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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1312-1323, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878633

ABSTRACT

Dihydroflavanol-4-reductase (Dfr) is a key enzyme that regulates the synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. To investigate the difference of dfr gene in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with different colors in the same ecological environment, three complete full-length sequences of dfr gene were cloned from the cDNA of S. baicalensis with white, purple-red and purple colors using homologous cloning and RACE techniques. The three genes were named Sbdfr1, Sbdfr2 and Sbdfr3, respectively, and their corresponding structures were analyzed. The results showed that all three Dfr proteins have highly conserved NADPH binding sites and substrate-specific binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they are closely related to that of the known S. viscidula (ACV49882.1). Analysis of key structural domains and 3D models revealed differences in the catalytically active regions on the surface of all three Dfr proteins, and their unique structural characteristics may provide favorable conditions for studying the substrate specificity of different Dfr proteins. qRT-PCR analysis shows that dfr was expressed at different level in all tissues except the roots of S. baicalensis in full-bloom. During floral development, the expression level of dfr in white and purple-flowered Scutellaria showed an overall upward trend. In purple-red-flowered Scutellaria, the expression first slowly increased, followed by a decrease, and then rapidly increased to the maximum. This research provides a theoretical basis for further exploring the mechanism and function of Dfr substrate selectivity, and are of great scientific value for elucidating the molecular mechanism of floral color variation in S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Cloning, Molecular , Color , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879130

ABSTRACT

In the pharmacopoeia, many process parameters for the purification process of Scutellariae Radix are unclear. In this study, deterministic screening design combined with design space method was used to optimize the purification process of Scutellariae Radix extract. Nine method parameters such as mass fraction of solution(X_1), first acid precipitation pH(X_2) and first holding time(X_3) in the purification process were firstly studied by definitive screening design. The yield of baicalin was defined as the evaluation index. A stepwise regression method was used then to build quantitative models between evaluation index and method parameters and the three most critical impact parameters were determined. Probability-based design space was calculated and successfully verified with the experimental error simulation method. Finally, the second standing temperature, the first standing temperature and the pH value of the second acid precipitation were determined as the three most critical method parameters. The recommended operating space was as follows: the second standing temperature 5-7 ℃, the first standing temperature 13-15 ℃, and the pH of the second acid precipitation 1.5-1.7. Within this operating space, the baicalin yield in the purification process was over 80%, and the probability of reaching the standard was over 0.96. In this study, we optimized the effect of various parameters for the purification process of the Scutellariae Radix extract in the pharmacopoeia on the yield of baicalin and provided a reference for industrial production of the exact of Scutellariae Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts , Scutellaria baicalensis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879021

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of Huangqin Decoction on ulcerative colitis(UC) pyroptosis, and to explain the mechanism of pyroptosis based on NOD-like receptor thermoprotein domain 3(NLRP3)/cysteine proteinase 1(caspase-1) pathway. The animal model of UC induced with 3% dextran sodium sulfate(DSS) was established. The experimental animals were divided into control group, model group, low-dose(4.55 g·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(9.1 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(18.2 g·kg~(-1)) Huangqin Decoction groups and salazosulfapyridine group(0.45 g·kg~(-1)). While modeling, intragastric administration was given for 7 consecutive days. On the 8 th day, the mice were euthanized, the colon length was collected, and the histopathological changes were observed by HE staining. The content of interleukin-18(IL-18) was observed by ELISA. The content of lactatedehydrogenase(LDH)was determined by microplate method. TUNEL assay kit was used to detect the cell death. The immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expressions of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC). Western blot was used to detect the expressions of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), caspase-1 and gasdermin D(GSDMD).The experimental study showed that compared with normal group, the LDH content, TUNEL positive staining, inflammatory factors(IL-18, IL-1β), and proteins associated with pyroptosis were significantly increased(P<0.05). Compared with model control group, the LDH content, TUNEL positive staining, inflammatory factors(IL-18, IL-1β), and proteins associated with pyroptosis were decreased, and these results were more significant in high-dose groups(P<0.05). The results of HE staining showed that Huangqin Decoction could improve the pathological changes of colon. Huangqin Decoction could inhibit UC cell pyroptosis, and the mechanism may be closely related to NLRP3/caspase-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pyroptosis , Scutellaria baicalensis
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828080

