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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.


La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 17-25, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971640

ABSTRACT

The root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, also called Huangqin, is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine. In ancient China, S. baicalensis root was used to clear heat, protect the fetus, and avoid a miscarriage for thousands of years. In modern times, pregnancy-related diseases can seriously affect maternal and fetal health, but few systematic studies have explored the mechanisms and potential targets of S. baicalensis root in the treatment of pregnancy-related diseases. Flavonoids (baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A) and flavonoid glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) are the main chemical components in the root of S. baicalensis. This study presents the current understanding of the major chemical components in the root of S. baicalensis, focusing on their traditional uses, potential therapeutic effects and ethnopharmacological relevance to pregnancy-related disorders. The mechanisms, potential targets and experimental models of S. baicalensis root for ameliorating pregnancy-related diseases, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and gestational diabetes mellitus, are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Scutellaria baicalensis , Premature Birth/drug therapy , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Ethnopharmacology , China
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 226-233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970518

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of Huangqin Tang(HQT) on the NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway in mice with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis(UC). C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group(DSS group), and low-, medium-and high-dose HQT groups(HQT-L, HQT-M, and HQT-H), and western medicine mesalazine group(western medicine group). The UC model was induced in mice. Subsequently, the mice in the HQT-L, HQT-M, HQT-H groups, and the western medicine group were given low-, medium-, high-dose HQT, and mesalazine suspension by gavage, respectively, while those in the blank and DSS groups were given an equal volume of distilled water by gavage. After 10 days of administration, the body weight, DAI scores, and colonic histopathological score of mice in each group were determined. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum were determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed decreased body weight of mice and increased DAI scores and intestinal histopathological score. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group showed improved DAI scores, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). The intestinal histopathological scores of the HQT groups and the western medicine group significantly decreased, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). In addition, compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed elevated expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and decreased IL-10 level. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group displayed decreased expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduced serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increased IL-10 level. The improvement was the most significant in the HQT-H group and the western medicine group(P<0.01). In conclusion, HQT may reduce the expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduce the se-rum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increase the expression of IL-10 by regulating the classic pyroptosis pathway of NLRP3/Caspase-1, thereby improving the symptoms of intestinal injury and inflammatory infiltration of intestinal mucosa in DSS mice to achieve its therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 124-129, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of Chinese herbal formula Huangqin Decoction (HQD) on ulcerative colitis mouse model induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and human intestinal epithelial cell injury induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).@*METHODS@#In vivo, 30 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 5 groups using a random number table (n=6 per group), including control, DSS, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), HQD low- (HQD-L) and high-dose (HQD-H) groups. The colitis mouse model was established by 3% (w/v) DSS water for 5 days. Meanwhile, mice in the HQD-L, HQD-H and 5-ASA groups were administrated with 100, 200 mg/kg HQD or 100 mg/kg 5-ASA, respectively, once daily by gavage. After 9 days of administration, the body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score and colon length of mice were measured, the pathological changes of colons were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) staining, and the levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, the human colon epithelial normal cells (FHC cells) were exposed to HQD (0.6 mg/mL) for 12 h and then treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. The tight junction (TJ) protein expression levels of Claudin-4 and Occludin, and the protein phosphorylation levels of p65 and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-α (IκBα) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#In vivo, compared with the DSS group, HQD-H treatment attenuated the weight loss and reduced DAI score of mice on the 8th day (P<0.05). Moreover, HQD-H treatment ameliorated the colon shortening in the DSS-induced colitis mice (P<0.05). HE staining showed HQD attenuated the pathological changes of colitis mice, and the histological scores of HQD-H and 5-ASA groups were significantly decreased compared with the DSS group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, HQD-H and 5-ASA significantly decreased the serum IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels of mice (P<0.05). In vitro experiments showed that HQD up-regulated Occludin and Claudin-4 protein expressions and inhibited p-p65 and p-IκBα levels in FHC cells compared with the TNF-α group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HQD significantly relieved the symptoms in DSS-induced colitis mice by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and maintained the homeostasis of TJ protein in FHC cells by suppressing TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B , Scutellaria baicalensis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1814-1823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928177

