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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927917

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the chemical constituents of Scrophulariae Radix and their antitumor activities in vitro. The compounds in the ethyl acetate extract were separated and purified by conventional column chromatographies(such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column) and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and their structures were identified by various spectral techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS). Twenty-three compounds were isolated and identified as benzyl-β-D-(3',6'-di-O-acetyl) glucoside(1), 5-O-p-methoxybenzoyl kojic acid(2), 5-O-methoxybenzoyl kojic acid(3), 7-O-methylbenzoyl kojic acid(4), 5-O-benzoyl kojic acid(5), methyl ferulate ethyl ether(6), trans-ferulic acid(7), trans-isoferulic acid(8), trans-caffeic acid(9), trans-caffeic acid methyl ester(10), caffeic acid ethyl ester(11), trans-cinnamic acid(12), trans-p-methoxycinnamic acid(13), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid(14), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester(15), 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl) alcohol(16),(p-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid(17), coniferaldehyde(18), sinapaldehyde(19), benzyl β-primeveroside(20), 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural(21), furan-2-carboxylic acid(22), and decanedioic acid(23). Among them, compound 1 is a new benzyl glucoside, compounds 2-4 are new pyranone compounds, compound 5 is a new natural product of pyranone. The NMR data of compounds 5 and 6 are reported for the first time. Compounds 6 and 20 were isolated from the Scrophularia plant for the first time. Compounds 8, 11, 14, 16, 18, 19, 22, and 23 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of these compounds against three tumor cell lines(HepG2, A549, and 4 T1) were evaluated. The results showed that compounds 10 and 15 showed cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells with IC_(50) values of(19.46±0.48) μmol·L~(-1) and(46.10±1.21) μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Scrophularia/chemistry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879179

ABSTRACT

By establishing the preparation process of Scrophulariaceae Radix reference extract(SRRE) and calibrating it, we discussed its feasibility as a substitute for single reference substance in the quality control of Scrophulariae Radix. The SRREs were prepared by solvent extraction method and chromatographic separation technology, and then calibrated with the reference substances of harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside. The HPLC content determination method of Scrophulariae Radixl was established with SRREs of the known content and the reference substances of harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside respectively as the control ones. Then the content of three components in Scrophulariae Radix was determined, and the t-test method was used to compare the results of the two methods. With SRRE as references, harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside were in a good linear relationship(r≥0.999 8) within each range, and the average recovery rate was 98.55% to 100.6%. The t-test results showed that the P values of two determination methods were 0.493, 0.155 and 0.171 for harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside respectively, indicating no significant diffe-rence between the two methods of content determination. The SRRE can be used as a substitute for the reference in the quality control of Scrophulariaceae Radix. The SRRE can replace the corresponding reference substance for the quality control of Scrophulariae Radix. The results of this study provide new methods and new ideas for the quality evaluation of Scrophulariae Radix, and provide a scientific basis for the application of reference extracts in the quality research of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Quality Control , Scrophularia , Scrophulariaceae
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 586-594, nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102647

