other variables. Conclusion: Envenomation significantly contributes to preterm birth. Moreover, the location of bites and the type of scorpion species have a decisive role in the pregnancy outcome of scorpion-envenomed pregnant women.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Patients , Scorpions , Bites and Stings , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , Scorpion Stings , Poisoning , Toxicology
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