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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rivers , Characiformes , Seasons , Lakes , Ecosystem , Food Chain , Fishes , Gastrointestinal Contents
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254174, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360213

ABSTRACT

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.


Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Seasons , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

ABSTRACT

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Biodiversity , Seasons , Brazil , Forests , Ecosystem
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

ABSTRACT

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Coleoptera , Ecosystem , Seasons , Chile , Biodiversity , Insecta
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Wetlands , Invertebrates , Seasons , Birds
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257969, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364513

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Neste estudo, avaliamos a variação nos eventos fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de quatro espécies de plantas filogeneticamente relacionadas submetidas a um ambiente sazonal. Para isso, amostramos 15 indivíduos de cada espécie quinzenalmente, pelo período de um ano, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. Para avaliar quando uma determinada fenofase ocorreu de modo mais intenso na população foi utilizado o índice de intensidade de Fournier e a sincronia dos indivíduos da amostra em determinado evento fenológico foi estimada utilizando-se o índice de atividade. O teste de Rayleigh (Z) foi usado para determinar se os eventos fenológicos têm distribuição sazonal. A relação dos fatores abióticos (fotoperíodo, precipitação, temperatura e umidade relativa) com a intensidade das fenofases foi avaliada para cada espécie de planta usando modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs). As fenofases de todas as plantas apresentaram um padrão de distribuição sazonal, bem como variação na sincronia das fenofases e conjuntos específicos de fatores abióticos influenciaram significativamente suas fenofases. Folhas novas, por exemplo, foram produzidas ao longo das estações, com intensa queda de folhas na estação seca. Os períodos de floração, por outro lado, não se sobrepuseram. De fato, as espécies exibiram floração sequencial e floração assíncrona entre os indivíduos. Nossos resultados sugerem que os padrões fenológicos das quatro espécies de plantas simpátricas estão diretamente ligados às variáveis climáticas, mas diferentes fatores abióticos afetaram diferentes fenofases.


Subject(s)
Plants , Seasons , Growth and Development , Environment , Sympatry/physiology
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1514967

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The type of land use surrounding the remnants of tropical forest may generate changes in the characteristics of plant populations and communities. Consequently, there may be a significant reduction in processes of pollination and diasporas dispersion. Therefore, causing changes in some parameters of seed rain. Objective: To characterize and compare seed density, species richness, floristic composition, habit, dispersal syndrome, and successional category of seed rain between urban and rural fragments of Atlantic Forest, in the 2015 and 2016 weather seasons. Methods: The study areas were defined after mapping and quantification of urban and rural occupations around the remnants, based on satellite images. In each fragment, were installed 36 collectors of 0.25 m2. The material was collected monthly during two consecutive years. Results: Seed rain richness was higher in the urban fragment during the rainy season in the two years, whereas it was similar between the fragments in the dry season. The seed density in the rural fragment was higher than in the urban during the rainy season; did not vary in urban between years or between seasons; and it was higher in the rural fragment in the rainy season of one year. There was a difference in the floristic composition of the seed rain between the fragments along time. The variations in the functional attributes of habit, dispersal syndrome, and successional category, were explained by the variables fragment, season, and year. Conclusions: Differences in the characteristics of the seed rain between the fragments might reflect the spatial and temporal heterogeneity, due to the diverse uses of the soil and external pressures (anthropogenic actions) present in the surroundings of the forest fragments and temporal variation in precipitation.


