Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259137, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364510

ABSTRACT

The edge effect has impacts on seed and seedling survival due to modifications in biotic and abiotic factors. Often, large-seeded tree species lost seed vectors in the forest edge due to the rarity or absence of large frugivores at this habitat type. In this study, I compared the seedling abundance and distribution of the palm Syagrus flexuosa between edges and interiors of three large Cerrado remnants. In every remnant, the number of seedlings around parent palms in the edge was smaller than around palm individuals located in the Cerrado interior. Moreover, the distribution of seedlings around parent palms differed between edges and interiors. In the edges, most seedlings were found under parent crowns, while in the interiors, the contrary occurred. The high concentration of seedlings under parent palms suggests a decrease of seed dispersal at the edges. Because S. flexuosa is a widely distributed palm that serves as an important resource for several animals along Cerrado habitats, changes on the regeneration process of this palm due to edge effects can further impact frugivore populations. Therefore, the decline of seedling establishment along forest edges implies changes in the Cerrado regeneration dynamics, which may compromise the persistence of ecological processes and animal communities.


O efeito de borda tem impactos severos na sobrevivência de sementes e plântulas devido a modificações dos fatores bióticos e abióticos. Frequentemente, espécies arbóreas com sementes grandes perdem seus dispersores na borda da floresta devido à raridade ou ausência de grandes frugívoros neste tipo de habitat. Neste estudo, comparei a abundância e distribuição de plântulas de S. flexuosa entre bordas e interiores de três grandes remanescentes de Cerrado. Em cada remanescente, o número de plântulas ao redor das palmeiras-mãe, na borda, era menor do que ao redor dos indivíduos no interior do Cerrado. Nas bordas, a maioria das plântulas foi encontrada junto às plantas mãe, enquanto no interior ocorreu o contrário. A alta concentração de plântulas sob as plantas adultas sugere diminuição da dispersão de sementes nas bordas. Como S. flexuosa é uma palmeira amplamente distribuída que serve como um recurso importante para vários animais nos habitats do Cerrado, mudanças no processo de regeneração dessa palmeira devido aos efeitos de borda podem impactar ainda mais as populações de frugívoros. Portanto, o declínio do estabelecimento de plântulas ao longo das bordas do Cerrado implica em mudanças na dinâmica de regeneração do Cerrado, o que pode comprometer a persistência de processos ecológicos e comunidades animais.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Arecaceae , Seedlings , Seed Dispersal
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Seed removal by ants is an interaction that may greatly affect the dynamic and structure of the vegetation. This aspect is well known for granivorous ants; however, there is little information on the effect of omnivorous ants. Objective: To assess the potential impact of the omnivorous ant Dorymyrmex insanus on vegetation. Methods: In the Pedregal Reserve, Mexico City, we identified the items in the refuse piles of ten ant colonies, for one year, covering the rainy and dry seasons. For each season we calculated seed diversity and analyzed the possible relationship between seed size and their abundance in the refuse piles, with regression models. We also did germination tests with seeds of Tagetes micrantha, comparing seeds from piles and from plants. Results: D. insanus removed seeds of 19 plant species as well as plant remains (such as leaves, twigs, roots), and remains of insects. Seed diversity was higher in the rainy season but the greatest abundance was in the dry season. When analyzing the relationship between seed length and abundance in the refuse piles, we found that the ants preferred seeds of around 10 mm. We also found that more seeds of T. micrantha germinated when they were previously handled by ants. Conclusions: The ant D. insanus actively participates in the removal of seeds from several species, favoring germination, and seasonality affects the selectivity of resources.


Resumen Introducción: La remoción de semillas por parte de las hormigas es una interacción que puede afectar en gran medida la dinámica y estructura de la vegetación. Este aspecto es bien conocido para las hormigas granívoras; sin embargo, hay poca información sobre el efecto de las omnívoras. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto potencial de la hormiga omnívora Dorymyrmex insanus sobre la vegetación. Métodos: En la Reserva Pedregal, Ciudad de México, se identificaron los ítems en el área del basurero para diez colonias de hormigas, durante un año, cubriendo la época de lluvia y sequía. Para cada temporada calculamos la diversidad de semillas y analizamos la posible relación entre el tamaño de las semillas y su abundancia en los basureros, con modelos de regresión. También hicimos pruebas de germinación con semillas de Tagetes micrantha, comparando las encontradas en los basureros con las provenientes de las plantas. Resultados: D. insanus eliminó semillas de 19 especies de plantas, así como restos de plantas (hojas, ramitas, raíces) y restos de insectos. La diversidad de semillas fue mayor en la estación lluviosa pero la mayor abundancia lo fue en la estación seca. Al analizar la relación entre la longitud de las semillas y la abundancia en el área del basurero, encontramos que las hormigas preferían semillas de alrededor de 10 mm. También encontramos que germinaron más semillas de T. micrantha cuando fueron manipuladas previamente por hormigas. Conclusiones: La hormiga D. insanus participa activamente en la remoción de semillas de varias especies, favoreciendo la germinación, y la estacionalidad afecta la selectividad de recursos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Green Belt , Seed Dispersal , Hymenoptera/classification , Mexico
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387632

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El banco de semillas en el suelo es uno de los indicadores ecológicos más importantes para la evaluación y monitoreo de recuperación de ecosistemas degradados. Así mismo, actualmente indicadores ecológicos de restauración son usados en áreas afectadas por la ruptura de la represa de relaves de Fundão en Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Objetivo: En este estudio se evaluó la variación de la riqueza, composición de especies, densidad y parámetros fitosociológicos del banco de semillas en dos profundidades de relaves mineros en Mariana, municipio de Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: Se recolectaron 15 muestras por nivel de profundidad, en la capa superior (Profundidad1, P1 = 0-2.5 cm) y capa inferior (Profundidad2, P2 = 2.5-5.0 cm) del relave de minería para examinar el banco de semillas viable, que luego se colocó en un invernadero para la germinación. Posteriormente se contaron e identificaron semanalmente todos los individuos de cada especie durante un período de seis meses. Resultados: Se demostró que existe un banco de semillas en las capas superficiales de relaves mineros acumulados en las áreas afectadas de Mariana, con una marcada diferencia entre profundidades en términos de riqueza de especies y densidad de individuos. Se observó una mayor riqueza y número de individuos en P1, (1 165 semillas germinadas), pertenecientes a 18 familias y 47 especies, en comparación a P2 (197 individuos), pertenecientes a 12 familias y 23 especies. El banco de semillas de la capa P1 está influenciado por la lluvia de semillas del bosque cercano. Por otro lado, el banco de semillas de P2, puede ser característico de los relaves mineros. Conclusiones: El banco de semillas estudiado puede tener efectos positivos sobre la recuperación en el área de estudio, debido a la alta proporción de especies nativas, pioneras y anemocóricas típicas de etapas iniciales de sucesión secundaria.


