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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 202-213, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364977

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Short message service (SMS) to promote healthcare improves the control of cardiovascular risk factors, but there is a lack of evidence in low and middle-income countries, particularly after acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Objective This study aims to evaluate whether the use of SMS increases risk factor control after hospital discharge for ACS. Methods IMPACS is a 2-arm randomized trial with 180 patients hospitalized due to ACS at a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Eligible patients were randomized (1:1) to an SMS intervention (G1) or standard care (G2) upon hospital discharge. The primary endpoint was set to achieve 4 or 5 points in a risk factor control score, consisting of a cluster of 5 modifiable risk factors: LDL-C <70mg/dL, blood pressure (BP) <140/90mmHg, regular exercise (≥5 days/week, 30 minutes/session), nonsmoker status, and body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2] at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were components of the primary outcome plus rehospitalization, cardiovascular death, and death from any cause. Results are designated as significant if p<0.05. Results From randomized patients, 147 were included in the final analysis. Mean age was 58 (51-64) years, 74% males. The primary outcome was achieved by 12 (16.2%) patients in G1 and 15 (20.8%) in G2 (OR=0.73, 95%CI 0.32-1.70, p=0.47). Secondary outcomes were also similar: LDL-C<70 mg/dl (p=0.33), BP<140/90 mmHg (p=0.32), non-smoker (p=0.74), regular exercise (p=0.97), BMI (p=0.71), and rehospitalization (p=0.06). Death from any cause occurred in three participants (2%), including one cardiovascular death in each group. Conclusion SMS intervention did not significantly improve cardiovascular risk factor control when compared to standard care in patients discharged after ACS in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Acute Coronary Syndrome/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/methods , Text Messaging , Patient Discharge , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Health Promotion/methods
2.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002102, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222362

ABSTRACT

El cáncer colorrectal presenta un problema para la salud pública a nivel mundial. En Argentina, se diagnostican aproximadamente 13.500 casos cada año. El tamizaje como medida de prevención secundaria es una medida beneficiosa para lograr un abordaje temprano con mejores resultados. Los dos métodos más utilizados para el tamizaje son la videocolonoscopía y la prueba de sangre oculta en materia fecal, sobre todo la de tipo inmunoquímico que con el paso de los años fue reemplazando a la prueba de guayaco por su mayor practicidad. El primero es un método invasivo y que requiere anestesia, mientras que el segundo no tiene un efecto adverso directo pero debe realizarse con una cadencia mayor. El objetivo de los autores de este artículo fue evaluar la evidencia sobre la sensibilidad y especificidad de ambos métodos, como también sus beneficios y daños a partir de la consulta de un paciente a su médico de familia. Ninguna prueba parecería ser inferior para el tamizaje de cáncer colorrectal en una población de riesgo promedio, y ambas pueden usarse en programas de rastreo. Sin embargo, no existen estudios que comparen ambos métodos de manera directa, y toda prueba inmunoquímica fecal positiva debe ser seguida de una colonoscopía. La elección de la prueba puede depender de los valores y preferencias de los pacientes. (AU)


Colorectal cancer presents a public health problem worldwide. In Argentina, approximately 13,500 cases appear each year. Screening as a secondary prevention measure is a beneficial measure to achieve an early approach with better results. The two most used methods for screening are video colonoscopy and faecal immunochemical test, the former being invasiveand requiring anaesthesia, while the latter does not have a direct adverse effect but must be performed at a higher rate. The objective of this article was to evaluate the evidence for the sensitivity and specificity of both methods, as well as their benefits and harms. No test would appear to be inferior for colorectal cancer screening in an average-risk population, and both can be used in screening programs. However, there are no studies comparing both methods directly, and any positive faecal immunochemical test should be evaluated with a colonoscopy. The choice of the test may depend on the values and preferences of the patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colonic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Patient Participation , Mass Screening/methods , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colonoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/adverse effects , Secondary Prevention/methods , Patient Preference , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Occult Blood
4.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 133-136, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1009419

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares, principalmente as decorrentes de casos de acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio, têm importante impacto na mortalidade global e nas internações hospitalares em todo o mundo. A despeito do vasto conhecimento dos diversos fatores de risco implicados na gênese da doença cardiovascular, o número de eventos ainda se mantém elevado e a instituição de medidas de prevenção primária e secundária são essenciais e complementares. Nos últimos anos, importantes avanços no campo do tratamento farmacológico de aterosclerose e insuficiência cardíaca, predominantemente em decorrência de cardiopatia isquêmica, foram publicados e seus principais resultados são destacados no presente artigo


Cardiovascular diseases, particularly those arising from cases of stroke and acute myocardial infarction, have a significant impact on global mortality and hospital admissions around the world. Despite the vast knowledge of the various risk factors involved in the genesis of cardiovascular disease, the number of events remains high and institution of primary and secondary prevention measures is essential and complementary. In recent years, important advances in the field of pharmacological treatment of atherosclerosis and heart failure, particularly those arising from ischemic heart disease, have been published. The main results are highlighted in this article


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/methods , Therapeutics/methods , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Atherosclerosis , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Heart Failure , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Motor Activity
5.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 160-166, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009499