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine the main constituents of Scrophularia striata essential oil and to evaluate in vitro effect of essential oil on Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. Chemical constituents of the extracted essential oil were separated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) equipped with a PDMS/DVB fiber. The fiber was injected to gas chromatogram- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) to determine their identity. Finally, after exposure of parasites to different concentrations of water soluble fraction of essential oil, viability of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes were investigated. Based on the HS-SPME results, 47 compounds representing 95.6% of the total oil, were identified in essential oil. Essential oil analysis showed that nonane (19.7%), α-terpineol (17.4%) and linalool (10.2%) were the most abundant compounds. This study indicates that water soluble fraction of S. striata essential oil has promising anti-leishmanial activity.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los principales componentes del aceite esencial de Scrophularia striata y evaluar el efecto in vitro del aceite esencial en promastigotes y amastigotes axénicos de Leishmania tropica y Leishmania major. Los componentes químicos del aceite esencial extraído se separaron mediante microextracción de fase sólida en el espacio superior (HS-SPME) equipado con una fibra PDMS/DVB. Para determinar su identidad la fibra se inyectó en un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado un espectrómetro de masas (GC-MS). Finalmente, después de la exposición de los parásitos a diferentes concentraciones de fracción soluble del aceite esencial en agua, se investigó la viabilidad de los promastigotes y los amastigotes axénicos. En base a los resultados de HS-SPME, se identificaron 47 compuestos que representan el 95.6% del aceite total en el aceite esencial. El análisis de aceites esenciales mostró que el nonano (19.7%), el α-terpineol (17.4%) y el linalol (10.2%) fueron los compuestos más abundantes. Este estudio indica que la fracción soluble en agua del aceite esencial de S. striata tiene una actividad antileishmanial prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Scrophularia/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Colorimetry , Solid Phase Microextraction , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773234

ABSTRACT

The standard decoction of Chinese herbal decoction pieces is a standard reference substance to measure whether different dosage forms of Chinese medicine are basically consistent with those of clinical decoction,and provides new ideas and methods for effectively solving the problems of uneven quality in Chinese medicine dispensing granules. In this study,a systematic method for evaluating the quality of Scrophulariae Radix decoction was established from the perspective of " standard decoction",providing reference for the quality control of the Scrophulariae Radix dispensing granules. 15 batches of Scrophulariae Radix decoction pieces from different origins were collected,and 15 batches of standard decoctions were prepared according to the standardized process with water as solvent.Harpagide and harpagoside were used as quantitative detection indicators to determine the content,calculate the transfer rates and determine the extraction rate. The high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) was used to establish a standard decoction fingerprint analysis method. The results showed that the transfer rates of harpagide and harpagoside in 15 batches of Scrophulariae Radix pieces standard decoction were( 70. 84±13. 39) % and( 48. 56±6. 40) % respectively; the extraction rate was( 57. 47±5. 89) %. Nine peaks were identified in the HPLC fingerprint,and the similarity was higher than 0. 97 between the fingerprints of 15 batches of standard decoction and the control fingerprint. In this study,the preparation process of standard decoction of Scrophulariae Radix pieces conformed to the traditional decoction preparation method. The sources of the samples were representative,and the established fingerprint method was stable and feasible,which can provide reference for the preparation and quality control of Scrophulariae Radix dispensing granules.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Quality Control , Scrophularia , Chemistry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773173

ABSTRACT

The quality constant evaluation method was applied in the grade evaluation of Scrophulariae Radix pieces. Nineteen batches of Scrophulariae Radix were measured for the appearance index. Harpagide and harpagoside were taken as index components for the content determination. The traditional grading standard and the modern quality control index were combined to calculate the quality constant and grade Scrophulariae Radix pieces. The results showed that the quality constants ranged between 156. 75 and 491. 65; according to the percentage mass constants,more than 80% were graded as first-class pieces,50%-80% were graded as second-class pieces,and the rest were graded as third-class pieces. The quality constants of first-class Scrophulariae Radix were >393. 32,that of second-class Scrophulariae Radix was between 245. 83 and 393. 32,and that of third-class Scrophulariae Radix was < 245. 83. The study shows that this method can objectively,reasonably and effectively classify Scrophulariae Radix pieces,and further promote and apply the evaluation method of slice model quality constant to prove the rationality,scientificity and practicability.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Quality Control , Scrophularia , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773130

ABSTRACT

The endophytic fungi from root,main stem,branch and leaf of Scrophularia ningpoensis were isolated from Zhejiang,whether these strains could yield harpagide or harpagoside were tested by HPLC and LC-MS. According to the morphological characteristic and the similarity of the nucleotide sequence of internal transcribed spacer( ITS) between r DNAs,the strains producing harpagide or harpagoside were identified. The results showed that 210 strains were isolated from the samples,which were classified into 9 orders,13 families and 17 genera by morphological study. Harpagide was detected in endogenous fungi ZJ17 and harpagoside was detected in endogenous fungi ZJ25 by HPLC coupled with LC-MS. ZJ17 was identified as Alternaria alternate and ZJ25 was identified as A.gaisen by its morphology and authenticated by ITS( ITS4 and ITS5 regions and the intervening 5. 8 S rDNA region).