Abstract Introduction: The soil seed bank is one of the most important ecological indicators for evaluating and monitoring the resilience of degraded ecosystems. Likewise, ecological restoration indicators are currently used in areas affected by the rupture of the Fundão tailings dam in Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Objective: To evaluate the seed bank at two depths of areas affected by mining tailings, Mariana municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: 15 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per level of depth, in the upper layer (Depth1, P1 = 0-2.5 cm), and lower layer (Depth2, P2 = 2.5-5.0 cm) of the mining tailings to survey the viable seed bank, which was later placed in a greenhouse for germination and seedling identification. The samples were placed in plastic trays to germinate in the nursery, then counted and identified weekly for six months. Results: The results showed that there is a seed bank in the surface layers of accumulated mining tailings in the affected areas of Mariana, with a marked difference between depths in terms of species richness and density of individuals. Higher species richness and number of individuals were observed in P1, (1 165 germinated seeds), belonging to 18 families and 47 species, in comparison to P2 (197 individuals), belonging to 12 families and 23 species. Probably the seed bank of layer P1 is influenced by the rain of seeds from the nearby forest. On the other hand, the P2 seed bank can be characteristic of mining tailings. Conclusions: Seed bank patterns can have positive effects on forest resilience at the local-scale, due to the high proportion of native, pioneer and anemochorical species of early successional stages.


Subject(s)
Seed Bank/trends , Mining , Regeneration , Brazil , Seed Dispersal
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387650

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los bosques tropicales estacionalmente secos están sujetos a procesos de degradación crónica que ponen en riesgo su diversidad. La ganadería intensiva dentro de los remanentes de bosque se plantea como una de las principales causas de estos procesos de degradación. Sin embargo, el ganado también podría estar cumpliendo el rol de dispersor de semillas para algunas especies. Objetivo: Evaluar el rol de las cabras en la dispersión de semillas de especies leñosas y las posibles consecuencias de su comportamiento alimenticio sobre la estructura de la vegetación. Métodos: Entre diciembre 2016 y junio 2017 se recolectaron fecas de corrales (N = 38) y parcelas de vegetación (N = 42) de tres localidades de bosque seco en el Suroccidente de Ecuador. Todas las semillas encontradas en las fecas (N = 13 326) se registraron e identificaron taxonómicamente. Para evaluar el efecto de la ingestión de semillas sobre la germinación, se estableció un experimento de siembra de semillas extraídas de fecas procedentes de corrales y semillas recolectadas directamente de la planta. Resultados: Las cabras dispersaron 10 especies leñosas, de las cuales al menos el 50 % son leguminosas. Las semillas de Acacia macracantha representaron más del 70 % de semillas presentes en fecas de cabra. El paso de semillas por el tracto digestivo de las cabras mejoró significativamente el porcentaje y velocidad de germinación en Albizia multiflora, Piscidia carthagenensis y Ziziphus thyrsiflora, mientras que en Choroleucon mangense y Prosopis juliflora no se obtuvo germinación. No encontramos una correlación entre la riqueza de árboles establecidos y el número de especies encontradas en las fecas (χ2 = -0.23, P = 0.53). La composición de especies de semillas dispersadas en las fecas no mostró una dependencia de la localidad, a pesar de que la composición de la vegetación establecida cambia entre localidades. La abundancia de semillas en las fecas no mostró relación con la abundancia de árboles en la vegetación establecida. Conclusiones: Las cabras pueden suplir en cierta medida el rol de otros ungulados localmente extintos, mejorando la germinación de especies de leguminosas con testa dura. Sin embargo, su comportamiento alimenticio y la alta dominancia en la dispersión de ciertas especies puede tener importantes efectos en la estructura de la comunidad.


Abstract Introduction: Seasonally dry tropical forests are subject to chronic degradation processes, which has reduced the populations of some important animal dispersers. Intensive livestock farming within the forest remnants is considered one of the main causes of these degradation processes. However, domestic ungulates could also be fulfilling the role of seed dispersal for some wild species. Objective: To evaluate the role of goats as seed dispersers of woody species and the possible consequences of their feeding behavior on the vegetation structure. Methods: Between December 2016 and June 2017, we collected goat feces from pens (N = 38) and vegetation plots (N = 42) from three locations of dry forest in the Southwestern Ecuador. All the seeds found in the feces (N = 13 326) were recorded and taxonomically identified. To evaluate the effect of gut passage on seed germination, we sowed the seeds found in the goat feces from the pens and seeds collected directly from parent plants. Results: Goats dispersed seeds from ten species, of which at least 50 % are legumes. Acacia macracantha seeds represented ca. 70 % of seeds present in goat feces. The passage of seeds through the digestive tract of goats significantly improved the percentage and speed of germination in Albizia multiflora, Piscidia carthagenensis and Ziziphus thyrsiflora, while in Choroleucon mangense and Prosopis juliflora no germination was registered. We did not find a correlation between the richness of established trees and the number of species found in the goat feces (χ2 = -0.23, P = 0.53). The composition of dispersed seed species in the feces did not show a dependency on the locality, although the composition of the established vegetation changes between localities. The frequency of seeds in the feces did not show a relationship with the tree abundance in the established vegetation. Conclusions: Goats can play, at least partially, the role of locally extinct wild ungulates, improving the germination of legume species with hard coat. However, this positive effect can be blurred by their feeding behavior and high preference for particular species, which can modify the dominance of some species, and result in changes in the composition and structure of the vegetation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats , Seed Dispersal , Ecuador
7.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 263-272, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118857

ABSTRACT

Frugivores and zoocoric trees represent an important proportion of tropical rainforest biodiversity. As niche differences favor species coexistence, we aimed to evaluate morphological and temporal niche segregation mechanisms among zoochoric trees and canopy frugivores in a tropical rainforest in the northeastern extreme of the Brazilian Amazon. We tested the effects of fruit morphology, tree size, frugivore body size and time of day on fruit consumption. We recorded the frugivore species that fed on 72 trees (44 species, 22 genera) and whether these frugivores swallowed the seeds. We monitored trees only once from 07:00 to 17:00 h between January and September 2017. We observed fruit consumption in 20 of the 72 trees. Seventy-three frugivore individuals from 22 species visited the trees. Heavier fruits were consumed by larger frugivores, while seed size was inversely correlated with frugivore size. Narrower fruits and fruits with smaller seeds had greater probability of having their seeds ingested, and larger frugivores were more prone to ingest seeds. Trees bearing fruits with smaller seeds were visited by a greater number of frugivores. Taxonomic groups differed in the time of arrival at fruiting trees. None of the evaluated variables (fruit weight and size, and seed size) affected the richness of frugivores that visited the trees. We concluded that, in the studied forest, fruit morphology (weight, size and seed size) is a niche segregation mechanism among zoochoric trees, while body size and time of day are niche segregation mechanisms among frugivores. (AU)