ABSTRACT

A prevenção da fibrilação atrial (FA) envolve uma abordagem individualizada, multidisciplinar e integrada do paciente, que vai além da arritmia per se. Por se tratar de uma arritmia multifatorial e com fisiopatologia complexa, os pacientes com FA devem ser avaliados em sua integralidade, que inclui aspectos eletrocardiográficos, eletrofisiológicos, medidas comportamentais e otimização de tratamento de doenças crônicas, como hipertensão arterial e insuficiência cardíaca. Neste artigo descrevere-mos as principais intervenções estudadas na literatura com benefício na prevenção da fibrilação atrial


AF (atrial fibrillation) prevention involves an ndividualized, multidisciplinary and integrated approach taken by the patient, which emcompasses more than just arrhy- thmima per se. Because it is a multifactorial arrhythmia with complex physiopathology, patients with AF should undergo a complete assessment, including electrocardiographic and electrophysiological aspects, behavioral measures and optimization of the treatment of chronic diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure. In this article we describe the main interventions studied in literature that are beneficial in the prevention of atrial fibrillation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Tobacco Use Disorder , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Secondary Prevention/methods , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Obesity
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 139-144, abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042720

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El síndrome hemolítico urémico (SHU) asociado a infección intestinal por bacterias productoras de Shigatoxina, que afecta principalmente a población infantil, puede causar morbilidad aguda grave, secuelas crónicas en varios órganos, y la muerte prematura en algunos de ellos. Dado su carácter zoonótico, adecuadas medidas de manejo agropecuario y correcta higiene de lo que consumimos es indispensable a la hora de prevenir la infección. Actualmente, una vez gatillado el SHU el manejo es médico y, principalmente, de soporte. En los últimos años diversas estrategias terapéuticas se han ido desarrollando para evitar que esta enfermedad ocurra, o, al menos, que pueda ser atenuada en sus consecuencias de morbi-mortalidad. El presente artículo describe acciones específicas a diferentes niveles de prevención de esta patología.


Abstract Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) associated with intestinal infection by Shiga toxin-producing bacteria, which mainly affects children, can cause severe acute morbidity, chronic sequelae in seve ral organs, and premature death in some of them. Given its zoonotic nature, adequate measures of agricultural management and proper hygiene of what we consume are essential to prevent infection. Once the HUS is triggered, medical management is currently mainly supportive. In recent years, va rious therapeutic strategies have been developed to prevent this disease from occurring or, at least, to mitigate its morbidity and mortality consequences. This article describes specific actions at different levels of prevention of this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shiga Toxins/adverse effects , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/prevention & control , Primary Prevention/methods , Secondary Prevention/methods , Tertiary Prevention/methods , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/diagnosis , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/etiology , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/therapy
7.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(4): 167-172, out.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-999253

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cardiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC) engloba complexo espectro de apresentações, não sendo incomuns episódios de morte arrítmica em portadores de função ventricular esquerda preservada (FVEP) ou quase normal (FVEQN). Métodos: Avaliação retrospectiva de 7 portadores de CCC por 4 anos, com FVEP, submetidos a implante de cardiodesfibrilador implantável (CDI) devido taquicardia ou fibrilação ventricular (TV/FV). Foram realizadas avaliações clínica, estrutural e eletrocardiográfica. Resultados: Idade média: 57,5±4,45 anos e 71,4% do sexo masculino. Função ventricular esquerda (FVE) inicial foi de 56,14%±4,45, com alterações contrácteis em 100% e hipocinesia inferior em 85,7%. Classe funcional I: 100% sem modificações ao seguimento. Escore de Rassi avaliado previamente ao evento foi de 4,85±0,89. Síncope constituiu a apresentação inicial em 100%, média de 2 episódios por paciente e intervalo de 4 semanas entre os mesmos. Houve alterações em 85,71% dos eletrocardiogramas, sendo bloqueio de ramo direito a principal. TV sustentada foi encontrada em 100%; sítio epicárdico em 71,42% e saída anterolateral do ventrículo esquerdo em 57,14%. A FVE sequencial foi de 54%±3,31; sem alterações contráteis novas. Amiodarona e betabloqueadores foram os fármacos utilizados. Terapias apropriadas aconteceram em 100%; média de 2,1 choques por paciente, com 52,63% dos registros nos primeiros 14 meses. Não foram evidenciados óbitos, terapias inapropriadas ou tempestade elétrica. Conclusão: O elevado número de terapias corrobora o risco arrítmico desta população, ratifica a importância do dispositivo e alerta para a eficácia da terapia clínica. Síncope pode estar associada a maior risco de eventos arrítmicos na CCC