Subject(s)
China , DNA, Fungal , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Endophytes , Classification , Metabolism , Fungi , Classification , Metabolism , Glycosides , Iridoid Glycosides , Metabolism , Pyrans , Metabolism , Scrophularia , Microbiology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279223

ABSTRACT

Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Quality Control , Scrophularia , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237714

ABSTRACT

The genetic diversity of three Tibetan herbs, i. e., Sang-Di, E-Dewa and Ye-Xingba (Tibetan names), was studied based on the field collection, specimen identification and DNA sequence analysis. Swertia hispidicalyx, Gentiana lhassica and Scrophularia dentata, as the original plants of the three Tibetan herbs, were collected and identified. The regions of ITS, matK, rbcL, rpoC1, trnL(UAA), psbA-trnH, atpB-rbcL, trnS (GCU)-trnG(UCC), rpl20-rps12, trnL(UAA)-trnF(GAA) and nadl 2nd intron were amplified and sequenced. The ITS regions of S. hispidicalyx and S. dentata were cloned and sequenced, and the sequences were classified into different genotypes. All the sequences were analyzed and compared with those of closely related species. Our studies may provide reference for the genetic diversity analysis and molecular identification of the three Tibetan herbs.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Gentiana , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Genetics , Scrophularia , Classification , Genetics , Swertia , Classification , Genetics , Tibet
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246147

ABSTRACT

The morphological indexes of the Scuophularia ningpoensis seedlings including the longth, diameter and weight were measured, clustering analysis was used to set up the standard quality grading of seedlings of S. Ningpoensis by SPSS. Field experiment was carried out to measure the indicators of plants growth and development, the yield and the quality. The results showed that the growth and yield of class I seedlings were better than those of class II and III. The content of main active ingredients was affected barely by seedlings classification. To ensure the quality, class II seedlings or above should be used for plantation. The established quality classification standard of S. ningpoensis seedlings was scientific and feasible, and provides the basis for the standardized cultivation of S. ningpoensis.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Scrophularia , Chemistry , Classification , Seedlings , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812309

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To analyze the major constituents in Radix Scrophulariae (Scrophularia ningpoensis).@*METHOD@#Radix Scrophulariae was analyzed by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS). Compounds were separated by HPLC using a C18 column and gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1 % (V/V) acetic acid-water. Negative ion mode was employed.@*RESULTS@#A total of thirty-six compounds, including fourteen iridoid glycosides, nineteen phenylpropanoid glycosides, and three organic acids, were identified from Radix Scrophulariae based on the accurate mass measurement of precursor and product ions. Twenty-one of the constituents were identified by comparing their retention times (tR) and ESI-MS/MS data with those of reference standards and/or previous publications, while another fifteen compounds were tentatively identified or deduced according to their Q-TOF MS/MS data which afforded sufficient structural information.@*CONCLUSION@#It is believed that this study is useful for the identification of constituents in Radix Scrophulariae, as well as related plants and complex prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Scrophularia , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310965