Subject(s)
Seed Dispersal , Rainforest , Fruit
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 752-761, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil. In each of the two habitat types, I set down 45 points in which D. alata piles of 1, 3, 7, 15, and 40 endocarps were positioned. On average, endocarp removal in the interior was higher than in the edge, so that the intensity of removal varied from positive density-dependent (interior: rains), to negative density-dependent (edge: both seasons). Also, at both habitat types and seasons non removed endocarps were intensely attacked by fungus. Indeed, seed mortality by fungus infestation was positive density-dependent. The results indicate high propensity of endocarps to escape from removal in the edge, in principle, a defaunated area. As Dipteryx species strongly rely on caviomorph rodents for their dispersal, the scarcity of these vectors might reduce recruitment chances of D. alata in remnants of Cerrado. This imply in future changes in the vegetation structure from the edge to the interior towards low tree diversity.


Resumo A mortalidade pós-dispersão de sementes é causada por agentes como patógenos, invertebrados e vertebrados, os quais influenciam a dinâmica de populações e comunidades arbóreas. Nesse estudo, avaliei experimentalmente intensidade de remoção, por roedores, de endocarpos de Dipteryx alata na borda e interior da vegetação do Cerrado. Simulando a dispersão primária por morcegos, posicionei pilhas com diferentes números de endocarpos nos dois hábitats do cerrado e avaliei a remoção secundária, tanto na estação seca quanto na chuvosa. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos no Parque Natural Municipal do Pombo, um grande remanescente com 9000 ha (Três Lagoas, MS, Brasil). Em cada um dos habitat defini 45 pontos nos quais pilhas com 1, 3, 7, 15 e 40 endocarpos foram posicionadas. A remoção de endocarpos foi significativamente maior no interior em relação à borda, tal que a intensidade de remoção variou de positivamente dependente da densidade (interior: chuvas), a negativamente dependente da densidade (borda: ambas as estações). Além disso, tanto na borda, quanto interior, bem como nas duas estações os endocarpos não removidos foram intensamente infestados por fungos. Consequentemente, a mortalidade causada por esses patógenos foi densidade dependente. Os resultados sugerem que os endocarpos de D. alata teriam maiores chances de escapar à remoção na borda, em princípio, depauperada em termos de roedores dispersores. A escassez desses vetores reduziria as chances de recrutamento de D. alata, favorecendo mudanças futuras na estrutura da vegetação, a partir da borda, em termos de menor diversidade arbórea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trees/physiology , Ecosystem , Food Chain , Dipteryx/physiology , Seed Dispersal , Rodentia/physiology , Seasons , Brazil , Chiroptera/physiology , Population Dynamics
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 393-404, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897550

ABSTRACT

ResumenLa minería es una de las principales actividades económicas en muchas regiones tropicales y también es la causa de la devastación de amplias superficies de bosques tropicales naturales. El conocimiento del potencial regenerativo de las áreas alteradas por minería es vital para la restauración ecológica de estas áreas críticas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la edad de abandono de las minas y su distancia al bosque adyacente sobre la formación del banco de semillas del suelo en minas abandonadas en el San Juan, Chocó, Colombia. Para ello, se determinó la abundancia y composición de especies del banco de semillas, así como la dinámica de la lluvia de semillas, en minas de distinta edad (6 y 15 años), tras el cese de la actividad minera, y distancia a la matriz del bosque adyacente (50 y 100 m). La lluvia de semillas estuvo compuesta por cinco especies de plantas, todas de dispersión anemócora, y fue mayor en la mina de 6 años que en la de 15. No hubo diferencias significativas en la cantidad de semillas recolectadas a 50 m y 100 m de distancia del bosque adyacente. El banco de semillas estuvo representado por ocho especies: dos de dispersión anemócora (comunes a la lluvia de semillas) y el resto de dispersión zoócora. La abundancia de semillas en el suelo no varió con la edad de la mina, pero fue mayor a distancias próximas al bosque que alejadas de este. Durante la regeneración temprana, la formación del banco de semillas en el seno de las minas parece estar relacionada con la cercanía a otras áreas alteradas más que con su proximidad al bosque adyacente o la edad de las minas. Al respecto, el establecimiento de perchas artificiales o conservación de árboles remanentes en el seno de las minas podrían promover la entrada de semillas dispersadas por aves. No obstante, dado que el banco de semillas del suelo puede verse afectado por la alta precipitación de la zona, se recomienda promover estudios que valoren medidas encaminadas a favorecer la formación del banco de semillas del suelo de las minas en ambientes de alta pluviosidad como en la región del Chocó.


Abstract:Mining is one of the main economic activities in many tropical regions and is the cause of devastation of large areas of natural tropical forests. The knowledge of the regenerative potential of mining disturbed areas provides valuable information for their ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age of abandonment of mines and their distance from the adjacent forest, on the formation of soil seed bank in abandoned mines in the San Juan, Chocó, Colombia. To do this, we determined the abundance and species composition of the soil seed bank, and the dynamics of seed rain in mines of different cessation period of mining activity (6 and 15 years), and at different distances from the adjacent forest matrix (50 and 100 m). Seed rain was composed by five species of plants with anemocorous dispersion, and was more abundant in the mine of 6 years than in the mine of 15 years. There were no significant differences in the number of seeds collected at 50 m and 100 m from the adjacent forest. The soil seed bank was represented by eight species: two with anemocorous dispersion (common among the seed rain species) and the rest with zoochorous dispersion. The abundance of seeds in the soil did not vary with the age of the mine, but was higher at close distances to the forest edge than far away. During the early revegetation, the formation of the soil seed bank in the mines seems to be related to their proximity to other disturbed areas, rather than their proximity to the adjacent forest or the cessation activity period of mines. Therefore, the establishment of artificial perches or the maintenance of isolated trees in the abandoned mines could favour the arrival of bird-dispersed seeds at mines. However, since the soil seed bank can be significantly affected by the high rainfall in the study area, more studies are needed to evaluate management actions to encourage soil seed bank formation in mines of high-rainfall environments in the Chocó region. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 393-404. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Rain , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Seed Dispersal/physiology , Rainforest , Seed Bank , Mining , Seasons , Seeds/physiology , Soil , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Tropical Climate , Analysis of Variance , Colombia
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 955-966, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ecological restoration aims to retrieve not only the structure but also the functionality of ecosystems. Frugivorous birds may play an important role in this process due to their efficiency in seed dispersal. Color perception in these animals is highly developed, and then the colors of fleshy fruits may provide important clues for choosing plant species for restoration plans. This study aims to integrate bird color preferences and restoration of degraded areas, with an objective to evaluate the potential attractiveness to birds by colored fruits. We carried out an experiment with 384 artificial fruits made of edible modeling clay with the following colors: black, blue, green and red, with 96 fruits of each color in six sites, including four restored areas and two second-growth forest fragments. We also tested the possible effect of light intensity on fruit consumption by color. A total of 120 (38.6%) were assumed to be consumed by birds, and the fruit consumption varied in response to the location and light incidence. Consumption of black and blue fruits was not related to site by chance. Notwithstanding, red and black fruits were consumed significantly more than any other colors, emphasizing bird preference to these colors, regardless of location. Enrichment with shade tolerant shrubs or forest species with black or red fruits may be an alternative way to manage established restorations. In recently established or new restorations, one may introduce pioneer shrubs or short-lived forest species which have blue fruits, but also those having black or red ones.