Introduction: Chronic chagasic cardiopathy (CCC) encompasses a complex spectrum of presentations, and episodes of arrhythmic death in patients with preserved left ventricular (PLVF) or near normal (VFNN) are not uncommon. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of 7 patients with PLVF, submitted for implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) due to tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF). Clinical, structural and electrocardiographic evaluations were performed. Results: Mean age was 57.5±4.45 years. Male sex comprised 71.4%. Left ventricular function (LVF) was 56.14%±4.45 with contractile changes in 100% and lower hypokinesia in 85.7%. Functional class I was evidenced in 100% without changes in follow-up. The Rassi score evaluated before the event was 4.85±0.89. Syncope was the initial presentation in 100%, average of 2 episodes per patient and interval of 4 weeks between them. Electrocardiogram showed alterations in 85.71% being right bundle branch block. Sustained VT was evidenced in 100%; epicardial site in 71.42% and left ventricular anterolateral outlet in 57.14%. The sequential LVF was 54%±3.31; without new contractile changes. Amiodarone and beta-blockers were the drugs used. Appropriate therapies occurred in 100%; average of 2.1 shocks per patient with 52.63% of the records in the first 14 months. There were no deaths, inappropriate therapies or electrical storm. Conclusion: The high number of therapies corroborates the arrhythmic risk of this population, ratifies the importance of the device and disputes the effectiveness of clinical therapy. Syncope may be associated with an increased risk of arrhythmic events in CCC


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/therapy , Ventricular Function , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Defibrillators, Implantable , Secondary Prevention/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Stroke Volume , Syncope , Bundle-Branch Block/complications , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Sex Factors , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Chagas Disease/therapy , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 267-275, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916465

ABSTRACT

O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é a maior causa de incapacidade em todo mundo, e atualmente é também considerado como a segunda maior causa de morte no Brasil. O AVC isquêmico é o subtipo mais comum e pode ser subdividido etiologicamente em car-dioembólico, aterosclerótico de grandes ou pequenas artérias (lacunas), criptogênico ou de outras etiologias. Dependendo da etiologia encontrada, a profilaxia secundária de novos eventos deve ser feita através de medicações antitrombóticas específicas. Portanto, investigar adequadamente a etiologia do evento vascular isquêmico é fundamental para a instituição da profilaxia secundária apropriada. A terapia antitrombótica pós-AVC isquêmico evoluiu consideravelmente na última década. Especificamente para pacientes com AVC e fibrilação atrial, a incorporação de anticoagulantes de ação direta à prática clínica representa um grande avanço, já que tais medicações são mais eficazes e seguras para o tratamento de pacientes de alto risco. No presente artigo, discutiremos o uso de antitrombóticos em pacientes com AVC em diferentes momentos pós-icto vascular e nas distintas etiologias possíveis


Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and is currently also considered the second leading cause of death in Brazil. Ischemic stroke is the most common subtype and can be subdivided etiologically into cardioembolic, atherosclerotic (large artery atherosclero-sis or small vessel disease-lacunae), cryptogenic or strokes of other etiologies. Depending on the etiology, secondary prophylaxis of new events should be undertaken with specific antithrombotic medications. Therefore, a thorough investigation of ischemic vascular event etiology is essential for the introduction of appropriate secondary prophylaxis. Antithrombotic therapy after ischemic stroke has evolved considerably in the last decade. The incorporation of direct-acting anticoagulants into clinical practice represents a major advance, particularly for stroke and atrial fibrillation patients, since such medications are safer and more effective for the treatment of high-risk patients. In this article, we will discuss the use of antithrombo-tics in stroke patients at different post-stroke stages and in the distinct possible etiologies


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Disease Prevention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cerebral Infarction/diagnosis , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Secondary Prevention/methods , Sedentary Behavior , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Hypertension , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(12): 4073-4082, Dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890242

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar o conhecimento das mulheres sobre métodos de rastreamento do câncer de mama. Estudo de base populacional com mulheres de 18 anos ou mais em Rio Grande, entre abril e novembro de 2011. Entrevistadoras aplicavam questionário pré-codificado em todas as mulheres do domicílio selecionado. Construiuse um modelo para cada forma de rastreamento (autoexame das mamas, mamografia e exame clínico), analisados por regressão de Poisson. Das 1596 mulheres entrevistadas, 1355 referiram o autoexame, 456, a mamografia e, apenas 191, o exame clínico da mama, realizado por um profissional de saúde, como importantes para a prevenção do câncer de mama. As mulheres brancas, e com 11 anos ou mais de escolaridade, tiveram maior probabilidade de referirem a mamografia e o exame clínico como métodos de rastreamento. Para esses dois desfechos, também se observou uma tendência linear, sendo que a probabilidade de referir uma dessas formas de rastreamento se incrementou na medida em que aumentaram os quartis de renda. O estudo aponta para a necessidade de maior esclarecimento da população sobre os métodos de prevenção, evitando, assim, o diagnóstico tardio. Evidenciou-se que as mulheres não brancas e as de baixa escolaridade e renda, demonstraram menos conhecimentos sobre os métodos de exame clínico e mamografia.


Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge of methods for screening breast cancer. The study was done on a population of women aged 18 or over in the city of Rio Grande between April and November 2011. Interviewers used questionnaires on all of the women at selected households. Models were developed for every type of screening (self-examination of breasts, mammography, and clinical exams) that were analyzed through the use of Poisson regression. Out of the 1596 women interviewed, 1355 reported self-examination, 456, mammography, and only 191, clinical examination of the breast, performed by a health professional, as important for the prevention of breast cancer. White women with 11 years or more worth of schooling had a greater probability of having mammography exams and clinical examinations as methods for screening. We noted, linked to the aforementioned, that there was a linear tendency whereby there was a greater probability for those with high incomes to undergo one of the above interventions. The study noted that there was a need for more detailed information aimed at the population on prevention methods in order to avoid late diagnosis. We noted that non-white women with little education and on low incomes showed less knowledge of clinical examination methods and mammographies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mammography/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mass Screening/methods , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Poisson Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Status , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Secondary Prevention/methods , Income , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(2): 131-142, abr.-jun. 2017. ilu, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-847901