ABSTRACT

Plant samples were collected and investigated periodically. According to the growth of different parts and the characteristics of dry substance accumulation of Scrophularia ningpoensis, the development of S. ningpoensis could be divided into four stages: seeding stage, stem and leaf growth stage, expanding period of root tubers, and dry substance accumulation stage of root tuber. Leaf numbers of S. ningpoensis grew gradually from one at first to 370 at the final stage, main stem leaf were 50 pieces. Leaf size increasesed with the fastest growth at the stem and leaf growth stage, average daily increase amount was 225 cm2. By the middle of August, leaf size reached to 16,270 cm2. Leaf area indexrose sharply in the seeding stage, and remained above 8 among stem and leaf growth stage and expanding period of root tubers, and rapidly reduced to zero in the stage of dry substance accumulation of root tuber. Leaf area ratio has a tendency of obvious dropping. The net assimilation rate had a small change ranges, two small peak were seeding stage and dry substance accumulation of root tuber. The value of specific leaf area was higher in seeding stage, and in the earlier stage of dry substance accumulation of root tuber. Relative growth rate changed with large ranges, higher in seeding stage, rapid decrease in stem and leaf growth stage, rose in expanding period of root tubers, and declined again in the stage of dry substance accumulation of root tuber. Crop growth rate was higher in the first and last stages, and smaller in interim stage. The growth parameters of S. ningpoensis such as relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, crop growth rate changed along with the growth. The rule of dry matter accumulation was as follows: the dry matter increased slowly during the seeding stage and speeded up in the middle and late stages, and in dry substance accumulation of root tuber increased slower, the growth of dry matter all appeared an "S" curve, and accorded with logistic equation. Cultivation technologies of S. ningpoensis and the relevant management methods could be established according to the growth of different parts of S. ningpoensis and the characteristics of dry substance accumulation in different stage.


Subject(s)
China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Plant Leaves , Plant Roots , Plant Stems , Plant Tubers , Scrophularia
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1019-1021, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299174

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. (Scrophulariaceae), resulted in the isolation of a new iridoid derivative named as buergerinin (1). Its structure was elucidated as rel-(1R, 5R, 6R)-(2-oxa-bicyclo[3.3.0]oct-7-en-6, 7-diyl)dimethoxypropane based mainly on MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses.


Subject(s)
Iridoids , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Scrophularia , Chemistry
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263924

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the genetic diversity and relationship of different Scrophularia ningpoensis cultivars.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Forty-eight germplasmic resources of S. ningpoensis cultivars were analyzed by Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism(SCOT) molecular markers. Genetic distance was calculated by TREECONW software and the systematic diagram of genetic relationship was clustered by UPGMA method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A total of 279 bands were detected using 48 primers, among which 214 were polymorphic bands. The average percentage of polymorphic bands was 76.7%. Genetic distance was changed from 0.1507 to 0.4933. Clustering results showed that the genetic relationship of S. ningpoensis cultivars was more complex. There was significant correlation between some germplasm and its geographic origin while geographical distribution of some germplasm was not very obvious, but it was also showed that some of the S. ningpoensis from the same region were in the same group which presented the law of geographical distribution in the tested materials.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Significant polymorphism and genetic diversity can be observed among S. ningpoensis germplasm resources which provided a wealth of genetic basis for cultivating fine varieties.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Codon , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , Scrophularia , Classification , Genetics
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1358-1362, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274654

ABSTRACT

A new oleanane-type triterpenoid glycoside, 3beta-O-(f-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-11, 13(18) diene-olean-23alpha, 28 diol (1), along with three known phenylethyl glycosides (2-4), was isolated from the root of traditional Chinese medicine Scrophularia ningpoensis. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 were obtained from Scrophularia genus for the first time. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic method including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glycosides , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Scrophularia , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293234