Resumo A restauração ecológica tem a finalidade de recuperar não apenas a estrutura, mas também a funcionalidade dos ecossistemas, e as aves frugívoras podem desempenhar um papel importante neste processo devido à sua eficiência na dispersão de sementes. Como a percepção da cor nestes animais é altamente desenvolvida, a cor dos frutos carnosos pode ser uma característica importante na escolha de espécies de plantas para os reflorestamentos. Este estudo tem como foco integrar a preferência de cor de frutos por aves e a recuperação de áreas degradadas, objetivando determinar a atratividade potencial de aves por frutos de cores diferentes. Foi realizado um experimento com 384 frutos artificiais feitos com massa de modelar comestível nas cores preta, azul, verde e vermelha, com um total de 96 frutos em cada cor em seis locais, incluindo quatro áreas restauradas e dois fragmentos de floresta secundária. Também foi testado o possível efeito da intensidade de luz sobre o consumo de frutos conforme as cores. Um total de 120 (38,6%) frutos foi considerado consumido pelas aves, e o consumo variou em resposta aos locais e incidência de luz. O consumo de frutos pretos e azuis foi significativamente relacionado com o local. Os frutos vermelhos e pretos foram significativamente mais consumidos do que as outras cores, enfatizando a preferência aves por essas cores, independentemente do local. O enriquecimento com espécies tolerantes à sombra com frutos pretos ou vermelhos pode ser uma alternativa para manejo de restaurações já estabelecidos; enquanto nos recentemente criados podem ser introduzidas espécies pioneiras ou florestais de vida curta com frutos azuis, pretos ou vermelhos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Forests , Color , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Food Preferences , Fruit , Brazil , Pigmentation , Seed Dispersal , Herbivory
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 818-823, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828094

ABSTRACT

Abstract The goal of this study was to identify which bird species consume Solanum granuloso-leprosum fruits and disperse its seeds. 60 hours of focal observations were carried out between April and May 2006 on the edge of a deciduous forest fragment in the Uruguay River region, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Ten species were observed in total removing 443 fruits. Saltator similis removed 61.8% of the fruits, followed by Tangara sayaca (17.1%), Pipraeidea bonariensis (11.7%), and T. preciosa (6.8%), while the remaining six species accounted for only 2.5% of the fruits removed. Most fruit removal occurred early in the day or mid-afternoon. The most common feeding behaviors were picking (60.7%), followed by stalling (23%) and hovering (16%). Birds flew more than 10 m from the fruit plant in 62% of the removal events. All bird species observed here may be considered potential dispersers of S. granuloso-leprosum, as they moved the seeds away from the mother plant where strong competition and predation are likely to occur. Results also suggest that S. granuloso-leprosum may be useful in ecological restoration programs.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar quais as espécies de aves consomem frutos de Solanum granuloso-leposum e dispersam suas sementes. Para tanto, 60 horas de observações focais foram realizadas entre abril e maio de 2006 na borda de um fragmento de floresta decídua na região do rio Uruguai, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Dez espécies foram observadas removendo 443 frutos. Saltator similis removeu 61,8% dos frutos, seguido de Tangara sayaca (17,1%), Pipraeidea bonariensis (11,7%), e T. preciosa (6,8%), enquanto as restantes seis espécies representaram apenas 2,5% dos frutos removidos. A maioria das remoções dos frutos ocorreram no início do dia ou meio da tarde. Os comportamentos alimentares mais comuns foram picking (60,7%), seguido por stalling (23%) e hovering (16%). As aves voaram mais de 10 m da planta de onde removeram frutos em 62% dos eventos de remoção. Todas as espécies de aves observadas aqui podem ser consideradas potenciais dispersores de S. granuloso-leprosum, moveram sementes para longe da planta-mãe, onde a concorrência e a predação são mais susceptíveis de ocorrer. Os resultados também sugerem que S. granuloso-leprosum pode ser útil em programas de restauração ecológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Seeds , Birds/physiology , Solanum/physiology , Seed Dispersal/physiology , Herbivory/physiology , Seasons , Brazil , Forests , Fruit
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 726-734, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785045

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut number on the removal intensity by rodents across seasons. Also, I assessed both S. loefgrenii fruit production, and dispersion pattern to analyze the relationship between these parameters and nut removal. Trials were performed (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), in which endocarps were placed inside trays (5, 15, and 40 endocarps) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Syagrus loefgrenii exhibited clumped distribution, although its local density had no correlation with endocarp removal rate. Despite of variations, S. loefgrenii fruit production had no seasonal difference, although, high proportions of endocarps were year round removed. This mostly results from nearly complete endocarp loss in depots of 5 and 15, while the opposite occurred in those of 40. Hence, the intensity of removal consistently decreases with endocarp number, so that endocarp removal conformed to negative distance-dependence. As this palm exhibit clumped distribution and, in principle, fruit asynchronously, if, at least, a group of neighboring stems bore fruits simultaneously, an enhanced number of nuts might be available at a given site. Therefore, seeds within a dense S. loefgrenii fruit patch might experience high survival rates due to satiation of post dispersal seed predators.