ABSTRACT

Scutellaria baicalensis is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, we identified the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences according to the available chloroplast genome sequencing results, and measured the content of baicalin by HPLC. Through the above means we determined the best DNA barcode that can be used to detect the germplasm resources and evaluate the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples. A total of 104 samples were collected from 24 provinces, from which DNA was extracted for PCR amplification. The amplification efficiencies of trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences were 100%, 59.62%, and 25.96%, respectively. The results of sequence analysis showed that 5, 4, and 2 haplotypes were identified based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences, respectively. However, the sequences of haplotypes in commercial samples were different from that of the wild type, and the joint analysis of three fragments of S. baicalensis only identified 6 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance analysis indicated that trnH-psbA could be used to identify S. baicalensis from adulterants. The above analysis showed that trnH-psbA was the best fragment for identifying the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. We then analyzed the haplotypes(THap1-THap5) of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA and found that THap2 was the main circulating haplotype of the commercial samples, accounting for 86.55% of the total samples, which indicated the scarce germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. The content of baicalin in all the collected commercial S. baicalensis samples exceeded the standard in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and had significant differences(maximum of 12.21%) among samples, suggesting that the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples varied considerably. However, there was no significant difference in baicalin content between different provinces or between different haplotypes. This study facilitates the establishment of the standard identification system for S. baicalensis, and can guide the commercial circulation and reasonable medication of S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , DNA, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1573-1581, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928086

ABSTRACT

The high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) characteristic chromatogram of Xiaoer Ganmaoning Oral Liquid(oral liquid for short) was established. The medicinal materials corresponding to characteristic peaks, their index components and ranges of similarity with the reference chromatograms were clarified. The similarity between the characteristic chromatograms of 10 batches of the oral liquid and the reference chromatogram was higher than 0.994. Eighteen characteristic peaks were identified, which were derived from different medicinal materials including Scutellariae Radix, Arctii Fructus, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Gardeniae Fructus and Forsythiae Fructus. Further, 11 characteristic peaks were assigned by the comparison with reference substances as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, scutellarin, forsythiaside A and arctiin. Also, the characteristic chromatogram of precipitate in the oral liquid was established, and the similarity between characteristic chromatograms of 10 batches of the precipitate and the reference chromatogram was higher than 0.940. The 14 characteristic peaks originating from the precipitate and those from the oral liquid were consistent in retention time, and the content of all index components in the precipitate was lower than 5% of that in the oral liquid. Moreover, the stability of precipitate during the accelerated stability test was explored with filtration and Matlab-based image sensory evaluation. The precipitate mass and precipitation degree both increased over the stability test duration significantly. The stability of the oral liquid was used as a model system in this study to establish the integrated quality control system which related to medicinal materials, preparations and precipitate with HPLC characteristic chromatograms and image sensory evaluation, which lays a foundation for the exploration of the quantity value transfer of the oral liquid.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Quality Control , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 85-94, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927914

ABSTRACT

With reference to the production process documented in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this paper prepared the calibrator samples of Xiaochaihu Granules from multiple batches and established a method for fingerprint analysis and content determination that could be used to evaluate Xiaochaihu Granules available in market. Multiple batches of Chinese herbal pieces contained in Xiaochaihu Granules were collected for preparing the calibrator samples according to the process in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Following the establishment of fingerprints for calibrator samples by UHPLC, the method for determining the contents of saikosaponin B2, saikosaponin B1, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin G2 and glycyrrhizic acid in Xiaochaihu Granules was established. The experimental results showed that the fingerprints of calibrator samples had 26 common peaks, covering the chemical compounds of main herbs Bupleuri Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Changii Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens. The similarity of fingerprints for 47 batches of Xiaochaihu Granules from 31 companies with the calibrator sample fingerprint ranged from 0.74 to 0.99, indicating good applicability of the established fingerprint. The contents of main components baicalin, saikosaponin B2, and glycyrrhizic acid in Xiaochaihu Granules were within the ranges of 22.917-49.108 mg per bag(RSD 19%), 0.28-2.19 mg per bag(RSD 62%), and 0.897-6.541 mg per bag(RSD 41%), respectively. The quality difference in saikosaponin B2, and glycyrrhizic acid among different manufacturers was significant. The fingerprint analysis and content determination method for calibrator samples of Xiaochaihu Granules prepared according to the production process in Chinese Pharmacopoeia has been proved suitable for evaluating the quality of Xiaochaihu Granules from different manufacturers. Saikosaponin B2, glycyrrhizic acid, and liquiritin should be added as content control indicators for Xiaochaihu Granules, aiming to further improve the product quality.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Scutellaria baicalensis
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6251-6260, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921783