ABSTRACT

A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) é uma modalidade de imagem não invasiva capaz de fornecer informações precisas e, muitas vezes, únicas na investigação de cardiopatias em geral e, em especial, nas cardiomiopatias. A capacidade de caracterizar precisamente o miocárdio do ponto de vista de sua contratilidade e suas características teciduais, diferenciando precisamente o miocárdio normal da fibrose miocárdica e identificando o edema miocárdio nas situações de agressão aguda ou recente do miocárdio, tornam a RMC indispensável hoje em qualquer serviço terciário e avançado de cardiologia do mundo. Neste artigo revisamos as aplicações clássicas e mais recentes da RMC em cardiopatias não isquêmicas, dividindo o uso das técnicas de RMC em dois grandes grupos: investigação da insuficiência cardíaca e das arritmias ventriculares. Dentro destes dois grupos pontuamos as etiologias mais importantes e frequentemente envolvidas. Na síndrome da insuficiência cardíaca destacam-se a cardiomiopatia dilatada com a fibrose mesocárdica linear septal e a miocardite viral com a manifestação de fibrose multifocal e mesoepicárdica. Uma proporção das cardiomiopatias dilatadas pode ter origem em uma miocardite viral prévia. A sarcoidose cardíaca pode apresentar uma variedade de tipos de realce tardio de padrão não isquêmico e isquêmico, e ser associada tanto ao quadro clínico de IC como de arritmia. A presença de sarcoidose pulmonar ou sistêmica pode ou não estar presente. A amiloidose cardíaca é o protótipo da cardiomiopatia restritiva e pode ser identificada pela RMC pelo padrão de realce tardio miocárdico global circunferencial (tipo AL) ou difuso, poupando o ápex do ventrículo esquerdo (tipo transtirretina). Finalmente, uma entidade ainda pouco entendida, a não compactação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), em geral não apresenta realce tardio, mas tem fenótipo de trabeculação ventricular típico. No grupo das síndromes arrítmicas revisamos várias etiologias frequentemente associadas a esta apresentação clínica. Na hemossiderose cardíaca os valores de T2* abaixo de 20 ms indicam precisamente sobrecarga significativa de ferro miocárdico e associação com disfunção ventricular e arritmia ventricular. Na cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, a hipertrofia assimétrica e a fibrose miocárdica difusa, heterogênea e que acomete focalmente as inserções ventriculares, constituem o padrão clássico. Quantidade de fibrose acima de 15% da massa ventricular esquerda indica risco duas vezes maior de morte súbita. Na cardiomiopatia/displasia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito (VD), os volumes e a função ventricular direita global e segmentar pela RMC são partes fundamentais dos critérios diagnósticos da displasia pelo consenso atual. A cardiomiopatia chagásica tem mostrado intensa fibrose miocárdica desde as fases iniciais, mais intensa em homens que mulheres e frequentemente associada à edema miocárdico, marcador de provável inflamação crônica. A endomiocardiofibrose apresenta imagem patognomônica no realce tardio, o sinal do duplo V, caracterizando a fibrose miocárdica e trombo/calcificação preenchendo o ápex do VE e/ou VD. Nas valvopatias, além da detecção de fibrose miocárdica, que tem valor prognóstico, a RMC é precisa em quantificar as regurgitações, sendo indicada sua realização na insuficiência mitral antes da decisão de procedimento cirúrgico de troca ou correção valvar, eliminado um número significativo de casos em que a insuficiência mitral é superestimada pela ecocardiografia. Com esta revisão, cobrimos uma vasta gama de cardiopatias para as quais as técnicas de RMC realmente importam no diagnóstico e na estratificação prognóstica


Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a noninvasive form of imaging capable of providing accurate and often unique information in the investigation of heart disease in general, and especially in cardiomyopathies. The ability to accurately characterize the myocardium in terms of its contractility and tissue characteristics, precisely differentiating normal myocardium from myocardial fibrosis and identifying myocardial edema in situations of acute or recent myocardial injury, has made CMR indispensable in any tertiary and advanced cardiology service around the World. In this paper, we review the classical and more recent applications of CMR in non-ischemic heart diseases, dividing the use of CMR techniques into two main groups: heart failure (HF) and ventricular arrhythmia investigations. Within these two groups, we highlight the most important and frequently involved etiologies. In heart failure syndrome, we focused on dilated cardiomyopathy with septal linear mesocardial fibrosis and viral myocarditis with the manifestation of multifocal and mesoepicardiac fibrosis. A proportion of dilated cardiomyopathies may have originated with an ancient viral myocarditis. Cardiac sarcoidosis may present a variety of late enhancement types of non-ischemic and ischemic patterns, and is associated with clinical signs of both HF and arrhythmia. The presence of pulmonary or systemic sarcoidosis may or may not be present. Cardiac amyloidosis is the prototype of restrictive cardiomyopathy, and can be identified in CMR by the global circumferential subendocardial (AL type) or diffuse myocardial enhancement pattern sparing the left ventricle (LV) apex (transthyretin type). Finally, a poorly understood entity, LV non-compaction generally does not present late enhancement, but has a typical ventricular trabeculation phenotype. In the group of arrhythmic syndromes, we reviewed several etiologies frequently associated with this clinical presentation. In cardiac siderosis, values of T2* below 20 ms accurately indicate a significant overload of myocardial iron and association with ventricular dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmia. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, asymmetric hypertrophy and diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is heterogeneous and focally affects the ventricular insertions, constitute the classic pattern. An amount of fibrosis above 15% of the left ventricular mass indicates a two-fold increased risk of sudden death. In arrhythmogenic right ventricle (RV) cardiomyopathy/dysplasia, global and segmental right ventricular function and volumes by CMR are fundamental parts of the diagnostic criteria of dysplasia, according to current consensus. Chagasic cardiomyopathy has shown intense myocardial fibrosis since the early stages, which is more intense in men than women, and is frequently associated with myocardial edema, a marker of probable chronic inflammation. Endomyocardial fibrosis presents a pathognomonic image in late enhancement, the double V sign, characterizing myocardial fibrosis and thrombus/calcification filling the LV and/or RV apex. In valve diseases, in addition to the detection of myocardial fibrosis that has prognostic value, CMR is precise in quantifying regurgitations, and is indicated in mitral regurgitation prior to the decision for surgical valve replacement/correction, eliminating a significant number of cases in which mitral insufficiency is overestimated by the echocardiogram. This review covers a wide range of cardiopathies in which CMR techniques are extremely important in the diagnosis and prognostic stratification


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Valve , Primary Prevention/methods , Pulmonary Valve , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Secondary Prevention/methods , Gadolinium/therapeutic use , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Mitral Valve , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/mortality
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(2): 125-135, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843476

ABSTRACT

Abstract The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis and regulating blood vessel function. Endothelial function is considered an independent predictor for risk of future cardiovascular events in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular patients, as well as a predictor for postoperative complications in cardiovascular surgery patients. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by high-resolution ultrasound is widely used to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which is mainly mediated by nitric oxide release. Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on endothelial function and can be used in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiac and peripheral artery diseases, even in the postoperative period of cardiovascular surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Primary Prevention/methods , Blood Circulation/physiology , Brachial Artery/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Secondary Prevention/methods
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(6): 710-715, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-793979

ABSTRACT

In a previous study, we showed our experience in a group of 54 patients with a high risk of urolithiasis recurrence, who were subjected to a complete metabolic evaluation. Aim: To report the evolution of these patients after 5 years of follow-up. Patients and Methods: All patients underwent a general management of urolithiasis plus specific treatments for underlying metabolic disorders. Each patient had an annual medical assessment including a clinical examination, urinalysis and imaging studies (non-enhanced computed tomography scan, ultrasonography and plain abdominal Rx rays). In every case, the underlying metabolic disorder, treatment adherence, stones on imaging studies and symptomatology were evaluated. Adherence of general and specific measures were evaluated subjectively. Failure of secondary prevention was defined as the recurrence of clinical or imaging urolithiasis (increase of the number of lithiasis) despite a correct treatment of the metabolic disorders. Results: Twenty nine patients completed the follow-up. Mean age was 45 years old. Nineteen patients (65%) had only one metabolic disorder, three patients (10%) two disorders, one patient (3%) four disorders, and six patients (21%) a normal metabolic study. The median of follow-up was 54 months (45-60). During that period, twenty-three patients (79%) kept the treatment as it was indicated. In this subgroup, 21 had no clinical or imaging recurrence of urolithiasis during follow-up (91%). Total adherence to treatment and follow-up was 42% (23/54) of the initial group of patients. Conclusions: A complete metabolic study allows to identify patients with a high risk of urolithiasis recurrence, enabling a specific treatment of the metabolic disorder. Our experience shows that 75% (21/29) of patients remain free of recurrence at five years of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Urolithiasis/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention/methods , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Urolithiasis/etiology , Metabolic Diseases/complications
13.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 19(4): 124-125, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148114

ABSTRACT

El Cáncer de Cuello Uterino (CCU) representa la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo en mujeres entre los 35 y los 64 años de edad. En Argentina, cada año se diagnostican 4000 casos por año y mueren 1800 mujeres por esta enfermedad. La Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud proponen que se realice una prueba de tamizaje, que de resultar positiva, decida el inicio de un tratamiento inmediatamente después. El Ministerio de Salud dela Nación en el año 2011 incorporó la prueba del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) como método de tamizaje de CCU en la provincia de Jujuy y posteriormente en otras provincias, estableciendo que se realizará de manera conjunta con la citología. Decidimos realizar una búsqueda para conocer las características operativas y la efectividad del test. Los estudios resumidos estiman que la prueba de VPH tiene mayor sensibilidad y similar especificidad que el Papanicolau y sería eficaz también para disminuir la mortalidad por CCU, por lo cual la evidencia sugiere que sea utilizado como primer método de rastreo para la detección de CCU. (AU)