Resumo Neste estudo, testei o efeito da densidade de endocarpos de Syagrus loefgrenii sobre a intensidade de remoção por roedores conforme a estação do ano. Também, avaliei tanto a produção de frutos, quanto o padrão de dispersão dessa palmeira em relação à intensidade de remoção de endocarpos. Executei experimentos no Cerrado (outono, inverno, primavera e verão), nos quais acondicionei 5, 15 e 40 endocarpos em pratos plásticos perfurados (pilhas experimentais). Syagrus loefgrenii exibiu distribuição agrupada. Apesar disso, a densidade local dessa palmeira em nenhuma estação esteve correlacionada com a taxa de remoção de endocarpos. Não ocorreram diferenças temporais significativas quanto aos níveis de frutificação, e, simultaneamente, documentei intensa remoção de endocarpos. Isso ocorreu, sobretudo, nas pilhas com 5 e 15 endocarpos, as quais, na maioria dos casos, perderam quase todos endocarpos. No entanto, as pilhas com 40 perderam poucos diásporos. Nesse sentido a intensidade de remoção decresceu consistentemente conforme o número de endocarpos, tal que esse processo mostrou ser negativamente dependente da distância. Syagrus loefgrenii exibiu padrão agrupado de distribuição, além de produzir frutos assincronicamente. Nesse sentido, caso um grupo de palmeiras vizinhas frutifique simultaneamente, uma grande quantidade de diásporos estará disponível em um dado local. Portanto, sementes em meio a uma densa carga de frutos podem ser favorecidas, uma vez que predadores pós-dispersão seriam saciados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia , Seeds/growth & development , Arecaceae/growth & development , Nuts/growth & development , Seasons , Brazil , Seed Dispersal
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 859-873, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843319

ABSTRACT

ResumenEl estudio de rasgos morfológicos funcionales nos permite conocer muchos aspectos fundamentales de la dinámica de las comunidades vegetales en hábitats particulares y a nivel mundial, los rasgos morfológicos regenerativos cumplen un rol importante en la ecología e historia de las plantas por estar relacionados con la dispersión, germinación, colonización y establecimiento de las plántulas en determinados hábitas, sin embargo estos rasgos no han sido debidamente estudiados a nivel de toda una comunidad de especies leñosas en los bosques secos neotropicales. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron; a) evaluar rasgos morfológicos funcionales en frutos, semillas y embriones de especies leñosas, b).- determinar que patrones morfológicos caracterizan a las semillas de la comunidad de especies leñosas y c) analizar la masa de la semillas con respecto a otros bosques tropicales. Entre el 2010 y 2014 se recolectaron en un bosque seco tumbesino ubicado al sur occidente del Ecuador frutos con semillas maduras de 79 especies pertenecientes a 42 árboles y 37 arbustos de 31 familias más representativas de los bosques secos tumbesinos. Se midió y describió un total de 18 rasgos morfológicos, 7 cuantitativos y 11 cualitativos en frutos, semillas y embriones. La descripción y análisis de los rasgos se realizaron en el Banco de Germoplasma de la UTPL. Los resultados mostraron gran heterogeneidad en los rasgos cuantitativos medidos, el tamaño de las semillas varió de 1.3 a 39 mm de largo x 0.6 a 25 mm de ancho, mientras que el promedio del largo de los embriones fue de 8.1 mm. El volumen, masa y número de semillas por fruto fueron los rasgos que presentaron mayor variabilidad. La mayoría de especies de bosque seco se caracterizaron por presentar frutos secos dispersados por animales, con semillas ovaladas sin areola, lisas y de testa dura. Encontramos solamente seis tipos de embriones en las semillas, el 40 % de las especies se caracterizó por presentar embriones invertidos bien desarrollados con cotiledones grandes y gruesos que ocupan todo el interior de la semillas y cumplen la función de almacenamiento de reservas nutritivas. En conclusión, existe gran variabilidad y heterogeneidad en los rasgos morfológicos de las semillas de especies leñosas del bosque seco, lo que les permitiría tener un amplio rango de mecanismos y comportamiento para soportar condiciones de estrés ambiental en zonas áridas. Las implicaciones ecológicas que podrían tener los rasgos que caraterizan a los frutos, semillas y embriones de la comunidad de especies leñosas posiblemente les permitan estar mejor preparadas para soportar los cambios climáticos globales pronosticados para los próximos años.


AbstractThe study of functional morphological traits enables us to know fundamental aspects of the dynamics of plant communities in local and global habitats. Regenerative morphological traits play an important role in defining plant history and ecological behavior. Seed and fruit characteristics determine to a large extent the patterns for dispersal, germination, establishment and seedling recruitment a given species exhibits on its natural habitat. Despite their prominent role, seed and fruit traits have been poorly studied at the community level of woody plant species in neo-tropical dry forests. In the present study we aimed at i) evaluate the functional role of morphological traits of seeds, fruits and embryo in woody plant species; ii) determine which are the morphological patterns present in seeds collected from the community of woody species that occur in neo-tropical dry forests; and iii) compare woody plant species seed mass values comparatively between neo-tropical dry and tropical forests. To do so, mature seeds were collected from 79 plant species that occur in the Tumbesian forest of Southwest Ecuador. The studied species included the 42 and 37 most representative tree and shrubbery species of the Tumbesian forest respectively. A total of 18 morphological traits (seven quantitative and 11 qualitative) were measured and evaluated in the seeds, fruits and embryos of the selected species, and we compared the seeds mass with other forest types. Our results showed a huge heterogeneity among traits values in the studied species. Seed mass, volume and number were the traits that vary the most at the community level, i.e. seed length ranged from 1.3 to 39 mm, and seed width from 0.6 to 25 mm. Only six embryo types were found among the 79 plant species. In 40 % of the cases, fully developed inverted embryos with large and thick cotyledons to store considerable amount of nutrients were recorded. We concluded that highly variable and functionally complementary morphological traits occur among the studied woody plants of the Tumbesian dry forest. The latter favors a plethora of behavioral mechanisms to coexist among woody species of the dry forest in response to the environmental stress that is typical of arid areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 859-873. Epub 2016 June 01.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Wood/growth & development , Forests , Germination , Tropical Climate , Wood/classification , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecuador , Seed Dispersal
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 493-506, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843293