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine, which has the functions of heat-clearing and damp-drying, purging fire and detoxifying, hemostasis and miscarriage prevention. Modern pharmacological studies show that Scutellariae Radix has various effects, such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, liver protection and antiviral microorganisms. By searching the documents in the past ten years, the author has found that Scutellariae Radix and its active components play an important role in protecting the liver. It can prevent and cure liver injuries caused by different reasons, including acute or chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and liver cancer. Among all kinds(chemical, immunological, alcoholic, nonalcoholic, viral, ischemia-reperfusion, etc.) of acute or chronic hepatitis, most studies are on CCl_4 induced chemical liver injury. Scutellariae Radix and its active components can significantly reduce the serum transaminase level in hepatitis animals, and reduce the degree of liver pathological damage. The mechanisms include antioxidant stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of immunity, anti-virus and regulation of lipid metabolism, etc. Scutellariae Radix and its active components can significantly inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and reduce extracellular matrix, and its anti-fibrosis mechanism involves antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, inducing apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and so on. Whether in vivo or in vitro, Scutellariae Radix and its active components show a good anti-hepatocarcinoma effect, especially on hepatocarcinoma. Its prevention and treatment mechanisms for hepatocarcinoma mainly include blocking cancer cell cycle, inhibiting cancer cell metastasis, promoting cancer cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy. It can be seen that Scutellariae Radix has multiple functions and mechanisms in liver protection, and has a great development potential. Therefore, this paper reviews the prevention and treatment effects and mechanism of Scutellariae Radix and its components on different liver diseases, in order to provide reference for in-depth study, development and clinical application in the prevention and treatment of liver disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828046

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix(Huangqin) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) used for the treatment of clearing heat in clinical application. It is bitter-cold by using directly, but the bitter-cold property can be relieved after wine-frying. The study of taste changes before and after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix is of great significance in identifying Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix and clarifying the traditional theory of wine-processing. In this experiment, 10 batches of Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix were prepared. The contents of 5 flavonoids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and principal component analysis(PCA) was performed with 5 flavonoids as variables. As a result, the contents were different in different batches of Scutellariae Radix, but Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix could not be distinguished. Five sensory attributes(sour, salty, fresh, sweet, and bitter) were evaluated by artificial tasting, and the response values of 7 sensors(AHS, AHS, PKS, CTS, NMS, CPS, ANS, SCS) representing the taste of pieces were detected by electronic tongue. The correlation between sensory evaluation and response values of the electronic tongue were analyzed, and the results showed that the sensory evaluation of sour, salty, fresh, sweet, bitter and AHS, CTS, NMS, ANS, SCS sensors had different degrees of correlation, indicating that the electronic tongue technology can be used as an alternative to artificial taste and can serve as a means for quantifying the taste, and it can be used to evaluate the taste of TCM pieces. The taste method was used to analyze the response values of the electronic tongue, and the results showed that the bitterness of wine-processed Scutellariae Radix decreased and the salty taste increased. PCA was used to analyze taste changes before and after wine-processed Scutellariae Radix, and the results showed that taste differences between 2 pieces were divided into 2 categories. PCA loading scattering plots showed that response of saltiness and bitterness were the major factors to affect overall taste in Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix. Based on electronic tongue response values, the Fisher discriminant model for Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix was established, which showed that it could effectively discriminate them with a recognition rate of 100%. The experimental results showed that the electronic tongue combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to evaluate taste of TCM, at the same time, it could provide a fast and simple method for identifying different processed products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis , Taste , Wine
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828031