Introducción: El tipo de uso del suelo que rodea los remanentes de bosque tropical puede generar cambios en las características de las poblaciones y comunidades vegetales. En consecuencia, puede haber una reducción significativa en los procesos de polinización y dispersión de las diásporas. Por lo tanto, provocando cambios en algunos parámetros de la lluvia de semillas. Objetivo: Caracterizar y comparar la densidad de semillas, la riqueza de especies, la composición florística, el hábito, el síndrome de dispersión y la categoría sucesional de la lluvia de semillas entre fragmentos urbanos y rurales de Mata Atlántica, en las estaciones climáticas del 2015 y 2016. Métodos: Las áreas de estudio se definieron luego del mapeo y cuantificación de las ocupaciones urbanas y rurales alrededor de los remanentes, con base en imágenes satelitales. En cada fragmento se instalaron 36 colectores de 0.25 m2. El material fue recolectado mensualmente durante dos años consecutivos. Resultados: La riqueza de lluvia de semillas fue mayor en el fragmento urbano durante la estación lluviosa en los dos años, mientras que fue similar entre los fragmentos en la estación seca. La densidad de semillas en el fragmento rural fue mayor que en el urbano durante la estación lluviosa; no varió en urbano entre años o entre estaciones; y fue mayor en el fragmento rural en la estación lluviosa del primer año. Hubo una diferencia en la composición florística de la lluvia de semillas entre los fragmentos a lo largo del tiempo. Las variaciones en los atributos funcionales de hábito, síndrome de dispersión y categoría sucesional, fueron explicadas por las variables fragmento, estación y año. Conclusiones: Las diferencias en las características de la lluvia de semillas entre los fragmentos podrían reflejar la heterogeneidad espacial y temporal, debido a los diversos usos del suelo y presiones externas (acciones antropogénicas) presentes en el entorno de los fragmentos de bosque y variación temporal de la precipitación.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Seed Dispersal/physiology , Rainforest , Brazil
9.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 90-97, jun 22, 2023. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443288

ABSTRACT

Introdução: as parasitoses intestinais são doenças que apresentam um problema de saúde mundial, causando grandes problemas nutricionais, onde sua ocorrência varia de acordo com o clima de cada região e condições socioeconômicas. Regiões que apresentam climas trópicos com umidade, altos índices de chuvas e temperaturas elevadas associadas com a falta de informações sobre as enteroparasitoses merecem atenção. Objetivo: o presente trabalho buscou avaliar os tipos de enteroparasitoses entre os anos de 2018 a 2020 em uma parcela da população de um município da Amazônia Ocidental, mais especificamente, (i) avaliar os tipos de enteroparasitoses que acometem a população entre os períodos de inundação e estiagem; (ii) avaliar a influência das enteroparasitoses em indivíduos de acordo com o gênero e a faixa etária ao longo de três anos. Metodologia: as coletas de dados foram realizadas entre os anos de 2018 a 2020, por meio de análises de planilhas concedidas pelo laboratório de análises clinicas LABSUL. Resultados: foram avaliados 4236 exames de fezes, sendo que apenas 1396 foram positivos para enteroparasitoses. Dos quais a maior parte foi causada por protozoários (58,69%) que acometeram principalmente Mulheres, jovens e crianças nos períodos de inundação. Conclusão: diante disso, os dados demonstraram que as enteroparasitoses acometem com frequência uma parcela da população local. Além de trazer informações que podem reforçar a necessidade da implementação do sistema de saneamento básico, juntamente com campanhas de conscientização populacional a respeito das vias de contaminação e da forma de propagação dessas infecções.


Introduction: intestinal parasites are diseases that present a worldwide health problem, causing major nutritional problems, where their occurrence varies according to the climate of each region and socioeconomic conditions. Regions that have tropical climates with humidity, high levels of rainfall and high temperatures associated with a lack of information on entero-parasitosis deserve attention. Objective: the present work sought to evaluate the types of intestinal parasites between the years 2018 to 2020 in a portion of the population of a municipality in the Western Amazon, more specifically, (i) to evaluate the types of entero-parasitosis that affect the population between periods of flooding and drought; (ii) to evaluate the influence of entero-parasitosis in individuals according to gender and age group over three years. Methodology: data collection was carried out between the years 2018 to 2020, through analysis of spreadsheets provided by the clinical analysis laboratory LABSUL. Results: 4236 stool exams were evaluated, of which only 1396 were positive for entero-parasitosis. Most of which were caused by protozoa (58.69%) that mainly affected women, young people and children during flood periods. Conclusion: in view of this, the data showed that intestinal parasites frequently affect a portion of the local population. In addition to bringing information that can reinforce the need to implement the basic sanitation system, together with population awareness campaigns regarding the routes of contamination and the way in which these infections spread.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Parasitic Diseases , Parasitology , Helminthiasis , Seasons , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
10.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 3-9, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420653