ABSTRACT

AbstractThere is increasing evidence that large-bodied primates play important roles as seed dispersers and in the maintenance of tree diversity in forest ecosystems. In this study we compared forest regeneration at two sites with differing primate abundances in the Ecuadorian Chocoan rainforest. We predicted: (1) significant differences in primate abundance between the two sites; (2) higher understory tree species richness and density at the site with greater primate abundance; (3) the site with lower primate abundance characterized by tree species dispersed by non-primate biotic agents and/or abiotic factors. We compared two sites, Tesoro Escondido (TE) a campesino cooperative, and the El Pambilar (EP) wildlife refuge that both maintain populations of mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), the brown-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps fusciceps) and the capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus). We characterized canopy structure by point-quadrant sampling, determined primate abundance and sampled seedlings/saplings in 1 m2 plots, classifying tree species based on three dispersal syndromes: adapted for primate dispersal, dispersed by other biological agents, and abiotic dispersal. We compared sites in terms of primate abundance (groups and individuals observed per day) and regeneration characteristics (overall density, species richness, and dispersal syndrome). We carried out within site comparisons and constructed understory tree species accumulation curves. Overall the forests were structurally similar - with significantly higher densities of A. f. fusciceps at TE. Encounter rates for the other two primate species were similar at both sites. Understory tree density and species richness was significantly higher in TE with no stabilization of tree species accumulation curves. The species accumulation curve for understory trees at EP stabilized. Higher densities and species richness of primate dispersed tree species were observed at TE, with non-primate biotically dispersed tree species the dominant dispersal syndrome at both sites. Our observations are consistent with those from other studies investigating the role of large-bodied frugivorous primates in forest regeneration, and point to a general pattern: future lowland tropical forest tree diversity depends on maintaining robust populations of large primate species in these systems. It is highly probable that the maintenance of high levels of tree diversity in Chocoan rainforests is dependent on the conservation of its largest resident primate, the critically endangered brown-headed spider monkey (A. f. fusciceps). Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 493-506. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenHa habido un incremento de la evidencia sobre el importante papel ecológico de los primates grandes como dispersores de semillas para el mantenimiento de la diversidad del bosque. Este estudio compara la regeneración del bosque en dos sitios con diferente abundancia de primates en el Chocó ecuatoriano. Las predicciones son: (1) la abundancia de primates será significativamente diferente en los dos sitios; (2) la riqueza de especies y la densidad de plantas del sotobosque será mayor en la localidad con mayor abundancia de primates y, (3) la localidad con menos primates tendrá mayor riqueza de especies y densidad de plantas que aquellas especies dispersadas por otros mecanismos bióticos. Se compararon dos sitios: una cooperativa campesina (TE) y un Refugio de Vida Silvestre (EP). Allí habitan tres especies de primates: el aullador negro (Alouatta palliata), el mono araña de cabeza café (Ateles fusciceps fusciceps) y el mono capuchino (Cebus capucinus). Se caracterizó la estructura del dosel usando muestreos en punto-cuadrante, se determinó la abundancia de primates y se muestrearon plántulas en parcelas de 1 m2, clasificando las especies de acuerdo con tres síndromes de dispersión: dispersadas por primates, dispersadas por otros agentes bióticos y dispersadas por agentes abióticos. Se compararon ambos sitios en términos de abundancia de primates (grupos e individuos por día) y características de la regeneración (densidad de plantas, riqueza de especies, y síndrome de dispersión). Se hicieron comparaciones en cada sitio y se construyeron curvas de acumulación de especies. El bosque fue estructuralmente similar, con una abundancia mayor de A. f. fusciceps en TE. Los encuentros para las otras dos especies de primates fueron similares en ambos sitios. La densidad y riqueza de plántulas del sotobosque fue significativamente mayor en TE y la curva de acumulación de especies no se estabilizó pero sí lo hizo en EP. Se observó mayor densidad y riqueza de plántulas dispersadas por primates en TE con dominancia del grupo de plántulas expuestas a otros agentes bióticos y abióticos en ambos sitios. Los resultados son consistentes con los de otros estudios que investigan el papel de los grandes primates frugívoros en la regeneración del bosque y puntualizan un patrón general: la diversidad futura de los bosques tropicales de tierras bajas podría depender del mantenimiento de poblaciones robustas de primates grandes. Es probable que la alta diversidad de árboles en los bosques lluviosos del Chocó dependa de la conservación de sus primates, entre ellos el mono araña de cabeza café, una especie críticamente amenazada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Primates , Regeneration , Forests , Ecosystem , Seed Dispersal , Population Density , Ecuador
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(2): 514-523, mar./abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965373

ABSTRACT

Vertical artificial structures can serve as artificial roosts attracting birds and increase the seed rain. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency of different types of artificial roosts as seed dispersal nuclei in a cerrado (Neotropical savannah) area under natural regeneration. Three types of artificial roosts were installed ("X", "3X" and "wire") and the species of birds using them and plant species in the seed rain were monitored for a year. The efficiency of the roosts was measured by comparing the seed rain with natural roosts (control). We recorded 760 individuals of 24 species of birds on the artificial roosts. There were more dispersed seeds under artificial roosts than under natural roosts .We collected 607 samples of feces, 569 under artificial roosts (containing 5252 seeds) and 38 under natural roosts (containing 228 seeds). The seeds were of 21 species/morphospecies. The 3X roost was the most used by birds, but the seed rain was similar between 3X and X roosts. We also recorded more seeds under artificial roosts than under natural roosts. Cyanocorax cristatellus (Curl-crested jay), an omnivorous bird, was the most frequent bird recorded at the artificial roosts and seeds of Miconia species were dominant in the seed rain. Artificial roosts were efficient as seed dispersal nuclei and can be adopted as a method to accelerate the regeneration of degraded areas. Research that focuses on artificial roost structure and the factors that influence the seed rain is useful to define targeted and more efficient strategies to habitat restoration.


Estruturas artificiais dispostas verticalmente podem funcionar como poleiros artificiais, atrair aves e incrementar a chuva de sementes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência de diferentes tipos de poleiros artificiais como núcleos de dispersão de sementes em uma área de cerrado stricto sensu em processo de regeneração natural. Foram instalados três tipos de poleiros artificiais (X, 3X e Fio) e estes foram monitorados ao longo de um ano em relação às espécies de aves que os utilizarm e espécies de plantas presentes na chuva de sementes. A eficiência destes poleiros foi medida através da comparação da chuva de sementes com poleiros naturais (controle). Foram registrados 760 indivíduos de 24 espécies de aves nos poleiros artificiais. Foram coletadas 607 amostras de fezes, sendo 569 sob os poleiros artificiais (contendo 5252 sementes) e 38 sob os poleiros naturais (contendo 228 sementes). As sementes pertenciam a 21 espécies / morfoespécies de plantas. O poleiro 3X foi o mais utilizado pelas aves, mas a chuva de sementes foi semelhante entre os poleiros 3X e X. Havia mais sementes dispersas sob os poleiros artificiais do que sob poleiros naturais. Cyanocorax cristatellus (gralha-do-campo), uma ave onívora, foi a mais frequente utilizando os poleiros artificiais como ponto de pouso. Miconia spp. foram dominantes na chuva de sementes. Poleiros artificiais foram eficientes como núcleos de dispersão de sementes e pode ser adotado como um método para acelerar a regeneração de áreas degradadas. Pesquisas que enfoquem a estrutura dos poleiros artificiais e os fatores que podem influenciar a chuva de sementes sob estes poleiros merecem atenção especial, pois podem definir estratégias direcionadas e mais eficientes para o processo de restauração ambiental.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Grassland , Melastomataceae , Seed Dispersal
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(1): 5-15, ene.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843256