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of the water extract of Rehmannia glutionsa, Scrophularia ningpoensis, Asparagus cochinchinensis and Ophiopogon japonicas, which are the drug from Tianwang Buxin Wan from nourishing vin, on the content of cytohrome P450 (CYP450) in rat and the activities of CYP3A, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 to investigate the role of CYP450 in the biotransformation of Tianwang Buxin Wan.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The rats were killed after administrated with extracts once daily for consecutive 7 days, the livers were removed rapidly and weighed, liver microsomes were prepared with ultra-centrifuge method, the contents of liver microsomal CYP450, cytochrome b5 (Cytb5) and the activities of CYP3A were examined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>All groups had no difference in the levels of liver indexe compared with normal sodium group. The water extract of R. glutionsa obviously decreased the contents of P450 (P < 0.01) and increased the activity of CYP3A (P < 0.01) and CYP1A2 (P <0.05). The water extract of S. ningpoensis decreased the contents of P450 (P < 0.05) and significantly increased CYP3A and CYP1A2 activities (P < 0.01). A. cochinchinensis increased content of Cytb5 (P < 0.05) in rat and increased the activity of CYP2E1 (P < 0.05) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.01). O. japonicas had no significant difference on the contents of CYP450 and Cytb5 while increased the activities of CYP3A (P < 0.05), CYP2E1 (P < 0.05) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>R. glutionsa and S. ningpoensis could decrease the content of CYP450 enzyme in rat liver and induct the activities of CYP3A and CYP1A2. A. cochinchinensis could induct the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP1A2. O. japonicus could induction the activities of CYP3A, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 in Tianwang Buxin Wan. By inhibiting CYP450 activity to decrease the metabolism of other drugs, the effect of other functional groups in the compatibility of Tianwang Buxin Wan can be enhanced, and a theoretical basis on studying the compatible mechanism can be provided.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Asparagus Plant , Chemistry , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Liver , Male , Microsomes, Liver , Ophiopogon , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rehmannia , Chemistry , Scrophularia , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247403

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop an HPLC method for the simultaneous quantitation of five constituents in Scrophularia ningpoensis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Samples were analyzed on an Agilent SB-C18 column(4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) eluted with acetonitrile and water containing 0.03% phosphate acid as mobile phases in a linear gradient mode. The flow rate was kept at 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the column temperature was set to 30 degrees C. The DAD detector wavelengths were 210, 280, 330 nm.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The linear ranges were 50-400 mg x L(-1) for harpagide, 1-40 mg x L(-1) for harpagoside, 1-20 mg x L(-1) for cinnamic acid, 0.5-4.5 mg x L(-1) for acteoside,1-60 mg x L(-1) for angoroside C, respectively. The average recoveries of the five constituents were 100.8% (RSD 0.62%), 101.7% (RSD 0.32%), 98.8% (RSD 0.48%), 99.9% (RSD 1.4%), 99.2% (RSD 1.1%), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Through the validation, the method was proved to be sensitive, accurate, repeatable, and can be used for quality control of the roots of S. ningpoensis.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Cinnamates , Coumaric Acids , Glucosides , Glycosides , Iridoid Glycosides , Phenols , Pyrans , Scrophularia , Chemistry , Trisaccharides
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315427

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the damage of Agrotis ypsilon on Scrophularia ningpoensis and the control method, so as to provide scientific basis for its integrated pests management (IPM).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The field investigation and the field controlling trial were carried out for the research.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There is obvious relationship between the pre-season crops and the damage degree of S. ningpoensis. The damage rate of the fields which had planted maize and tobacco in the last planting season was much higher than that of the other fields. The average damage rate could reach 12.43% and 15.68%. The result of five pesticides against A. ypsilon in field trial showed that the controlling effect of 10% beta-cypermethrin EC 2000 times and 40% chlorpyrifos EC 1500 times were 92.53% and 91.69%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A. ypsilon could be well controlled while 10% beta-cypermethrin EC or 40% chlorpyrifos EC are sprayed during the period of seedling.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorpyrifos , Pharmacology , Insect Control , Methods , Insecticides , Pharmacology , Moths , Physiology , Plant Diseases , Parasitology , Pyrethrins , Pharmacology , Scrophularia , Parasitology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298469