ABSTRACT

Data GSE75214 and GSE48959 that contained ulcerative colitis(UC) in the active stage was download from GEO database. Differential genes of UC in the active phase were obtained by using adjusted P<0.05 and |log_2 FC|≥1.5, which was the screening criteria. PPI analysis was performed in the STRING database, and GO and KEGG pathway analysis was performed in DAVID database. Cytoscape was used to visualize differential genes, and calculate key genes in the active phase. Coremine Medical was used to analyze and systematically evaluate traditional Chinese medicines for treating key genes. Finally, 139 differentially expressed genes in the active phase were screened out, which included the 109 up-regulated genes and 30 down-regulated genes. DAVID analyzed that the biology and pathways of these differential genes were mainly concentrated in inflammatory response, immune response, chemokine activity, TNF pathway, NF-κB pathway, and Toll-like receptor pathway. Cytoscape software calculated that IL-6, CXCL8, IL-1β, MMP9, CXCL1, ICAM1, CXCL10, TIMP1, PTGS2 and CXCL9 were the key genes of UC in the active phase. According to Coremine Medical analysis, traditional Chinese medicines for UC in the active stage included Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Curcumae Radix had clearing heat clearing damp, reducing fire and detoxifying effects, which was in line with the pathogenesis of UC active stage, and was often used in clinical treatment of dampness-heat diarrhea. Therefore, Huangqin Decoction, which Scutellariae Radix was the principal drug, was selected for systematic evaluation. The evaluation showed that Scutellariae Radix was superior to Western medicine in terms of improving clinical efficiency, reducing inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin levels, with statistically significant differences and fewer adverse reactions. This study provided a new idea for further research on the pathogenesis of UC in the active phase by analyzing the genes and their mechanism of action, and the systematic evaluation of Chinese medicine for the treatment of UC active stage provided a basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of UC by Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827994

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of Huangqin Qingre Chubi Capsules containing serum on the protein expressions of AMPK and FoxO3 a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA), in order to explore the mechanism of anti-oxidation. Peripheral anticoagulant was collected from patients and normal people. Monocytes(PBMC) were isolated through density gradient centrifugation, and the logarithmic phase cells were cultured. Drug containing serum was prepared through intragastric admini-stration to SD rats. The rats were divided into five groups, namely normal group, model group, AMPK blocker group(compound C 10 μmol·L~(-1)), medium-dose HQC+AMPK blocker group, and middle-dose HQC group. The cell inhibition rate was calculated by MTT method. The levels of IL-1β, IL-4, LPO, MDA, SOD and TAOC were detected by ELISA. The expressions of AMPK, p-AMPK, p-FoxO3 a and FoxO3 a were detected by Western blot. The HQC containing serum had an inhibitory effect on human monocytes in peripheral blood. The best concentration was observed in middle-dose HQC, and the best time was 24 hours. Middle-dose HQC group was better than model group, AMPK blocker group and middle-dose HQC + AMPK blocker group in terms of increase of SOD, p-AMPK, p-FoxO3 a and decrease of LPO. It was better than model group and AMPK blocker group in terms of increase of IL-4, TAOC, AMPK, FoxO3 a and decrease of IL-1β, MDA. The differences were statistically significant(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The HQC containing serum may increase the levels of TAOC and SOD, decrease the level of MDA and LPO, activate AMPK, directly phosphorylate FOXO3 a, enhance its transcriptional activity, and improve the state of oxidative stress in RA patients.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Capsules , Forkhead Box Protein O3 , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Scutellaria baicalensis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777463