Cervical cancer (CC) represents the second cause of cancer deaths in the world among women aged 35 to 64 years old. In Argentina there 4000 cases are diagnosed each year and around 1800 women die each year. The World Health Organization and Pan-American Health Organization propose a single screening test that, if positive, defines the adequate immediate treatment. Argentina's Health Ministry incorporated in 2011 the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) test (together with cytology) as a mean of early detection of CC in the province of Jujuy and later on other provinces. We conducted a bibliographic search of the evidence of diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of HPV test. The results highlight that HPV testing has greater sensitivity and similar specificity compared to cytology and it is also effective inreducing CC mortality, therefore HPV testing should be used as first screening test for CC. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Argentina , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Secondary Prevention/methods , Papanicolaou Test
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been adequately evaluated in patients without left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Between November 2005 and January 2008, 6,781 patients who were not receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or ARBs were selected from the Korean AMI Registry. The primary endpoints were 12-month major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including death and recurrent AMI. RESULTS: Seventy percent of the patients were Killip class 1 and had a LV ejection fraction > or = 40%. The prescription rate of ARBs was 12.2%. For each patient, a propensity score, indicating the likelihood of using ARBs during hospitalization or at discharge, was calculated using a non-parsimonious multivariable logistic regression model, and was used to match the patients 1:4, yielding 715 ARB users versus 2,860 ACEI users. The effect of ARBs on in-hospital mortality and 12-month MACE occurrence was assessed using matched logistic and Cox regression models. Compared with ACEIs, ARBs significantly reduced in-hospital mortality(1.3% vs. 3.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.379; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.190 to0.756; p = 0.006) and 12-month MACE occurrence (4.6% vs. 6.9%; HR, 0.661; 95% CI, 0.457 to 0.956; p = 0.028). However, the benefit of ARBs on 12-month mortality compared with ACEIs was marginal (4.3% vs. 6.2%; HR, 0.684; 95% CI, 0.467 to 1.002; p = 0.051). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ARBs are not inferior to, and may actually be better than ACEIs in Korean patients with AMI.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Chi-Square Distribution , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Registries , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Secondary Prevention/methods , Stroke Volume , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 621-625, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21854

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of device closure and medical therapy in prevention of recurrent embolic event in the Korean population with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive 164 patients (men: 126 patients, mean age: 48.1 years, closure group: 72 patients, medical group: 92 patients) were enrolled. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or peripheral embolism. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups, except age, which was higher in the medical group (45.3±9.8 vs. 50.2±6.1, p<0.0001), and risk of paradoxical embolism score, which was higher in the closure group (6.2±1.6 vs. 5.7±1.3, p=0.026). On echocardiography, large right-to-left shunt (81.9% vs. 63.0%, p=0.009) and shunt at rest/septal hypermobility (61.1% vs. 23.9%, p<0.0001) were more common in the closure group. The device was successfully implanted in 71 (98.6%) patients. The primary end point occurred in 2 patients (2 TIA, 2.8%) in the closure group and in 2 (1 death, 1 stroke, 2.2%) in the medical group. Event-free survival rate did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Compared to medical therapy, device closure of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke did not show difference in reduction of recurrent embolic events in the real world's setting. However, considering high risk of echocardiographic findings in the closure group, further investigation of the role of PFO closure in the Asian population is needed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Catheterization/adverse effects , Disease-Free Survival , Embolism/etiology , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk , Secondary Prevention/methods , Septal Occluder Device/adverse effects , Stroke/etiology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 531-535, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-770117

ABSTRACT

The reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV infected patients presents high mortality and morbidity. We present the case of a female patient with confirmed Chagasic meningoencephalitis as AIDS-defining illness. Interestingly, her TCD4+ lymphocyte cell count was 318 cells/mm3. After two months of induction therapy, one year of maintenance with benznidazol, and early introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient had good clinical, parasitological and radiological evolution. We used a qualitative polymerase chain reaction for the monitoring of T. cruzi parasitemia during and after the treatment. We emphasize the potential value of molecular techniques along with clinical and radiological parameters in the follow-up of patients with Chagas disease and HIV infection. Early introduction of HAART, prolonged induction and maintenance of antiparasitic therapy, and its discontinuation are feasible, in the current management of reactivation of Chagas disease.