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is a malignancy with high mortality. Huangqin Tea(HQT) can exert potential preventive and therapeutic effects on colorectal cancer. Flavonoids are the main compounds in HQT, but the pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism are unclear. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to predict and analyze the targets and signaling pathways of HQT in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. The active components of flavonoids in HQT were searched and screened out by literature review and FAFDrugs4. The related targets of active components were predicted by SwissTargetPrediction, STITCH, and TCMSP. Colorectal cancer-related genes were collected from OMIM, TTD, and GeneCards. The common targets were obtained as the potential targets of HQT in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Metascape was used for GO function enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Cytoscape was used to construct the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network and "component-target-disease-pathway" network to obtained and analyze core targets and key components. AutoDock Vina was used for molecular docking verification of key components and core targets. The results showed that apigenin, luteolin, wogonin, and baicalein were presumedly the key active components in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer, and core targets included TP53, AKT1, VEGFA, PIK3 CA, and SRC. The key KEGG signaling pathways mainly involved PI3 K-AKT, AGE-RAGE, p53, NF-κB, Wnt, Hippo, and calcium signaling pathways. Further molecular docking results showed that four key components showed strong hydrogen bonding ability with the five core targets. This study preliminarily reveals the pharmacodynamic material basis and potential mechanism of HQT in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer and provides a theoretical and scientific basis for the application of HQT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Scutellaria baicalensis , Tea
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5600-5605, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921743

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix is a commonly used Chinese medicinal first recorded in the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. In the ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), Scutellariae Radix is used in two specifications, solid one(Ziqin) and hollow one(Kuqin). In the current rules and regulations of Chinese medicine, Scutellariae Radix is used without the specific requirements for the specifications applied. To clarify the evolution of Scutellariae Radix specifications and analyze the current specifications of Scutellariae Radix pieces, the present study reviews the Scutellariae Radix from ancient literature, modern rules and regulations, and differences between Ziqin and Kuqin in composition, efficacy, and transformation mechanism. According to the research on ancient books, Kuqin is effective in clearing the fire of the upper energizer, and Ziqin in purging the heat of the lower energizer. Modern studies have revealed that Kuqin and Ziqin are significantly different in chemical components, and Ziqin and Kuqin target the colon and lung, respectively, which are consistent with the relevant records in ancient books. The review study suggests that the two specifications of Scutellariae Radix are reasonable since they can facilitate the precise treatment of Scutellariae Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Literature, Modern , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5330-5340, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921680