ABSTRACT

ResumenLos mamíferos y las palmas son importantes elementos de la fauna y flora en el neotrópico. Por lo tanto, las interacciones entre ellos son una de las relaciones ecológicas más significativas en estos ecosistemas. Con el fin de identificar la importancia de los mamíferos que consumen los frutos de la palma Mauritia flexuosa y determinar su participación en la dispersión y depredación de sus semillas, se instalaron trampas cámara en frente de cúmulos de semillas caídas y de racimos con frutos. Con los videos obtenidos se preparó un catálogo de especies. Además, se clasificaron y cuantificaron los comportamientos de forrajeo exhibidos. También se utilizaron dos tratamientos de exclusión con tres repeticiones. En el tratamiento abierto se permitió el libre acceso de mamíferos pequeños, medianos y grandes, mientras que en el tratamiento semi-abierto se cercó la parcela con malla metálica dejando cuatro aberturas en la base para permitir el acceso y evaluar la remoción de semillas por mamíferos pequeños y medianos. Se registraron 19 especies de mamíferos, de las cuales nueve se alimentaron de los frutos de la palma y cinco de éstas fueron dispersoras de semillas. Se reporta por primera vez el consumo de los frutos de M. flexuosa por pare de Atelocynus microtis. La especie con mayor importancia relativa fue Dasyprocta fuliginosa, que mostro el mayor porcentaje de dispersión de semillas (63.5%) en comparación con las otras especies. Tayassu pecari fue identificado como consumidor in situ, porque consume hasta el 45.3 % de las semillas, sin dispersarlas. El número de semillas consumidas in situ en el tratamiento abierto mostró diferencias significativas con respecto al tratamiento semi-abierto, lo que sugiere una mayor participación de los mamíferos grandes en este proceso. En conclusión, los frutos de M. flexuosa son una fuente alimenticia importante para la comunidad de mamíferos. Además, el consumo de las semillas bajo la copa de la palma madre, el cual favorece la mortalidad de las mismas por efectos densodependientes, es proporcionalmente mayor que la dispersión. Generalmente la presión ejercida por las especies frugívoras sobre las semillas puede moldear las estrategias reproductivas de las especies de plantas. Sin embargo se deben realizar investigaciones sobre dispersión efectiva, distancias de dispersión y efectos demográficos, para determinar la función específica de los mamíferos medianos y grandes en la ecología de esta palma.


AbstractMammals and palms are important elements of fauna and flora in the Neotropics, and their interactions, such as fruit consumption and seed dispersal, are one of the most important ecological relationships in these ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to identify the relative importance of mammals in the dispersal and predation of Mauritia flexuosa palm fruits. We installed camera-traps in front of palm fallen seeds and clusters with fruits. A catalog of species was prepared with the recorded videos and the foraging behaviors exhibited were classified and identified. In addition, two exclusion treatments with three repetitions each were used. In the semi-open treatment, a plot was fenced with metal mesh leaving four openings in order to allow access only to small and medium sized mammals, while in the open treatment, the small, medium and large sized mammals had free access. In both cases, seed removal was evaluated. We recorded a total of 19 species of mammals, nine of which fed on palm fruits and the other five were seed dispersers. We reported for the first time the consumption of Mauritia flexuosa fruits by Atelocynus microtis. The species with the highest relative importance was Dasyprocta fuliginosa, which showed the highest percentage of seed dispersal (63.5%) compared to the other species. Tayassu peccary was identified as an in situ consumer, eating 45.3% of seeds without dispersing them. The number of seeds consumed in situ in the open treatment showed significant differences regarding the semi-open treatment, suggesting greater involvement of large mammals in this process. In conclusion, the fruits of M. flexuosa are an important food source for the local mammal community. Additionally, the consumption of seeds under the canopy of the mother palm is proportionally greater than their dispersion. Generally, the pressure of frugivorous species over seeds may determine the reproductive strategies of plants. However, research on effective dispersion, dispersal distances and demographic impact should be conducted to determine the specific role of medium and large sized mammals in the ecology of this palm. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (1): 5-15. Epub 2016 March 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Arecaceae/growth & development , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Seed Dispersal/physiology , Mammals/physiology , Colombia , Arecaceae/classification , Mammals/classification
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 80-92, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774491

ABSTRACT

Abstract We investigated the efficiency of different kinds of perches in attracting seed disperser-birds and increasing the seed rain in a degraded area located in the northeast region of São Paulo State. We installed seed traps under natural perches (NPs, living trees); simple artificial perches (SAPs) of 3m tall and a crossbar; elaborate artificial perches (EAPs) of 7m tall and three crossbars, and in a control area. Results showed the number of bird-dispersed seeds deposited was proportional to the number of structures for perching. The NPs also have provided other resources for birds such as food and shelter. Comparing visitation between artificial perches, there was greater use of EAPs also for having more perching structures and for being taller, providing better airspace visibility for predatory birds and tyrant-flycatchers, important seed dispersers. Thus, natural and artificial perches with similar characteristics to the EAPs are the most recommended as a base or complementary method for the restoration of degraded areas near to propagules source, also contributing to the maintenance of local fauna.


Resumo Investigamos a eficiência de diferentes modelos de poleiros na atração de aves dispersoras e no incremento da chuva de sementes em uma área degradada localizada na região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Instalamos coletores de sementes sob poleiros naturais (PNs, árvores vivas); poleiros artificiais simples (PASs), com 3m de altura e um ponto de pouso; poleiros artificiais elaborados (PAEs), com 7m de altura e três pontos de pouso e coletores em área aberta (testemunha). Verificamos que o número de sementes ornitocóricas depositadas nos coletores aumentou proporcionalmente à quantidade de estruturas de pouso dos poleiros. Os PNs também disponibilizaram outros recursos para a avifauna, como alimento e abrigo. Comparando-se a visitação entre os poleiros artificiais, houve maior utilização dos PAEs que, além de apresentarem mais pontos de pouso, são mais altos, fornecendo melhor visibilidade do espaço aéreo para aves predadoras e que apanham insetos em vôo, como os tiranídeos, importantes dispersores de sementes. Neste sentido, poleiros naturais e artificiais com características similares aos PAEs são os mais recomendados como método base ou complementar na restauração de áreas degradadas próximas a fontes de propágulos, contribuindo também para a manutenção da fauna local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/physiology , Feeding Behavior , Seed Dispersal , Brazil , Parks, Recreational , Trees
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(6): 1809-1815, nov./dec. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965176