A reativação da doença de Chagas em pacientes com a infecção pelo HIV apresenta uma alta morbidade e mortalidade. Neste relato, apresentamos caso confirmado de meningoencefalite chagásica, como doença definidora de aids, em paciente com 318 linfócitos T-CD4+/mm3. Após 2 meses de tratamento seguido de um ano de profilaxia secundária com benzonidazol e início precoce de terapia antirretroviral (HAART), a paciente apresentou boa evolução clínica, parasitológica e radiológica. Utilizamos a reação em cadeia da polimerase qualitativa do T. cruzi, para monitorização da parasitemia por T. cruzi durante e após o tratamento. Ressaltamos o valor potencial das técnicas moleculares associadas aos parâmetros clínicos e radiológicos nos pacientes com doença de Chagas e infecção pelo HIV. A introdução precoce da terapia antirretroviral, a terapia antiparasitária prolongada, manutenção e descontinuação da mesma, são desafios atuais, embora possíveis, no manejo da reativação da doença de Chagas na era das terapias antirretrovirais de alta eficácia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Chagas Disease/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Meningoencephalitis , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/parasitology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Chagas Disease/virology , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy , Meningoencephalitis/parasitology , Meningoencephalitis , Meningoencephalitis/virology , Secondary Prevention/methods , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 30(4): 574-585, sep.-dec. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de pele em cabeça e pescoço tem incidência crescente no mundo, sendo o carcinoma basocelular e espinocelular os tipos mais frequentes. Não existe consenso absoluto para todas as situações tumorais conforme tipo histológico, tamanho, profundidade e localização da lesão. O objetivo é analisar a conduta abordada nessas neoplasias de pele em cabeça e pescoço, com ênfase nos tratamentos efetuados, recidivas e seguimento. Método: Foram analisados 69 pacientes com carcinoma basocelular ou de células escamosas tratados por cirurgia com congelação da lesão no intraoperatório, crioterapia ou Imiquimod 5% por 6 semanas. Com 36 meses de seguimento, observou-se a eficácia do tratamento escolhido, recidiva, intercorrências, complicações e satisfação estética do paciente. A análise estatística utilizou o teste exato de Fischer. Resultados: O tipo de reconstrução mais frequente foi o fechamento primário (71%). Não existem associações estatisticamente relevantes relacionando idade, sexo, classificação de Fitzpatrick, local/ tamanho da lesão, métodos de tratamento e recidiva. As principais complicações resultaram das cirurgias: um caso de necrose de retalho frontal, lesão parcial de nervo bucinador, estenose narinária. A recidiva tumoral nos casos operados foi de 4%. A crioterapia e uso do Imiquimod 5% causaram seis casos de reações locais leves com mais recidiva descritiva no tratamento de carcinoma basocelular (CBC) superficial (não estatisticamente relevante). Conclusões: Os CBC não superficiais e carcinoma espinocelular devem ser tratados cirurgicamente. Os CBC superficiais podem ser tratados com crioterapia e uso do Imiquimod 5% com menos complicações e melhor resultado estético, mas a recidiva tumoral é maior.


Introduction: The incidence of skin cancer on the head and neck is increasing worldwide, and basal and squamous cell carcinomas represent the most frequent types. There is no unanimous consensus for all tumor cases, based on the histological type, size, depth, and location of the lesion. The objective is to analyzed the approach used in skin neoplasias in the head and neck, focusing on the treatments performed, recurrence, and follow-up. Methods: Sixty-nine patients with basal or squamous cell carcinoma who were treated with surgery, cryotherapy, freezing of lesions in the intraoperative period, or 5% imiquimod were analyzed for 6 weeks. During 36 months of follow-up, the efficacy of the chosen treatment, recurrence, side effects, complications, and esthetic satisfaction of patients were observed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test. Results: The most frequent type of reconstruction was primary closure (71%). There were no statistically significant correlations between age, sex, Fitzpatrick classification, location/size of lesion, method of treatment, or recurrence. The main complications resulting from surgery were: a case of a frontal flap necrosis, a partial lesion of the buccinator nerve, and nasal stenosis. There was a 4% tumor recurrence in patients treated with surgery. The cryotherapy and 5% imiquimod treatments resulted in six cases of mild local reactions with a more pronounced recurrence in a patient with superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (not statistically significant). Conclusions: Non-superficial BCC and squamous cell carcinomas should be treated with surgery. Superficial BCCs may be treated with cryotherapy and 5% imiquimod with fewer complications and better aesthetic results, but this results in higher tumor recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Postoperative Complications , Skin , Skin Neoplasms , Wounds and Injuries , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Cryotherapy , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Secondary Prevention , Imiquimod , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Skin/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Medical Records/standards , Cryotherapy/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Secondary Prevention/methods , Imiquimod/therapeutic use , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy
19.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 28(4): 155-166, out.-dez. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-788752

ABSTRACT

A tempestade elétrica em portadores de cardiodesfibriladores implantáveis é a ocorrência de pelo menos três intervenções apropriadas, resultante de taquicardia ventricular ou fibrilação ventricular, em 24 horas. É preditor de mau prognóstico e a terapia varia de medicamentos até transplante cardíaco. Este estudo teve por objetivo revisar orientações de diagnóstico e prevenção, visando ao tratamento (farmacológico, intervencionista e cirúrgico) da tempestade elétrica em portadores desses dispositivos. Compilamos publicações no Medline/PubMed e em revistas nacionais. O tratamento das condições basais e desencadeantes, como insuficiência cardíaca e insuficiência coronária, reduziu a morte súbita. A miodarona, betabloqueadores, lidocaína e magnésio são a base terapêutica. A ablação por cateter reduz arritmias e choques, estabiliza o ritmo e melhora o prognóstico. A taquicardia ventricular com substrato permite a abordagem de um circuito estável. A compreensão dos mecanismos e as melhorias no mapeamento eletrofisiológico possibilitam seu uso na fibrilação ventricular. Diferentes condições necessitam de abordagem cirúrgica, eliminando focos arritmogênicos e/ou permitindo o remodelamento,utilizando ressincronização, tratamentos para coronariopatia, valvopatias e cardiopatias congênitas, ressecção endocárdica guiada por eletrofisiologia e transplante em pacientes refratários. Atuando no sistema nervoso, aneuromodulação é alternativa. Durante anestesia peridural torácica, a denervação simpática cardíaca tem efeitos consistentes e persistentes. De modo semelhante à denervação simpática renal, pode ser um novo horizonte. Concluímos que identificar a causa é fundamental. O tratamento dos fatores causais melhora o controle e o prognóstico. Amiodarona, bloqueadores beta-adrenérgicos, lidocaína e magnésio são opções. Procedimento ablativo deve ser ponderado para taquicardia e fibrilação ventricular. Abordagem cirúrgica e neuromodulação...


Electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the occurrence of at least three appropriate interventions resulting from tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours. It a predictor of poor prognosis and its treatment may vary from drug therapy to heart transplantation. Our objectivewas to review diagnostic and prevention guidelines aiming at the treatment (drug therapy, interventional and surgical treatment) of electrical storm in patients using these devices. We analyzed publications from Medline/PubMed and Brazilian medical journals. The treatment of baseline conditions and triggers, such as heart failure and coronary insufficiency, reduced sudden death. Amiodarone, betablockers, lidocaine and magnesium are the therapeutic basis. Catheter ablation reduces shock and arrhythmia, stabilizes rhythm and improves prognosis. Ventricular tachycardia with substratum allows the approach of a stable circuit. Understanding the mechanismsand improvements in electrophysiological mapping enables the use of catheter ablation in ventricular fibrillation.Different conditions require a surgical approach, eliminating arrhythmogenic cores and/or allowing cardiac remodeling, using cardiac resynchronization therapy, treatment for coronary artery disease, valve disease,congenital heart disease, electrophysiology-guided endocardial resection and heart transplantation in refractory patients. Neuromodulation is an alternative that acts on the nervous system. During thoracic epidural anesthesia, cardiac sympathetic denervation has consistent and persisting effects. Similarly, renal denervation may be anotherfuture possibility. In conclusion, identifying the cause is essential. Treatment of baseline factors improves control and prognosis. Amiodarone, betablockers, lidocaine and magnesium are pharmacological options. Catheterablation may be considered for tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Surgical approach and neuromodulation...


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Electric Countershock/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Tachycardia/complications , Tachycardia/therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Ventricular Fibrillation/complications , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy , Secondary Prevention/methods , Sympathectomy/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/methods
20.
Colomb. med ; 46(4): 183-191, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774952

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of primaquine regimens currently used to prevent relapses by P. vivax. Methods: A systematic review was carried out to identify clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety to prevent malaria recurrences by P. vivax of primaquine regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day for 7 or 14 days compared to standard regimen of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Efficacy of primaquine according to cumulative incidence of recurrences after 28 days was determined. The overall relative risk with fixed-effects meta-analysis was estimated. Results: For the regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/7 days were identified 7 studies, which showed an incidence of recurrence between 0% and 20% with follow-up 60-210 days; only 4 studies comparing with the standard regimen 0.25 mg/kg/day/14 days and no difference in recurrences between both regimens (RR= 0.977, 95% CI= 0.670 to 1.423) were found. 3 clinical trials using regimen 0.5 mg/kg/day/14 days with an incidence of recurrences between 1.8% and 18.0% during 330-365 days were identified; only one study comparing with the standard regimen (RR= 0.846, 95% CI= 0.484 to 1.477). High risk of bias and differences in handling of included studies were found. Conclusion: Available evidence is insufficient to determine whether currently PQ regimens used as alternative rather than standard treatment have better efficacy and safety in preventing relapse of P. vivax. Clinical trials are required to guide changes in treatment regimen of malaria vivax.


Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia y seguridad de los esquemas de primaquina actualmente usados para prevenir las recaídas de malaria por P. vivax. Métodos: A través de una revisión sistemática se identificaron ensayos clínicos que evaluaran la eficacia y seguridad para prevenir recurrencias por P. vivax del régimen de primaquina 0.5 mg/Kg/día por 7 o 14 días comparado al régimen estándar de 0.25 mg/Kg/día por 14 días. Se determinó la eficacia de primaquina con la incidencia acumulada de recurrencias posterior a 28 días. Se estimó el riesgo relativo global con un meta-análisis de efectos fijos. Resultados: Se identificaron 7 ensayos clínicos para el régimen 0.5 mg/Kg/día/7 días que mostraron una incidencia de recurrencias entre 0% y 20% con un seguimiento de 60 a 210 días; solo 4 estudios compararon con el régimen estándar y no se encontraron diferencias en las recurrencias entre ambos esquemas (RR= 0.977; IC 95%= 0.670-1.423). Se identificaron tres ensayos clínicos que usaron el esquema 0.5 mg/Kg/día/14 días con una incidencia de recurrencias entre 1.8% y 18.0% para 330 a 365 días; solo un estudio comparó con el régimen estándar (RR= 0.846; IC 95%= 0.484-1.477). Se encontró alto riesgo de sesgo y diferencias en la conducción de los estudios incluidos. Conclusión: No hay suficiente evidencia para determinar si los regímenes de primaquina usados como alternativas al tratamiento estándar tienen mejor eficacia para prevenir las recaídas de P. vivax. Se requieren ensayos clínicos para orientar los cambios en el esquema de tratamiento de este tipo de malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria, Vivax/prevention & control , Plasmodium vivax , Primaquine/therapeutic use , Secondary Prevention/methods , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Recurrence
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