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the inhibitory effect of eight natural flavonoids in Chinese herb Scutellariae Radix on huamn cytochrome P450 1 A(CYP1 A), a key cancer chemo-preventive target. In this study, phenacetin was used as a probe substrate for CYP1 A, while human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP1 A enzymes were used as enzyme sources. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to monitor the formation rates of acetaminophen, the O-deethylated metabolite of phenacetin. The dose-dependent inhibition curves were depicted based on the changes of the formation rates of acetaminophen, while the IC_(50) were determined. Inhibition kinetic analyses and docking simulations were used to investigate the inhibition modes and mechanism of wogonin(the most potent CYP1 A inhibitor in this herb), while the inhibition constants(K_i) of wogonin against both CYP1 A1 and CYP1 A2 were determined. Among all tested flavonoids, wogonin, 7-methoxyflavanone and oroxylin A displayed a strong inhibitory effect on CYP1 A(IC_(50)100 μmol·L~(-1)). Further investigations demonstrated that wogonin had a weak inhibitory effect on other human CYP enzymes, suggesting that it could be used as a lead compound for the development of specific inhibitors of CYP1 A. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic analyses clearly demonstrated that wogonin could strongly inhibit phenacetin O-deethylation in both CYP1 A1 and CYP1 A2 in a competitive manner, with K_i values at 0.118 and 0.262 μmol·L~(-1), respectively. Molecular docking demonstrated that wogonin could strongly interact with CYP1 A1 and CYP1 A2 via hydrophobic and π-π interactions, as well as Ser120 and Ser116 in CYP1 A1 via hydrogen-bonding. In conclusion, this study found that some flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix displayed a strong inhibitory effect on CYP1 A, while wogonin is the most potent CYP1 A inhibitor with a relatively high selectivity towards CYP1 A over other human CYPs.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Flavanones , Pharmacology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a bioactive flavone that is originally extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. This plant has long served as Chinese herbal medicine in the management of multiple diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases. Although it has been revealed that baicalein inhibits experimental colitis in mice, the molecular mechanisms still remain largely unrecognized. METHODS: The experimental colitis was induced in mice by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. The mice were given baicalein (10 or 25 mg/kg) by gavage for 7 days before and after DSS administration. Expression of COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and molecules involved in NF-κB signaling, such as inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), pIκBα, p65, and phospho-p65 was examined by Western blot analysis in the tissue of the mouse colon. Activity of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) was assessed by measuring the relative amount of radioactive γ-phosphate of ATP transferred to the IκBα substrate protein. The expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 and its target gene cyclin D1 were also measured. RESULTS: Baicalein prominently mitigated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. It inhibited the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Moreover, baicalein attenuated activity and phosphorylation of IKKβ and subsequent degradation of IκBα. Baicalein suppressed the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, resulting in a reduced DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Baicalein also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of cyclin D1. Baicalein exhibited the synergistic effect on inhibition of COX-2 induced by DSS with curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric. CONCLUSIONS: Protective effects of baicalein on DSS-induced colitis are associated with suppression of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways, which may contribute to its cancer preventive effects on colon carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blotting, Western , Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colon , Curcuma , Curcumin , Cyclin D1 , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , DNA , Drinking Water , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Plants , Scutellaria baicalensis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) have been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis roots (EESB) on the growth ofn human leukemia U937 cells. METHODS: The effect of EESB on cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile staining and flow cytometry. The effects of EESB on the expression of regulatory proteins of apoptosis and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling were determined by Western blotting. Caspase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured using flow cytometric analysis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Ethanol , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukemia , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Phosphatidylinositols , Receptors, Death Domain , Scutellaria baicalensis , Scutellaria , U937 Cells , Up-Regulation
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773721

ABSTRACT

Decoction pieces are important raw materials in the production of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM),and their quality could directly affect the clinical efficacy and medication safety. Research on the production and processing technology of TCM is the basis for the normalization and standardization of Chinese medicine decoction pieces. At present,the production and processing standards for Scutellaria baicalensis pieces are non-regulated,lacking data foundation. In this study,with baicalin,baicalein,wogonoside and wogonin contents as evaluation indicators,single factor experiment was designed to optimize the softening,drying and cutting processes of S. baicalensis,providing a basis for the standardization of their production and processing. The effects of different softening,drying and cutting processes on the contents of the main components in S. baicalensis were comprehensively analyzed by the summation of relative differences. RESULTS:: showed that the contents of the four components and comprehensive indexes were affected by different softening methods and drying temperatures. The content of wogonin in boiling method was higher than that in boiling with cold water,and the content of glycosides in 70 ℃ drying condition was higher than that in other groups. The content of baicalin was significantly affected by different cutting thicknesses,but not by comprehensive index. Eventually,the optimal preparation process for S. baicalensis was determined as follows: boiled in boiling water for 20 min,cut into thin slices( 1-2 mm),and then dried at 70 ℃ in blast drier. This process was close to the actual production,practical and feasible and meanwhile,it was of great significance to improve the quality of S. baicalensis pieces.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Flavonoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771731

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are the most abundant constituents and induce these the rapeutic effects against inflammation, gastrointestinal infections, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory. Most of these flavonoids have low content in Scutellarie Radix. It was difficult to detect some minor compounds by using LC-MS method with full scan. Based on the review of flavonoids that had been extracted from Scutellariae Radix, a method with PREC-IDA-EPI technique was developed and applied to Scutellariae Radix by using UPLC-MS/MS. A total of 97 flavonoids were identified, including 29 aglycones and 68 -glycosides. This study laid the foundation for pharmacodynamicss of Scutellariae Radix.It is believed that an individual detection scheme based on the PREC-IDA-EPI technique could be used to identify unknown compounds.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771682

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae baicalensis is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, mainly distributed in Shandong and Hebei provinces. It has significant pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidation. Baicalin is one of its main effective components. However, baicalin's low bioavailability has restricted its clinical application. In recent decades, extensive studies have been carried out on the metabolism of baicalin at home and abroad. In order to provide scientific references for baicalin's further studies, this paper would not only review the advances in pharmacokinetics research of baicalin and Chinese herbal preparations containing baicalin, but also make a summary on research status of baicalin.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids , Pharmacokinetics , Scutellaria baicalensis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773600

ABSTRACT

Radix Scutellaria is widely applied to the treatment of diabetes mellitus in China. Its main bioactive constituents contain baicalin, wogonoside, oroxyloside, and their aglycones. To investigate the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on both pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of these flavonoid compounds, the six flavonoids in plasma and tissues from the normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of Radix Scutellaria extract were simultaneously measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The results showed that baicalin, wogonoside, and oroxyloside had higher C and AUC values (P < 0.05) in type 2 diabetic rats than that in normal rats and the tissue-distribution behaviors of the six flavonoid compounds in hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, kidneys, brains, pancreas, fat and muscle of the type 2 diabetic rats showed obviously differences from the normal rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the differences in the pharmacokinetics of oroxyloside and tissue distribution of the six flavanoids in Radix Scutellaria extract between diabetic and normal rats were found for the first time. The results from the present study provided a crucial basis for a better understanding of in vivo anti-diabetic mechanism of action of the six flavonoids from Radix Scutellaria.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tissue Distribution , Physiology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776390

ABSTRACT

The increasing demand of Chinese materia medica could not be supplied by wild resource, and the cultivated medicinal materials become popular, which led to decreased quality of many medicinal materials due to the difference of the circumstance between the wild and the cultivated. How to improve quality becomes key points of Chinese medicine resource. The leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis were sprayed with H₂O₂, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) changed little, but there had been a marked decrease of peroxidase (POD) and ascorbic oxidase (APX), which showed that the antioxidase system declined. Meanwhile, H₂O₂, as enhanced the expression of phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as well as activity of PAL, promoted the biosynthesis and biotransformation of flavonoids. At the day 2 after treated, H₂O₂ of 0.004 μmol·L⁻¹ the contents of the baicalin and the wogonoside decreased slightly, but the contents of the baicalein and the wogonin increased significantly, the baicalein from 0.094% to 0.324%, the wogonin from 0.060% to 0.110%, i. e. increased 246% and 83.3%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Ascorbate Oxidase , Metabolism , Catalase , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Glucosides , Glucuronidase , Metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide , Peroxidase , Metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase , Metabolism , Scutellaria baicalensis , Metabolism , Secondary Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812389

ABSTRACT

Radix Scutellaria is widely applied to the treatment of diabetes mellitus in China. Its main bioactive constituents contain baicalin, wogonoside, oroxyloside, and their aglycones. To investigate the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on both pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of these flavonoid compounds, the six flavonoids in plasma and tissues from the normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral administration of Radix Scutellaria extract were simultaneously measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The results showed that baicalin, wogonoside, and oroxyloside had higher C and AUC values (P < 0.05) in type 2 diabetic rats than that in normal rats and the tissue-distribution behaviors of the six flavonoid compounds in hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, kidneys, brains, pancreas, fat and muscle of the type 2 diabetic rats showed obviously differences from the normal rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the differences in the pharmacokinetics of oroxyloside and tissue distribution of the six flavanoids in Radix Scutellaria extract between diabetic and normal rats were found for the first time. The results from the present study provided a crucial basis for a better understanding of in vivo anti-diabetic mechanism of action of the six flavonoids from Radix Scutellaria.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tissue Distribution , Physiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812552

ABSTRACT

Wogonin is a plant flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis (Huang-Qin or Chinese skullcap) and has been studied thoroughly by many researchers till date for its anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-cancerous and neuro-protective properties. Numerous experiments conducted in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated wogonin's excellent tumor inhibitory properties. The anti-cancer mechanism of wogonin has been ascribed to modulation of various cell signaling pathways, including serine-threonine kinase Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways, p53-dependent/independent apoptosis, and inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, wogonin also decreases DNA adduct formation with a carcinogenic compound 2-Aminofluorene and inhibits growth of drug resistant malignant cells and their migration and metastasis, without any side effects. Recently, newly synthesized wogonin derivatives have been developed with impressive anti-tumor activity. This review is the succinct appraisal of the pertinent articles on the mechanisms of anti-tumor properties of wogonin. We also summarize the potential of wogonin and its derivatives used alone or as an adjunct therapy for cancer treatment. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics and side effects of wogonin and its analogues have also been discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , DNA Adducts , Metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Flavanones , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry , Signal Transduction
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812130

ABSTRACT

As an important herbaceous plant, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Chinese skullcap) is geographically widespread and commonly used throughout the world. In the Chinese medicine market, S. baicalensis has been divided into two primary types, "Ku Qin" (WXR) and "Tiao Qin" (TST). Moreover, TST is also divided into different grades according to the diameter of roots. To explore the distribution patterns of the contents of five biologically activate ingredients (FBAI), we used six-year-old cultivated S. baicalensis and analyzed its growth characteristics as well as the quality difference among different types and diameters in roots. Throughout the entire root, we discovered that contents of the FBAI all initially increased and subsequently decreased from the top to the bottom of the roots. The baicalin content of WXR was less than that of TST. On the contrary, the contents of baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A in WXR were up to about two times higher than that in TST. We also found that the 0 to 40 cm part of the S. baicalensis root possessed about 87% of the root biomass and about 92% of the contents of the active ingredients.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812086

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix (SR), the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is used as an antipyretic drug and has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory activity. SR is divided into two specifications, "Ku Qin" (KQ) and "Zi Qin" (ZQ), for use against different symptoms (upper energizer heat or lower portion of the triple energizer), according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, differences in the efficacies of these two specifications have not been determined. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the differences in the anti-inflammatory activities between KQ and ZQ and to explore how their differences are manifested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. Our results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells (a mouse macrophage cell line derived from ascites), KQ and ZQ displayed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the release of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NOS (iNOS), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in a dose-dependent manner without distinction. In NR8383 cells (a rat alveolar macrophage cell line), KQ and ZQ displayed similar effects on NO, iNOS, and NF-κB as seen in RAW264.7 cells, but KQ showed a higher inhibition rate for NO and iNOS than that shown by ZQ at the same concentration. These results indicated that there were differences in efficacy between KQ and ZQ in treating lung inflammation. Our findings provided an experimental evidence supporting the different uses of KQ and ZQ in clinic, as noted in ancient herbal records.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Cell Line , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Rats , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198622

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of fractions and major aglycon compounds (baicalein, chrysin, oroxylin A, wogonin) of Scutellariae Radix. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement, DPPH radical-scavenging assay, DNA protection assay, and urease inhibition analysis were performed. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed the potent anti-Helicobacter activity, and therefore, compounds in the EtOAc fraction were subjected to further assay. The MICs of chrysin, oroxylin A, and wogonin against Helicobacter pylori 26695 were 6.25, 12.5 and 25 µg/mL, respectively. Baicalein exhibited the most effective DPPH radical-scavenging activity. DNA protection using Fenton reaction, chrysin, oroxylin A, and wogonin showed effective DNA protective effect. This result was also confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Regarding Jack bean urease (0.5 mg/mL, 50 unit/mg) inhibition, 20 mM ofbaicalein and chrysin inhibited urease activity by 88.2% and 72.5%, respectively.


Subject(s)
DNA , Helicobacter pylori , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scutellaria baicalensis , Scutellaria , Urease
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