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients and is known to have several predisposing and precipitating factors. Seasonality affects cognitive function which has a more dysfunctional pattern during winter. We, therefore, aimed to test whether seasonal variation is associated with the occurrence of delirium and hospital Length Of Stay (LOS) in critically ill non-cardiac surgical populations. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients recovering from non-cardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic between March 2013 and March 2018 who stayed in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) for at least 48 hours and had daily Confusion Assessment Method Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) assessments for delirium. The incidence of delirium and LOS were summarized by season and compared using chi-square test and non-parametric tests, respectively. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between delirium and LOS with seasons, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results Among 2300 patients admitted to SICU after non-cardiac surgeries, 1267 (55%) had postoperative delirium. The incidence of delirium was 55% in spring, 54% in summer, 55% in fall and 57% in winter, which was not significantly different over the four seasons (p= 0.69). The median LOS was 12 days (IQR = [8, 19]) overall. There was a significant difference in LOS across the four seasons (p= 0.018). LOS during summer was 12% longer (95% CI: 1.04, 1.21; p= 0.002) than in winter. Conclusions In adult non-cardiac critically ill surgical patients, the incidence of postoperative delirium is not associated with season. Noticeably, LOS was longer in summer than in winter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Emergence Delirium , Seasons , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 937-941, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985616

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of seasonal A(H3N2) influenza [influenza A(H3N2)] in China and to provide a reference for scientific prevention and control. Methods: The influenza A(H3N2) surveillance data in 2014-2019 was derived from China Influenza Surveillance Information System. A line chart described the epidemic trend analyzed and plotted. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted using ArcGIS 10.7, and spatiotemporal scanning analysis was conducted using SaTScan 10.1. Results: A total of 2 603 209 influenza-like case sample specimens were detected from March 31, 2014, to March 31, 2019, and the influenza A(H3N2) positive rate was 5.96%(155 259/2 603 209). The positive rate of influenza A(H3N2) was statistically significant in the north and southern provinces in each surveillance year (all P<0.05). The high incidence seasons of influenza A (H3N2) were in winter in northern provinces and summer or winter in southern provinces. Influenza A (H3N2) clustered in 31 provinces in 2014-2015 and 2016-2017. High-high clusters were distributed in eight provinces, including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Shaanxi, and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2014-2015, and high-high clusters were distributed in five provinces including Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, and Shanghai in 2016-2017. Spatiotemporal scanning analysis from 2014 to 2019 showed that Shandong and its surrounding twelve provinces clustered from November 2016 to February 2017 (RR=3.59, LLR=9 875.74, P<0.001). Conclusion: Influenza A (H3N2) has high incidence seasons with northern provinces in winter and southern provinces in summer or winter and obvious spatial and temporal clustering characteristics in China from 2014-2019.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Seasons , Cluster Analysis
12.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 452-456, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982766

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the distribution of airborne pollen in summer and autumn in Taiyuan, analyze the correlation between pollen characteristics, meteorological factors and allergic sensitization, and provide for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in this. Methods:The gravity sedimentation method was used to investigate the types, quantities and dispersion patterns of airborne pollen in Taiyuan City from July 21, 2022 to October 20, 2022. he meteorological and patient information was collected during the same period SPSS 26.0 software. Results:①A total of 17 118 pollen grains were collected, and identified as 14 families, 10 genera, and 4 species. The peak period for pollen dispersal in summer and autumn in Taiyuan City from late August to early September. airborne pollen Artemisia(66.62%), Cannabis/Humulus(17.79%), Sophora japonica(8.18%), Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae(2.83%), Gramineae(2.11%). ②The concentration of airborne pollen in Taiyuan City positively correlated with the average temperature(5-20℃) and maximum temperature(11-30℃) within a certain range(r=0.547, 0.315, P<0.05). ③The content of airborne pollen in Taiyuan City positively correlated with the number of visits and allergen positive rate of patients with allergic rhinitis(AR) in our hospital(r=0.702, 0.747, P<0.05). Conclusion:The peak period for airborne pollen dispersal during the summer and autumn seasons in Taiyuan City from late August to early September. The dominant pollen is Artemisia, Cannabis/Humulus, Sophora japonica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Gramineae, and the absolute advantage pollen is Artemisia. Meteorological factors pollen content. Within a certain range, temperature the diffusion and transportation of pollen. The number of pollen grains the number of visits, which can serve as an environmental warning indicator for AR patients to take preventive, thereby reducing the risk of allergies.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Seasons , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic , Allergens , Cities
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

ABSTRACT

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Seasons , Brazil , Ecosystem , Biodiversity
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Pakistan , Seasons , Ecosystem , Ecology
16.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220179, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441041

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To prospectively analyze changes in the frequency of individual food consumption of adults/elderly people according to different food insecurity outcomes over time. Methods: Population-based longitudinal study carried out in 2011 (358 individuals) and 2014 (301 individuals) in a municipality in the northeastern semi-arid region. The frequency of food consumption of 37 foods in adults/elderly was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire and food insecurity using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Differences in the proportion of frequency of consumption of each food at baseline (2011) and follow-up (2014) were calculated according to longitudinal categories of change in food insecurity. The McNemar test for paired samples was applied to estimate differences between 2011 and 2014. Results: Among the individuals studied, 38.9% and 30.6% were classified in food security and food insecurity in the two periods (2011 and 2014), respectively, and 23.2% changed from food insecurity in 2011 to food security in 2014. Increase in the frequency of food consumed in the three groups of food insecurity outcomes. Only in the food insecurity group at both times, an increase in the consumption frequency of soft drinks and industrialized juices was observed. In the three groups, when comparing 2011 and 2014, there was an increase in the consumption of local agricultural foods, such as mangoes, sweet potatoes and a decrease in the consumption of pumpkin. Conclusion: Overcoming food insecurity results in positive changes in food consumption, and seasonality is a factor that promotes and limits food consumption.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar prospectivamente mudanças na frequência do consumo alimentar individual de adultos/idosos segundo diferentes desfechos de insegurança alimentar no tempo. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal de base populacional realizado em 2011 (358 indivíduos) e 2014 (301 indivíduos) em um município do semiárido nordestino. Foi avaliada a frequência de consumo alimentar de 37 alimentos em adultos/idosos por Questionário de Frequência Alimentar e a insegurança alimentar pela Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. Foram calculadas as diferenças na proporção da frequência de consumo de cada alimento no baseline (2011) e follow-up (2014) segundo categorias longitudinais de mudança na insegurança alimentar. Foi aplicado o teste de McNemar para amostras pareadas para estimar diferenças entre 2011 e 2014. Resultados: Dentre os indivíduos estudados, 38,9% e 30,6% foram classificados em segurança e insegurança alimentar nos dois tempos (2011 e 2014), respectivamente, e 23,2% mudaram da insegurança alimentar em 2011 para segurança alimentar em 2014. Houve aumento na frequência dos alimentos consumidos nos três grupos de desfechos da insegurança alimentar. Apenas no grupo insegurança alimentar nos dois tempos, observou-se aumento na frequência alimentar de refrigerantes e sucos industrializados. Nos três grupos, ao comparar 2011 e 2014, houve aumento no consumo de alimentos da vocação agrícola local, como manga, batata-doce e diminuição do consumo de jerimum/abóbora. Conclusão: A superação da insegurança alimentar resulta em mudanças positivas no consumo de alimentos, e a sazonalidade é um fator promotor e limitante do consumo de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eating/ethnology , Food Insecurity , Seasons , Longitudinal Studies , Food Supply
18.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 189-197, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970736

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the thermal environment of different types of public places and the thermal comfort of employees, so as to provide scientific basis for the establishment of microclimate standards and health supervision requirements. Methods: From June 2019 to December 2021, 50 public places (178 times) of 8 categories in Wuxi were selected, including hotels, swimming pools (gymnasiums), bathing places, shopping malls (supermarkets), barber shops, beauty shops, waiting rooms (bus station) and gyms. In summer and winter, microclimate indicators such as temperature and wind speed were measured in all kinds of places, combined with the work attire and physical activity of employees in the places. Fanger thermal comfort equation and center for the built environment (CBE) thermal comfort calculation tool were used to evaluate the predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD) and standard effective temperature (SET) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 55-2020. The modification effects of seasonal and temperature control conditions on thermal comfort were analyzed. The consistency of GB 37488-2019 "Hygienic Indicators and Limits in Public Places" and ASHRAE 55-2020 evaluation results on thermal environment was compared. Results: The thermal sensation of hotel, barber shop staff and the gym front-desk staff were moderate, while the thermal sensation of swimming place lifeguard, bathing place cleaning staff and gym trainer were slightly warm in summer and winter. Waiting room (bus station) cleaning and working staff, shopping mall staff felt slightly warm in summer and moderate in winter. Service staff in bathing places felt slightly warm in winter, while staff in beauty salons felt slightly cool in winter. The thermal comfort compliance of hotel cleaning staff and shopping mall staff in summer was lower than that in winter (χ(2)=7.01, 7.22, P=0.008, 0.007). The thermal comfort compliance of shopping mall staff in the condition of air conditioning off was higher than that in the condition of air conditioning on (χ(2)=7.01, P=0.008). The SET values of front-desk staff in hotels with different health supervision levels were significantly different (F=3.30, P=0.024). The PPD value and SET value of the front-desk staff, and the PPD value of cleaning staff of hotels above three stars were lower than those of hotels below three stars (P<0.05). The thermal comfort compliance of front-desk staff and cleaning staff in hotels above three stars was higher than that in hotels below three stars (χ(2)=8.33, 8.09, P=0.016, 0.018). The consistency of the two criteria was highest among waiting room (bus station) staff (100.0%, 1/1) and lowest among gym front-desk staff (0%, 0/2) and waiting room (bus station) cleaning staff (0%, 0/1) . Conclusion: There are different degrees of thermal discomfort in different seasons, under the condition of air conditioning and health supervision, and the microclimate indicators can not fully reflect the thermal comfort of human body. The health supervision of microclimate should be strengthened, the applicability of health standard limit value should be evaluated in many aspects, and the thermal comfort of occupational group should be improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temperature , Cold Temperature , Air Conditioning , Wind , Seasons
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 438-444, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969925

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility of moving epidemic method (MEM) in the assessment of seasonal influenza (influenza) activity intensity from the perspective of urban agglomeration, assess influenza activity intensity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2019 to 2021 and evaluate the reliability of surveillance data and the effectiveness of the MEM model application. Methods: The weekly reported incidence rate (IR) of influenza and the percentage of influenza-like illness (ILI%) from 2011-2021 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were collected to establish MEM models respectively. The model fitting effect and the reliability of the two data were evaluated for the purpose of establishing an optimal model to assess the influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2019-2021. A cross-validation procedure was used to evaluate the performance of the models by calculating the Youden's index, sensitivity and specificity. Results: The MEM model fitted with weekly ILI% had a higher Youden's index compared with the model fitted with weekly IR at both Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region level and provincial level. The MEM model based on ILI% showed that the epidemic threshold in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during 2019-2020 was 4.42%, the post-epidemic threshold was 4.66%, with medium, high and very high intensity thresholds as 5.38%, 7.22% and 7.84%, respectively. The influenza season during 2019-2020 had 10 weeks (week 50 of 2019 to week 7 of 2020). The influenza season started in week 50 of 2019, and the intensity fluctuated above and below medium epidemic level for six consecutive weeks. The high intensity was observed in week 4 of 2020, the threshold of very high intensity was excessed in week 5, and the intensity gradually declined and became lower than the threshold at the end of the influenza season in week 8. The epidemic threshold was 4.29% and the post-epidemic threshold was 4.35% during 2020-2021. Influenza activity level never excessed the epidemic threshold throughout the year, and no epidemic period emerged. Conclusions: The MEM model could be applied in the assessment of influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and the use of ILI% to assess influenza activity intensity in this region was more reliable than IR data. Influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was higher during 2019-2020 but significantly lower in 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Seasons , Reproducibility of Results , Epidemics , China/epidemiology
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 411-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969903

ABSTRACT

From 2015 to 2019, the annual average incidence rate of scarlet fever was 7.80/100 000 in Yantai City, which showed an increasing trend since 2017 (χ2trend=233.59, P<0.001). The peak period of this disease was from April to July and November to January of the next year. The ratio of male to female was 1.49∶1, with a higher prevalence among cases aged 3 to 9 years (2 357/2 552, 92.36%). Children in kindergartens, primary and middle school students, and scattered children were the high risk population, with the incidence rate of 159.86/100 000, 25.57/100 000 and 26.77/100 000, respectively. The global spatial auto-correlation analysis showed that the global Moran's I index of the reported incidence rate of scarlet fever in Yantai from 2015 to 2019 was 0.28, 0.29, 0.44, 0.48, and 0.22, respectively (all P values<0.05), suggesting that the incidence rate of scarlet fever in Yantai from 2015 to 2019 was spatial clustering. The local spatial auto-correlation analysis showed that the "high-high" clustering areas were mainly located in Laizhou City, Zhifu District, Haiyang City, Fushan District and Kaifa District, while the "low-high" clustering areas were mainly located in Haiyang City and Fushan District.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Female , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis , Cities/epidemiology , Seasons , Risk Factors , Incidence , Cluster Analysis , China/epidemiology
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