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop the preparation method and to determine the quantity of effective constituents of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Nine experiments were carried out through L9 (3(4)) orthogonal design. The contents of harpagoside and cinnamic acid were determined by HPLC method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The optimal extraction process was as follows: the slices were soaked in water in the ratio of 1:8 for 0.5 h, then they were decocted for 2 h. For the second time, 6 times of water was added and sustained for 1.5 h. Harpagoside and cinnamic acid were linear within the ranges of 0.0776-1.552 microg (r=0.9999) and 0.01446-0.4339 microg (r=0.9999), respectively. The average recoveries were 100.4% (RSD 1.98%, n=6) and 98.27% (RSD1.35%, n=6), respectively. Ten batches of granules were determined.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The extraction process is scientific and the determination method is suitable for quality control of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules.</p>


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cinnamates , Drug Compounding , Methods , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glycosides , Linear Models , Pyrans , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Scrophularia , Chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Solvents , Chemistry , Temperature
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298461

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop an HPLC-UV-ELSD method for the determination of aucubi, harpagide, harpagoside, angoroside C and cinnamic acid in Scrophularia ningpoensis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The analytical column was SHIMADZU C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was acetonirile-0.4% acetic acid in a gradient elution. Initial conditions was 5% A; 0-20 min, changed to 10% A; 20-50 min, to 55% A. The flow rate was 0.8 mL x min(-1) and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. The UV detector wavelength was set at 280 nm for harpagoside, angoroside C and cinnamic acid, and the evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) drift tube temperature was 105 degrees C, the flow rate of nebulizer gas was 1.2 L x min(-1) for aucubi and harpagide.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Aucubi, harpagide, harpagoside, angoroside C and cinnamic acid was separated well. The linear calibration curves were obtained over of 0.752-13.536 microg for aucubi (r=0.9993, n=6), 0.8280-14.90 microg for harpagide (r=0.9994, n=6), 0.6360-11.45 microg for harpagoside (r=0.9997, n=6), 0.5440- 9.792 microg for angoroside C, (r=0.9997, n=6) and 0.0108-0.1939 microg for cinnamic acid (r=0.9999, n=6). The mean recovers of five compounds were 98.12%, 99.14%, 100.21%, 98.17% and 100.35% with RSD of 2.3%, 1.5%, 1.9%, 1.7% and 0.5%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This method could simultaneously determinate the content of the five compounds in the S. ningpoensis.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Linear Models , Organic Chemicals , Reproducibility of Results , Scrophularia , Chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultraviolet Rays
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298448

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The genetic difference among Scrophularia ningpoensis cultivars were analyzed in molecular level.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Ninety-two individuls of three S. ningpoensis cultivars were employed to be analyzed by the approach of Sequence-related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP).The parameters were calculated by POPGENE1.31 and the relationship was constructed based on UPGMA method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>1) A total of 227 bands were scored and 199 bands of them were polymorphic. 2) The result is showed that there is a medium level of genetic diversity among three cultivars. At species level: percentage of polymorphic loci PPB=52.42%, effective number of alleles N(e)=1.2812, Nei's gene diversity H=0.1671 and Shannon's information index H(sp)= 0.2526; At cultivar level: PPB=21.44%, N(e)=1.1216, Nei's gene diversity H=0.0725 and Shannon's information index H(pop)= 0.1083. 3) The Nei's coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.5625, which was consistent with the Shannon's coefficient of genetic differentiation (0.5713). Most of the genetic variation existed among cultivars. 4) The gene flow (N(m)=0.3889) was less among cultivars, indicating that the degree of genetic differentiation was higher. 5) Genetic similarity coefficient were changed from 0.8082 to 0.9133. By clustering analysis, the classified result of SRAP marker between traditional modal character was almost same.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The genetic diversity of samples of S. ningpoensis is medium. The genetic difference among cultivar is higher than that within cultivar.</p>


Subject(s)
Cluster Analysis , DNA Primers , Genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Markers , Genetics , Genetic Variation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Scrophularia , Classification , Genetics , Software
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