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to explore active components and mechanism of Scutellariae Radix(SR)-Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex(PCC) drug pair in treatment of psoriasis by network pharmacology and molecular docking. Specifically, the chemical components of SR and PCC were retrieved from literature and TCMSP, as well as targets of these components from PharmMapper and UniProt, and the targets related to psoriasis from OMIM, TTD, PharmGkb, and DrugBank. Then the chemical component-medicinal target, protein-protein interaction(PPI), and chemical component-psoriasis target networks were constructed by Cytoscape. Gene ontology(GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Metascape. Finally, molecular docking of the chemical components(high degree) with core therapeutic targets was carried out by AutoDock vina. The results showed 88 compounds of SR and PCC(including baicalin, wogonoside, berberine and phellodendrine) and 30 targets of the pair in the treatment of psoriasis. The 30 targets mainly involved the biological processes such as neutrophil mediated immunity(GO: 0002446) and T cell activation(GO: 0042110), and the signaling pathways such as metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450(hsa00980), apoptosis(hsa04210), and PI3 K-Akt signaling pathway(hsa04151). The results of molecular docking demonstrated that the main active components can spontaneously bind to the targets and the binding energy of 46 components with epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) was less than-8 kcal·mol~(-1). According to the PPI analysis, EGFR may be a key target for the treatment of psoriasis. Active components such as baicalin and berberine had high binding affinity with EGFR. This study preliminarily revealed the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway mechanism of SR-PCC drug pair in the treatment of psoriasis, which provided theoretical basis for the research on the mechanism of the drug pair in the treatment of psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Molecular Docking Simulation , Psoriasis/genetics , Scutellaria baicalensis , Signal Transduction
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1312-1323, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878633

ABSTRACT

Dihydroflavanol-4-reductase (Dfr) is a key enzyme that regulates the synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. To investigate the difference of dfr gene in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi with different colors in the same ecological environment, three complete full-length sequences of dfr gene were cloned from the cDNA of S. baicalensis with white, purple-red and purple colors using homologous cloning and RACE techniques. The three genes were named Sbdfr1, Sbdfr2 and Sbdfr3, respectively, and their corresponding structures were analyzed. The results showed that all three Dfr proteins have highly conserved NADPH binding sites and substrate-specific binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they are closely related to that of the known S. viscidula (ACV49882.1). Analysis of key structural domains and 3D models revealed differences in the catalytically active regions on the surface of all three Dfr proteins, and their unique structural characteristics may provide favorable conditions for studying the substrate specificity of different Dfr proteins. qRT-PCR analysis shows that dfr was expressed at different level in all tissues except the roots of S. baicalensis in full-bloom. During floral development, the expression level of dfr in white and purple-flowered Scutellaria showed an overall upward trend. In purple-red-flowered Scutellaria, the expression first slowly increased, followed by a decrease, and then rapidly increased to the maximum. This research provides a theoretical basis for further exploring the mechanism and function of Dfr substrate selectivity, and are of great scientific value for elucidating the molecular mechanism of floral color variation in S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Cloning, Molecular , Color , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4389-4394, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888137

ABSTRACT

This paper explored the ecologically suitable areas for growing Scutellaria baicalensis using Geographic Information System for Global Medicinal Plants(GMPGIS), to figure out the resource distribution of S. baicalensis worldwide and provide a scientific basis for its scientific introduction. A total of 349 S. baicalensis sampling sites were selected all over the world for GMPGIS-based analy-sis of the ecologically suitable areas with six ecological factors including annual average temperature, average temperature during the coldest season, average temperature during the warmest season, average annual precipitation, average annual relative humidity, and annual average illumination and soil type as the ecological indexes. The results demonstrated that the ecologically suitable areas for growing S. baicalensis were mostly located in the Northern hemisphere, and the suitable areas in the United States, China, and Russia accounted for 19.25%, 18.66%, and 13.15% of the total area worldwide, respectively. In China, the Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang province, and Yunnan province occupied the largest proportions of the total area, namely 14.28%, 8.72%, and 6.18%, respectively. As revealed by ecological factors of each sampling site, S. baicalensis was resistant to low temperature but not to high temperature. The adaptive range of average annual precipitation is narrower than that of average annual air humidity. The suitable soils were mainly inceptisol, alfisol, and fluvisol. High temperature and rainy climate or excessively high soil bulk density was not conducive to the growth of S. baicalensis. The adoption of GMPGIS enabled to obtain areas with the greatest ecological similarity for S. baicalensis, which were reliable data supporting the exploration of resource distribution and reasonable introduction of S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
China , Climate , Plants, Medicinal , Scutellaria baicalensis , Soil
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2061-2066, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879130

ABSTRACT

In the pharmacopoeia, many process parameters for the purification process of Scutellariae Radix are unclear. In this study, deterministic screening design combined with design space method was used to optimize the purification process of Scutellariae Radix extract. Nine method parameters such as mass fraction of solution(X_1), first acid precipitation pH(X_2) and first holding time(X_3) in the purification process were firstly studied by definitive screening design. The yield of baicalin was defined as the evaluation index. A stepwise regression method was used then to build quantitative models between evaluation index and method parameters and the three most critical impact parameters were determined. Probability-based design space was calculated and successfully verified with the experimental error simulation method. Finally, the second standing temperature, the first standing temperature and the pH value of the second acid precipitation were determined as the three most critical method parameters. The recommended operating space was as follows: the second standing temperature 5-7 ℃, the first standing temperature 13-15 ℃, and the pH of the second acid precipitation 1.5-1.7. Within this operating space, the baicalin yield in the purification process was over 80%, and the probability of reaching the standard was over 0.96. In this study, we optimized the effect of various parameters for the purification process of the Scutellariae Radix extract in the pharmacopoeia on the yield of baicalin and provided a reference for industrial production of the exact of Scutellariae Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts , Scutellaria baicalensis
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1191-1196, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879021

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of Huangqin Decoction on ulcerative colitis(UC) pyroptosis, and to explain the mechanism of pyroptosis based on NOD-like receptor thermoprotein domain 3(NLRP3)/cysteine proteinase 1(caspase-1) pathway. The animal model of UC induced with 3% dextran sodium sulfate(DSS) was established. The experimental animals were divided into control group, model group, low-dose(4.55 g·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(9.1 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(18.2 g·kg~(-1)) Huangqin Decoction groups and salazosulfapyridine group(0.45 g·kg~(-1)). While modeling, intragastric administration was given for 7 consecutive days. On the 8 th day, the mice were euthanized, the colon length was collected, and the histopathological changes were observed by HE staining. The content of interleukin-18(IL-18) was observed by ELISA. The content of lactatedehydrogenase(LDH)was determined by microplate method. TUNEL assay kit was used to detect the cell death. The immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expressions of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC). Western blot was used to detect the expressions of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), caspase-1 and gasdermin D(GSDMD).The experimental study showed that compared with normal group, the LDH content, TUNEL positive staining, inflammatory factors(IL-18, IL-1β), and proteins associated with pyroptosis were significantly increased(P<0.05). Compared with model control group, the LDH content, TUNEL positive staining, inflammatory factors(IL-18, IL-1β), and proteins associated with pyroptosis were decreased, and these results were more significant in high-dose groups(P<0.05). The results of HE staining showed that Huangqin Decoction could improve the pathological changes of colon. Huangqin Decoction could inhibit UC cell pyroptosis, and the mechanism may be closely related to NLRP3/caspase-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pyroptosis , Scutellaria baicalensis
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2808-2816, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828080

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine, which has the functions of heat-clearing and damp-drying, purging fire and detoxifying, hemostasis and miscarriage prevention. Modern pharmacological studies show that Scutellariae Radix has various effects, such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, liver protection and antiviral microorganisms. By searching the documents in the past ten years, the author has found that Scutellariae Radix and its active components play an important role in protecting the liver. It can prevent and cure liver injuries caused by different reasons, including acute or chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and liver cancer. Among all kinds(chemical, immunological, alcoholic, nonalcoholic, viral, ischemia-reperfusion, etc.) of acute or chronic hepatitis, most studies are on CCl_4 induced chemical liver injury. Scutellariae Radix and its active components can significantly reduce the serum transaminase level in hepatitis animals, and reduce the degree of liver pathological damage. The mechanisms include antioxidant stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of immunity, anti-virus and regulation of lipid metabolism, etc. Scutellariae Radix and its active components can significantly inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and reduce extracellular matrix, and its anti-fibrosis mechanism involves antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, inducing apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and so on. Whether in vivo or in vitro, Scutellariae Radix and its active components show a good anti-hepatocarcinoma effect, especially on hepatocarcinoma. Its prevention and treatment mechanisms for hepatocarcinoma mainly include blocking cancer cell cycle, inhibiting cancer cell metastasis, promoting cancer cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy. It can be seen that Scutellariae Radix has multiple functions and mechanisms in liver protection, and has a great development potential. Therefore, this paper reviews the prevention and treatment effects and mechanism of Scutellariae Radix and its components on different liver diseases, in order to provide reference for in-depth study, development and clinical application in the prevention and treatment of liver disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2552-2559, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828046

ABSTRACT

Scutellariae Radix(Huangqin) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) used for the treatment of clearing heat in clinical application. It is bitter-cold by using directly, but the bitter-cold property can be relieved after wine-frying. The study of taste changes before and after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix is of great significance in identifying Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix and clarifying the traditional theory of wine-processing. In this experiment, 10 batches of Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix were prepared. The contents of 5 flavonoids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and principal component analysis(PCA) was performed with 5 flavonoids as variables. As a result, the contents were different in different batches of Scutellariae Radix, but Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix could not be distinguished. Five sensory attributes(sour, salty, fresh, sweet, and bitter) were evaluated by artificial tasting, and the response values of 7 sensors(AHS, AHS, PKS, CTS, NMS, CPS, ANS, SCS) representing the taste of pieces were detected by electronic tongue. The correlation between sensory evaluation and response values of the electronic tongue were analyzed, and the results showed that the sensory evaluation of sour, salty, fresh, sweet, bitter and AHS, CTS, NMS, ANS, SCS sensors had different degrees of correlation, indicating that the electronic tongue technology can be used as an alternative to artificial taste and can serve as a means for quantifying the taste, and it can be used to evaluate the taste of TCM pieces. The taste method was used to analyze the response values of the electronic tongue, and the results showed that the bitterness of wine-processed Scutellariae Radix decreased and the salty taste increased. PCA was used to analyze taste changes before and after wine-processed Scutellariae Radix, and the results showed that taste differences between 2 pieces were divided into 2 categories. PCA loading scattering plots showed that response of saltiness and bitterness were the major factors to affect overall taste in Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix. Based on electronic tongue response values, the Fisher discriminant model for Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix was established, which showed that it could effectively discriminate them with a recognition rate of 100%. The experimental results showed that the electronic tongue combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to evaluate taste of TCM, at the same time, it could provide a fast and simple method for identifying different processed products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis , Taste , Wine
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2677-2686, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828031

ABSTRACT

Data GSE75214 and GSE48959 that contained ulcerative colitis(UC) in the active stage was download from GEO database. Differential genes of UC in the active phase were obtained by using adjusted P<0.05 and |log_2 FC|≥1.5, which was the screening criteria. PPI analysis was performed in the STRING database, and GO and KEGG pathway analysis was performed in DAVID database. Cytoscape was used to visualize differential genes, and calculate key genes in the active phase. Coremine Medical was used to analyze and systematically evaluate traditional Chinese medicines for treating key genes. Finally, 139 differentially expressed genes in the active phase were screened out, which included the 109 up-regulated genes and 30 down-regulated genes. DAVID analyzed that the biology and pathways of these differential genes were mainly concentrated in inflammatory response, immune response, chemokine activity, TNF pathway, NF-κB pathway, and Toll-like receptor pathway. Cytoscape software calculated that IL-6, CXCL8, IL-1β, MMP9, CXCL1, ICAM1, CXCL10, TIMP1, PTGS2 and CXCL9 were the key genes of UC in the active phase. According to Coremine Medical analysis, traditional Chinese medicines for UC in the active stage included Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Curcumae Radix had clearing heat clearing damp, reducing fire and detoxifying effects, which was in line with the pathogenesis of UC active stage, and was often used in clinical treatment of dampness-heat diarrhea. Therefore, Huangqin Decoction, which Scutellariae Radix was the principal drug, was selected for systematic evaluation. The evaluation showed that Scutellariae Radix was superior to Western medicine in terms of improving clinical efficiency, reducing inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin levels, with statistically significant differences and fewer adverse reactions. This study provided a new idea for further research on the pathogenesis of UC in the active phase by analyzing the genes and their mechanism of action, and the systematic evaluation of Chinese medicine for the treatment of UC active stage provided a basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of UC by Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Scutellaria baicalensis
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3228-3232, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827994

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of Huangqin Qingre Chubi Capsules containing serum on the protein expressions of AMPK and FoxO3 a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA), in order to explore the mechanism of anti-oxidation. Peripheral anticoagulant was collected from patients and normal people. Monocytes(PBMC) were isolated through density gradient centrifugation, and the logarithmic phase cells were cultured. Drug containing serum was prepared through intragastric admini-stration to SD rats. The rats were divided into five groups, namely normal group, model group, AMPK blocker group(compound C 10 μmol·L~(-1)), medium-dose HQC+AMPK blocker group, and middle-dose HQC group. The cell inhibition rate was calculated by MTT method. The levels of IL-1β, IL-4, LPO, MDA, SOD and TAOC were detected by ELISA. The expressions of AMPK, p-AMPK, p-FoxO3 a and FoxO3 a were detected by Western blot. The HQC containing serum had an inhibitory effect on human monocytes in peripheral blood. The best concentration was observed in middle-dose HQC, and the best time was 24 hours. Middle-dose HQC group was better than model group, AMPK blocker group and middle-dose HQC + AMPK blocker group in terms of increase of SOD, p-AMPK, p-FoxO3 a and decrease of LPO. It was better than model group and AMPK blocker group in terms of increase of IL-4, TAOC, AMPK, FoxO3 a and decrease of IL-1β, MDA. The differences were statistically significant(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The HQC containing serum may increase the levels of TAOC and SOD, decrease the level of MDA and LPO, activate AMPK, directly phosphorylate FOXO3 a, enhance its transcriptional activity, and improve the state of oxidative stress in RA patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Capsules , Forkhead Box Protein O3 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Oxidative Stress , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Scutellaria baicalensis
19.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 129-138, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a bioactive flavone that is originally extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. This plant has long served as Chinese herbal medicine in the management of multiple diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases. Although it has been revealed that baicalein inhibits experimental colitis in mice, the molecular mechanisms still remain largely unrecognized. METHODS: The experimental colitis was induced in mice by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. The mice were given baicalein (10 or 25 mg/kg) by gavage for 7 days before and after DSS administration. Expression of COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and molecules involved in NF-κB signaling, such as inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), pIκBα, p65, and phospho-p65 was examined by Western blot analysis in the tissue of the mouse colon. Activity of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) was assessed by measuring the relative amount of radioactive γ-phosphate of ATP transferred to the IκBα substrate protein. The expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 and its target gene cyclin D1 were also measured. RESULTS: Baicalein prominently mitigated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. It inhibited the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Moreover, baicalein attenuated activity and phosphorylation of IKKβ and subsequent degradation of IκBα. Baicalein suppressed the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, resulting in a reduced DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Baicalein also suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of cyclin D1. Baicalein exhibited the synergistic effect on inhibition of COX-2 induced by DSS with curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric. CONCLUSIONS: Protective effects of baicalein on DSS-induced colitis are associated with suppression of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways, which may contribute to its cancer preventive effects on colon carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphate , Asian People , Blotting, Western , Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colon , Curcuma , Curcumin , Cyclin D1 , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , DNA , Drinking Water , Herbal Medicine , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Plants , Scutellaria baicalensis
20.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 11-19, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) have been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis roots (EESB) on the growth ofn human leukemia U937 cells. METHODS: The effect of EESB on cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile staining and flow cytometry. The effects of EESB on the expression of regulatory proteins of apoptosis and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling were determined by Western blotting. Caspase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured using flow cytometric analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 8 , Caspase 9 , Cell Survival , Down-Regulation , Ethanol , Flow Cytometry , Leukemia , Ligands , Medicine, Traditional , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Phosphatidylinositols , Receptors, Death Domain , Scutellaria baicalensis , Scutellaria , U937 Cells , Up-Regulation
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