ABSTRACT

The G. microtarsus is a small marsupial belonging to the Didelphidae family and may be found mainly in the Atlantic Rainforest of the Brazilian Southeastern region. G. microtarsus has important ecological importance in the dispersion of seeds of several plant species. Current research characterizes morphologically six tongues of adult male and female specimens, which are fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The tongues were analyzed, measured and photographed "in situ" and "ex situ". Anatomy, light microscopy and ultrastructural analysis were performed. Macroscopically the tongue has root, a fixed body and a free apex. The tongue has fungiform papillae and high conical and acute filiform papillae across the dorsal surface. It also featured three vallate papillae located at the root and marginal fungiform papillae at the apex. Microscopically, the tongue is composed of longitudinal and transversal muscle fibers. Blood vessels, nerves, serous, mucous and mixed acini are found in non-modeled connective tissue. Ventrally, the tongue is lined by a keratinized stratified pavement epithelium. The morphology of the tongue of G. microtarsus resembles that described in carnivores and marsupials Didelphidae regarding its microscopic structure, differing only in the distribution and number of papillae.


O G. microtarsus é um pequeno marsupial pertencente à família Didelphidae, que pode ser encontrado principalmente na Mata Atlântica da região sudeste brasileira. O G. microtarsus possui importância ecológica na dispersão de sementes de diversas espécies de plantas. A pesquisa atual caracteriza morfologicamente as línguas de seis animais adultos, fixados em formol a 10%. As línguas foram analisadas, mensuradas e fotografadas. Foram realizadas análises anatômicas, microscópicas de luz e ultraestruturais. Macroscopicamente a língua possui raiz, um corpo fixo e um ápice livre. A língua possui papilas fungiformes, filiformes cônicas altas e agudas em toda a superfície dorsal. Também possui três papilas valadas localizadas na raiz e papilas fungiformes marginais no ápice da língua. Microscopicamente, a língua é composta por fibras musculares longitudinais e transversais. Os vasos sanguíneos, nervos e ácinos serosos, mucosos e mistos são encontrados em tecido conjuntivo não modelado. Ventralmente, a língua é revestida por um epitélio pavimentoso estratificado queratinizado. A morfologia da língua de G. microtarsus se assemelha ao descrito em carnívoros e marsupiais Didelphidae quanto à sua estrutura microscópica, diferindo apenas na distribuição e número de papilas.


Subject(s)
Opossums , Taste Buds , Digestive System , Seed Dispersal , Marsupialia
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 88-96, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768250

ABSTRACT

Abstract The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha–1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens) participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100%) and speed index (4.2 seeds.d–1) than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs’feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.


Resumo A ecologia da dispersão de sementes é importante para entender a distribuição e abundância das espécies vegetais. Investigamos os fatores relacionados à elevada abundância de B. tomentosa no Parque Estadual da Serra Azul (PESA) avaliando aspectos da dispersão de sementes. Estimamos a produção de frutos e realizamos experimentos de remoção de frutos. Fizemos observações diurnas e noturnas sobre a frugivoria e testamos a germinação de sementes. A frutificação ocorreu na estação seca totalizando 1.365.015 ± 762.670 frutos.ha–1. Oito espécies de animais utilizaram frutos de B. tomentosa. Anta (Tapirus terrestris) foi considerada o principal dispersor. Saúvas (Atta laevigata e Atta sexdens) participaram na limpeza das sementes e como dispersores ocasionais. O besouro Amblycerus insuturatus, arara-canindé (Ara ararauna) e arara-vermelha (Ara chloropterus) foram considerados predadores pré-dispersão. Sementes despolpadas manualmente tiveram maior percentual (100%) e velocidade de geminação (4,2 sementes.dia–1) que aquelas com polpa. Sementes encontradas nas fezes de antas apresentaram 40,0% de germinação e sementes sem polpa 25,0%. A massiva produção de frutos, baixa taxa de predação de sementes, além da eficiente dispersão por antas, antes da estação chuvosa, favorecem o recrutamento e são fatores que contribuem de forma decisiva para a elevada abundância de B. tomentosa observada no cerrado do PESA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants/physiology , Combretaceae/physiology , Feeding Behavior , Parrots/physiology , Perissodactyla/physiology , Seed Dispersal , Brazil , Food Chain , Germination , Grassland
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 1008-1017, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768204

ABSTRACT

Abstract Frugivorous birds are important seed dispersers and influence the recruitment of many plant species in the rainforest. The efficiency of this dispersal generally depends on environment quality, bird species, richness and diversity of resources, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we compared the sighting number of dusky-legged guans (Penelope obscura) by km and their movement in two areas of Serra do Japi, one around the administrative base (Base) where birds received anthropogenic food and a pristine area (DAE) with no anthropogenic resource. We also compared the richness of native seeds in feces of birds living in these two areas. Although the abundance of P. obscura was higher in the Base, these individuals moved less, dispersed 80% fewer species of plants and consumed 30% fewer seeds than individuals from DAE. The rarefaction indicated a low richness in the frugivorous diet of birds from the Base when compared to the populations from DAE. We conclude that human food supply can interfere in the behavior of these birds and in the richness of native seeds dispersed.


Resumo Aves frugívoras são importantes dispersoras de sementes e influenciam no recrutamento de muitas espécies na floresta tropical. A eficiência dessa dispersão geralmente depende da qualidade do meio ambiente, das espécies de aves envolvidas, da riqueza e diversidade de recursos e de baixos níveis de impactos antrópicos. Neste estudo nós comparamos o número de avistamentos de jacuguaçus (Penelope obscura) por Km e seus movimentos em duas áreas na Serra do Japí, uma no entorno da base administrativa (Base) onde as aves receberam alimentos antropogênicos e outra em área pristina (DAE) sem fornecimento de alimentos humanos. Também comparamos a riqueza de sementes nativas nas fezes das aves que vivem nestas duas áreas. Embora a abundância de P. obscura tenha sido maior na Base, esses indivíduos deslocaram-se menos, dispersaram 80% menos espécies de plantas e consumiram 30% menos sementes do que os indivíduos do DAE. A rarefação indicou uma baixa riqueza na dieta frugívora das aves da Base quando comparada às populações do DAE. Concluímos que o fornecimento de alimentos humanos pode interferir no comportamento dessas aves e na riqueza de espécies de sementes nativas dispersadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Chain , Galliformes/physiology , Feeding Behavior , Seed Dispersal , Brazil , Forests , Population Dynamics , Animal Distribution
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL