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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Subject(s)
Soil , Seed Bank , Pakistan , Plants , Seeds , Ecosystem , Poaceae
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257314, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355908

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melon production in the Brazilian semi-arid region is subject to the use of marginal waters with high salinity. However, the use of regulators and bioactivators in seed treatment can mitigate the harmful effects of salts in irrigation water. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-germination treatments with plant regulators and bioactivator in melon seeds for the production of seedlings irrigated with biosaline water from fish farming effluent. For this, two trials with the Goldex and Grand Prix hybrids were carried out separately. A completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme (pre-germination treatments × water dilutions). In addition to the control, the seeds were treated with salicylic and gibberellic acids and thiamethoxam. The waters used for irrigation were local-supply water, fish farming effluent (biosaline water) and these diluted to 50%. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed for fourteen days. Biosaline water (5.0 dS m-1) did not affect the emergence of Goldex melon seedlings, but compromised the establishment of the Grand Prix cultivar. Seed pre-treatments with salicylic and gibberellic acids attenuate the effects of water salinity and promote growth modulations, resulting in more vigorous melon seedlings.


Resumo A produção de meloeiro no semiárido brasileiro está sujeita a utilização de águas marginais com salinidade elevada. Entretanto, a utilização de reguladores e bioativadores no tratamento de sementes podem mitigar os efeitos nocivos dos sais na água de irrigação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos com fitorreguladores e bioativador em sementes de melão para a produção de mudas irrigadas com água biossalina de efluente de piscicultura. Para isso, dois ensaios com os híbridos Goldex e Grand Prix foram realizados separadamente. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 3 (tratamentos pré-germinativos × diluições de água). Além do controle, as sementes foram tratadas com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico, e tiametoxam. As águas utilizadas para irrigação foram a de abastecimento local, efluente de piscicultura (água biossalina) e estas diluídas a 50%. Durante quatorze dias foram realizadas as análises fisiológicas e bioquímicas. A água biossalina (5,0 dS m-1) não afetou a emergência de plântulas de meloeiro Goldex, mas prejudicou o estabelecimento da cultivar Grand Prix. Os pré-tratamentos de sementes com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico atenuam os efeitos da salinidade da água e promovem modulações no crescimento, proporcionando mudas de meloeiro mais vigorosas.


Subject(s)
Germination , Cucurbitaceae , Seeds , Water , Seedlings
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22106, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a native plant from the Amazon whose seeds contain a high concentration of caffeine. Aqueous extract of guarana is widely used in the world. In this study, the objective was to develop and validate a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method for the determination of caffeine in extracts and commercial beverages based on guarana. A sensitive, simple, and viable high performance liquid chromatographic method without the need of an analyte extraction procedure was developed and validated according to Brazilian and international requirements. The method presented high performance, fulfilling Brazilian and international requirements, in addition to allowing product compliance tests. Results confirmed high selectivity and linearity (>0.999) between 5 to 135 ug/mL, with no significant matrix effect. Detection and quantification limits were 0.02 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL, respectively. Precision was less than 4 %, and accuracy varied from 99.9-120 %. Applicability of the method was demonstrated by conducting a limited evaluation in products containing caffeine. Commercial extracts showed quite different caffeine levels, while carbonated drinks follow Brazilian and American recommendations. Our results indicate that the developed method can be used to evaluate the quality of the guarana extract and of products containing caffeine


Subject(s)
Seeds/classification , Caffeine/agonists , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Paullinia/adverse effects , Plants/classification , Beverages/classification , Total Quality Management/standards
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20060, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is wide spread in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical sectors. Dill is a member of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family. It has the following biological activities: antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antihypercholesterolemic, antispasmodic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory. Aqueous extract of dill seed has reported effects on sex hormones and infertility potential. Moreover, boiled dill seed has an impact on reducing labor duration in giving birth. Implantation and placentation are necessary for a healthy pregnancy in the early stages. Angiogenesis is responsible for these essential processes. This study aimed to investigate dill seed oil's cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effects on rat adipose tissue endothelial cells (RATECs). Dill seed oil showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity on RATECs. It disrupted endothelial tube formation and depolymerized F-actin stress fibers. According to this study, depolymerization of F-actin stress fiber by dill seed oil could inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation and motility. In other words, dill seed oil can be a new anti-angiogenic agent and a novel contraceptive.


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Anethum graveolens/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Contraceptive Agents/classification , Infertility/pathology
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30: e2023009, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430461

ABSTRACT

Resumo Manuscrito inédito, datado de 1802, que trata dos métodos a utilizar na recolha e remessa de sementes, tubérculos e bulbos das colônias da África e do Brasil para o Complexo de História Natural da Ajuda, em Portugal.


Abstract Unpublished manuscript, dated 1802, dealing with methods to be used in collecting and shipping seeds, tubers and bulbs from colonies in Africa and Brazil to the Natural History Complex of Ajuda, in Portugal.


Subject(s)
Portugal , Seeds , Africa , Plant Tubers , Economics , History, 19th Century
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23059, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505849

ABSTRACT

Abstract The addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn) in the diet, as a functional food, has increased over the years. However, it possesses cyanogenic glycosides. This study aimed to quantify and compare cyanide concentration in whole seed and bran of brown and golden types to establish a safe limit of intake. Three commercial labels, from brown and golden whole seed types (Ab, Ag, Bb, Bg, Cb and Cg), and six commercial labels of brown and golden bran (1b, 2g, 3g, 4b, 5g, and 6b), were selected, totalizing twelve samples. Total cyanide concentration was quantified by a colorimetric method employing alkaline picrate, after acid hydrolysis. The whole seed cyanide values were between 348.4 and 473.20 µg/g and the bran cyanide values were between 459.53 and 639.35 µg/g. The analyzed bran presented increased cyanide concentrations than the whole seeds with no differences between brown and golden types. Food able to produce cyanide less than 90 µg/kg body weight, daily, is considered secure for consumption. Considering this limit and analyzed samples, it is safe to eat approximately two tablespoons of seeds or one tablespoon of bran. These results point out the importance of cyanide amount daily intake information to be in linseed packaging, to ensure secure consumption


Subject(s)
Seeds/adverse effects , Spectrophotometry/methods , Flax/adverse effects , Cyanides/analysis , Functional Food/classification
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22505, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439507

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural products are considered an important source of the therapeutic arsenal currently available. Among these alternatives are the seeds of Ambrosia peruviana (altamisa), whose extract has shown an anti-inflammatory effect. The main objective of this work was to perform a preformulation study of Ambrosia peruviana seeds ethanolic extract, where the main factors that affect the physical, chemical, and pharmacological stability of the extract were evaluated, as well as a compatibility study by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis against different excipients. A dry extract was obtained by rotary evaporation of the seeds macerated with 96% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring its effect on NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, stimulated with LPS. The results showed that the dry extract maintained its stability over time when stored at a temperature of 4 and 25ºC, demonstrating its biological activity, the content of phenolic compounds, and its physicochemical parameters remain practically invariable. However, when exposed to high temperatures (60 ºC) it was affected. The thermal analysis revelated that the behavior of most of the selected excipients and the dry extract was maintained, which indicates that it did not present incompatibilities, therefore they can be candidates for formulating a microemulsion.


Subject(s)
Seeds/metabolism , Asteraceae/classification , Ambrosia/adverse effects , Biological Products , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Excipients/administration & dosage
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

ABSTRACT

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Subject(s)
Annonaceae , Annona/genetics , Seeds/genetics , Brazil , Plant Breeding , Fruit/genetics
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242070, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278554

ABSTRACT

Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.


Resumo As interações entre fungos endofíticos (FEs) e suas plantas hospedeiras variam de positivas, neutras a negativas. Os resultados destas interações podem variar dependendo do órgão da planta hospedeira infectada. FEs isolados de folhas de algumas espécies de plantas têm potencial para serem usados como agentes inibidores da germinação de sementes e no controle de plantas invasoras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os FEs presentes nas folhas de Copaifera oblongifolia e avaliar o papel destes fungos na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Um total de 11 espécies de FEs foi isolado das folhas de C. oblongifolia e identificado através da sequência dos espaçadores internos transcritos do DNA ribossomal nuclear. As espécies de FEs isoladas são generalistas e provavelmente devem ser transmitidas horizontalmente. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que filtrados destes isolados fúngicos podem afetar diferentemente a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de C. oblongifolia. As espécies Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum e Phomopsis sp. afetaram negativamente a germinação das sementes de C. oblongifolia. Dentre estas espécies devemos destacar que N. parvum reduziu a germinação e a sobrevivência das plântulas em 89 e 222%, respectivamente. Além disso, Cochiliobolus intermedius afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Assim, o uso combinado de N. parvum e C. intermedius, ou de produtos do metabolismo destas espécies de fungos, têm potencial para serem usados no manejo de plantas invasoras.


Subject(s)
Germination , Fabaceae , Ascomycota , Seeds , Plant Leaves , Seedlings , Fungi , Curvularia
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245206, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339387

ABSTRACT

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Resumo Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura (HT + NTW). Portanto, o nanopriming é recomendado para lidar com as condições de estresse de alta e baixa temperatura, juntamente com a produtividade aprimorada do arroz.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Seeds , Stress, Physiological , Temperature , Germination , Seedlings , Hydrogen Peroxide
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468883

ABSTRACT

The low Brazilian productive index and the high demand have aroused interest in the cultivation of lentils, however the legume is little known and needs further studies. The objective of this study was to analyze and identify the effects of treatments with insecticides and fungicides on the physiological quality of lentil seeds, CA-1512 strain. The experiments were conducted in the seed laboratory in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replicates. Seed treatment with Thiophanate-methyl; Fluazinam® (180 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml) promoted higher levels of germination under accelerated aging, lower number of abnormal seedlings and longer lengths of shoot and radicle for the emergence in paper. Treatment with Carboxin; Thiram® (250 ml) + Imidacloprid® (150 ml) allowed a higher value in the first count of germination in sand, lower number of dead seeds under accelerated aging and longer root length, in the emergence in sand. Shoot length in the emergence in sand increased after seed treatment with Metalaxyl-M; Fludioxonil® (75 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml). Treatments with fungicides and insecticides considerably improved the physiological properties of the seeds, thus being able to guarantee greater phytosanitary qualities in the field, generating healthier seedlings and with protection against possible pests and diseases, and consequently guaranteeing greater productivity.


O baixo índice produtivo brasileiro e a alta demanda têm despertado o interesse no cultivo da lentilha, porém a leguminosa é pouco conhecida e necessita maiores estudos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar e identificar tratamentos com inseticidas e fungicidas na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de lentilha, linhagem CA-1512. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de sementes em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. O tratamento de semente com Tiofanato-metílico; Fluazinam® (180 ml) + Piraclosrobina; Tiofanato-metílico; Fipronil® (150 ml) proporcionou índices mais elevados de germinação no envelhecimento acelerado, menor número de plântulas anormais e maior comprimento de parte aérea e radícula, na emergência em papel. O tratamento com Carboxina; Tiram® (250 ml) + Imidacloprido® (150 ml) possibilitou maior índice na primeira contagem de germinação em areia, menor número de sementes mortas no envelhecimento acelerado e maior comprimento de raiz, na emergência em areia. Já o comprimento da parte aérea, na emergência em areia, aumentou com o tratamento de semente Metalaxil-M; Fludioxonil® (75 ml) + Piraclosrobina; Tiofanato-metílico; Fipronil® (150 ml). Os tratamentos com fungicidas e inseticidas melhoraram consideravelmente as propriedades fisiológicas das sementes, podendo assim, garantir maiores qualidades fitossanitárias à campo, gerando plântulas mais sadias e com proteção para possíveis pragas e doenças, e consequentemente garantindo maiores produtividades.


Subject(s)
Fungicides, Industrial/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Lens Plant/drug effects , Lens Plant/physiology , Seeds/growth & development
13.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1145-1154, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of total saponins from Panax japonicus (TSPJ) against high-fat dietinduced testicular Sertoli cell junction damage in mice.@*METHODS@#Forty male C57BL/6J mice were randomized into normal diet group, high-fat diet group, and low-dose (25 mg/kg) and high-dose (75 mg/kg) TSPJ treatment groups (n=10). The mice in the normal diet group were fed a normal diet, while the mice in the other groups were fed a high-fat diet. After TSPJ treatment via intragastric administration for 5 months, the testes and epididymis of the mice were collected for measurement of weight, testicular and epididymal indices and sperm parameters. HE staining was used for histological evaluation of the testicular tissues and measurement of seminiferous tubule diameter and seminiferous epithelium height. The expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, claudin11, N-cadherin, E-cadherin and β-catenin in Sertoli cells were detected with Western blot, and the localization and expression levels of ZO-1 and β-catenin in the testicular tissues were detected with immunofluorescence assay. The protein expressions of LC3B, p-AKT and p-mTOR in testicular Sertoli cells were detected using double immunofluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with TSPJ significantly improved high-fat diet-induced testicular dysfunction by reducing body weight (P < 0.001), increasing testicular and epididymal indices (P < 0.05), and improving sperm concentration and sperm viability (P < 0.05). TSPJ ameliorated testicular pathologies and increased seminiferous epithelium height of the mice with high-fat diet feeding (P < 0.05) without affecting the seminiferous tubule diameter. TSPJ significantly increased the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, N-cadherin, E-cadherin and β-catenin (P < 0.05) but did not affect claudin11 expression in the testicular tissues. Immunofluorescence assay showed that TSPJ significantly increased ZO-1 and β-catenin expression in the testicular tissues (P < 0.001), downregulated LC3B expression and upregulated p-AKT and p-mTOR expressions in testicular Sertoli cells.@*CONCLUSION@#TSPJ alleviates high-fat diet-induced damages of testicular Sertoli cell junctions and spermatogenesis possibly by activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and inhibiting autophagy of testicular Sertoli cells.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Testis , Sertoli Cells , beta Catenin , Diet, High-Fat , Occludin , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Seeds , Cadherins , Intercellular Junctions
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 966-977, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970568

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair by network pharmacology and Box-Behnken method. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to screen out and verify the potential active components of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus, and the process evaluation indexes were determined in light of the components of the content determination under Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The analytic hierarchy process(AHP) was used to determine the weight coefficient of each component, and the comprehensive score was calculated as the process evaluation index. The ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus was optimized by the Box-Behnken method. The core components of the Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair were screened out as spinosin, jujuboside A, jujuboside B, schisandrin, schisandrol, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B. The optimal extraction conditions obtained by using the Box-Behnken method were listed below: extraction time of 90 min, ethanol volume fraction of 85%, and two times of extraction. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking, the process evaluation indexes were determined, and the optimized process was stable, which could provide an experimental basis for the production of preparations containing Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Ziziphus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Schisandra/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2940-2948, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981426

ABSTRACT

Ligustrum lucidum is a woody perennial plant of genus Ligustrum in family Oleaceae. Its dried fruit has high medicinal value. In this study, the authors evaluated the variability and species identification efficiency of three specific DAN barcodes(rbcL-accD, ycf1a, ycf1b) and four general DAN barcodes(matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS2) for a rapid and accurate molecular identification of Ligustrum species. The results revealed that matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, ITS2 and ycf1a were inefficient for identifying the Ligustrum species, and a large number of insertions and deletions were observed in rbcL-accD sequence, which was thus unsuitable for development as specific barcode. The ycf1b-2 barcode had DNA barcoding gap and high success rate of PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, which was the most suitable DNA barcode for L. lucidum identification and achieved an accurate result. In addition, to optimize the DNA extraction experiment, the authors extracted and analyzed the DNA of the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp and seed of L. lucidum fruit. It was found that seed was the most effective part for DNA extraction, where DNAs of high concentration and quality were obtained, meeting the needs of species identification. In this study, the experimental method for DNA extraction of L. lucidum was optimized, and the seed was determined as the optimal part for DNA extraction and ycf1b-2 was the specific DNA barcode for L. lucidum identification. This study laid a foundation for the market regulation of L. lucidum.


Subject(s)
Ligustrum/genetics , Seeds , Fruit , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Research Design
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 196-204, sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399277

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of vegetable proteins as ingredients in food systems is based on their functional properties. The water and oil holding capacity, foaming, and emulsifying capacity/stability, and antioxidant assay of the protein fractions - albumins, globulins 7S/11S, glutelins and prolamins - isolated from Leucaena seed were evaluated. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties and antioxidant capacity of the concentrate and protein fractions of ripe Leucaena spp. seeds. Materials and methods: Ripe Leucaena seeds were collected and evaluated in Oaxaca, Mexico (16°59'21''N 96°43'26''O) during the months of February-April 2021.The protein concentrate was isolated by isoelectric precipitation (pH=9, pH=4). The albumins, globulins, glutelins and prolamins were isolated based on their solubility properties in different extracting solutions. Results: Glutelins constituted the main protein fraction (75.88%). Prolamins were not found. The glutelins fractions showed the highest oil holding capacity (0.93±0.08 mL g-1). The albumins fraction had the highest water holding capacity (2.53±0.15 mL g-1), foaming capacity and foam stability (71.83±1.26 % and 70.00±0.00%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (18.09±0.88%). The globulins exhibited the highest emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability (56.83±1.76% and 55.67±1.20%, respectively). Conclusions: The concentrate and protein fraction of Leucaena seeds showed different techno-functional and antioxidant properties of interest for the food industry, like those showed by other commercial vegetable proteins(AU)


Introducción: El uso de proteínas vegetales como ingredientes en sistemas alimentarios se basa en sus propiedades funcionales. Se evaluó la capacidad de retención de agua y aceite, la capacidad/estabilidad espumante y emulsionante y el ensayo antioxidante de las fracciones proteicas -albúminas, globulinas 7S/11S, glutelinas y prolaminas- aisladas de las semillas de Leucaena. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades funcionales y la capacidad antioxidante del concentrado y las fracciones proteicas de las semillas maduras de Leucaena spp. Materiales y métodos: Las semillas maduras de Leucaena fueron recolectadas y evaluadas en Oaxaca, México (16°59'21''N 96°43'26''O) durante los meses de febrero-abril del año 2021. Se usó harina de Leucaena desgrasada para la preparación de las fracciones proteicas. El concentrado proteico se aisló por precipitación isoeléctrica (pH=9, pH=4). Las albúminas, globulinas, glutelinas y prolaminas se aislaron en función de sus propiedades de solubilidad en diferentes soluciones de extracción. Resultados: Las glutelinas constituyeron la principal fracción proteica (75,88%). No se encontraron prolaminas. La fracción de glutelinas mostró la mayor capacidad de retención de aceite (0.93±0,08 mL g-1). La fracción de albúminas presentó la mayor capacidad de retención de agua (2,53±0,15 mL g-1), capacidad espumante y estabilidad de la espuma (71,83±1,26% y 70,00±0,00%, respectivamente) y capacidad antioxidante (18,09±0,88%). Las globulinas mostraron la mayor capacidad emulsionante y estabilidad de la emulsión (56,83±1,76 y 55,67±1,20%, respectivamente). Conclusiones: El concentrado y las fracciones proteicas de las semillas de Leucaena mostraron diferentes propiedades tecno-funcionales y antioxidantes de interés para la industria alimentaria, similares a los reportados por diversas proteínas vegetales comerciales(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins, Dietary/chemistry , Fabaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Seeds , Plant Oils/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Food Industry , Albumins/chemistry , Emulsions/chemistry , Globulins/chemistry , Glutens/chemistry
17.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 25(2): e8037, jul-dez. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399606

ABSTRACT

Quando se trata de milho pipoca o Brasil é o segundo maior produtor, mas necessitando ainda de importações para suprir a demanda interna do país, visto a importância de estudos que melhor explorem as recomendações agronômicas para a cultura do milho pipoca. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar o impacto da população de plantas sobre algumas variáveis morfológicas e na produtividade final de grãos de dois híbridos de milho pipoca (8203 e 4512). Foram estudadas as populações de 60.000, 65.000, 70.000, 75.000 e 80.000 plantas por ha-1 no espaçamento de 0,45cm entre linha de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 2018/2019, na área experimental do Departamento de Ciências Agronômicas e Ambientais da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, campus Frederico Westphalen ­ RS, em um delineamento de blocos casualizados em um esquema fatorial (2x5). O diâmetro de colmo, comprimento da espiga e peso de mil sementes diminuíram à medida que se aumentou a população de plantas. Para ambos os híbridos, e para a maioria das variáveis analisadas as densidades populacionais não interferiram de forma significativa na produtividade final de grãos do milho pipoca. Entretanto quando se trabalha a média das populações se observa uma superioridade do híbrido 8203 para as variáveis, altura de planta, altura de inserção da espiga, prolificidade, empalhamento, diâmetro de espiga, número de grãos por espiga, peso de mil sementes e produtividade final de grãos.(AU)


When it comes to popcorn, Brazil is the second largest producer, but still needing imports to supply the country's domestic demand, given the importance of studies that better explore agronomic recommendations for popcorn culture. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the plant population on some morphological variables and the final consumption of two hybrid popcorn kernels (8203 and 4512). The populations of 60.000, 65.000, 70.000, 75.000 and 80.000 plants per ha-1 were studied in the 0.45cm spacing between sowing lines. The experiment was carried out in the agricultural year 2018/2019, in the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen campus - RS, in a randomized block design in a factorial scheme (2x5). The stem diameter, ear length and weight of a thousand seeds decreased as the plant population increased. For both hybrids, and for most of the variables analyzed, population densities did not significantly affect the final grain yield of popcorn. However, when working with the average population, a superiority of the 8203 hybrid is observed for the variables, plant height, height of ear insertion, prolificacy, stuffing, ear diameter, number of grains per ear, weight of a thousand seeds and final productivity of grain.(AU)


En lo que respecta a las palomitas de maíz, Brasil es el segundo mayor productor, pero aún necesita importaciones para satisfacer la demanda interna del país, dada la importancia de los estudios que exploran mejor las recomendaciones agronómicas para el cultivo de palomitas de maíz. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la población de plantas en algunas variables morfológicas y en el rendimiento final de grano de dos híbridos de palomitas de maíz (8203 y 4512). Se estudiaron las poblaciones de 60.000, 65.000, 70.000, 75.000 y 80.000 plantas por ha-1 en el espacio de 0.45cm entre líneas de siembra. El experimento se realizó en el año agrícola 2018/2019, en el área experimental del Departamento de Ciencias Agronómicas y Ambientales de la Universidad Federal de Santa María, campus Frederico Westphalen - RS, en un diseño de bloques al azar en un esquema factorial (2x5). El diámetro del tallo, la longitud de la mazorca y el peso de mil semillas disminuyeron à medida que aumentó la población de plantas. Para ambos híbridos, y para la mayoría de las variables analizadas, las densidades de población no afectaron significativamente el rendimiento final de grano de las palomitas de maíz. Sin embargo, cuando se trabaja con la población promedio, se observa una superioridad del híbrido 8203 para las variables, altura de la planta, altura de inserción de la mazorca, prolificidad, relleno, diámetro de la mazorca, número de granos por mazorca, peso de mil semillas y productividad final de grano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Zea mays/physiology , Biodiversity , Two-Hybrid System Techniques
18.
Hig. aliment ; 36(294): e1055, jan.-jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1396534

ABSTRACT

Existe uma preocupação na produção de alimentos com a segurança sanitária desde o processo de cultivo até a sua expedição aos centros comerciais. Uma das maiores contaminações em sementes por suas características físicas e químicas, é a contaminação fúngica devida à acidez e umidade dos frutos. As doenças fúngicas entre elas, antracnose, vassoura de bruxa e podridão parda são consideradas importante doenças em pós colheita, ocorrendo, principalmente, sob condições de alta umidade relativa do ar e temperaturas elevadas (26ºC a 28ºC). Dentre as sementes da região Amazônica, destacam-se sementes de (cacau- Theobroma cacao L., pupunha- Bactris gasipaes, tucumã da Amazonas-Astrocaryum aculeatum), que apresentam problemas de contaminação fúngica durante o sistema de cultivo. Métodos de biocontroles com ação antimicrobiana: bactérias endofíticas, rizobactérias e fungo Trichoderma ssp, entre outros estão sendo estudados para a redução destas contaminações fúngicas em estudos in vitro e no campo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a utilização de métodos de biocontrole como uma alternativa promissora no manejo de doenças de plantas na fase de pós-colheita, com excelentes resultados em culturas de grande importância econômica. Assim novas alternativas ecologicamente sustentáveis demonstram a possibilidade de os produtos estudados serem utilizados no manejo da antracnose na pós-colheita.(AU)


There is a concern in food production with health security from cultivation process to its dispatch to redistribution centers. One of the biggest contaminations in seeds due to their physical and chemical characteristics, is the fungal contamination due to the acidity and humidity of the fruits. Fungal diseases including anthracnose, bruca's broom and brownrot are considered important diseases in post-harvest, occurring mainly under conditions of high relative humidity and high temperatures (26ºC to 28ºC). Among the seeds of the Amazon region, seeds of de (cacau- Theobroma cacao L., pupunha- Bactris gasipaes, tucumã da Amazonas- Astrocaryum aculeatum ), that present problems fungals contamination during in their growing cultures sistems. Biocontrol methods with antimicrobial action: endophytic bacteria, rhizobacteria and the fungus Trichoderma ssp, among others, are being studied to reduce these fungal contaminations in in vitro and field studies. The objective of this work is to present a bibliographic review on the use of biocontrol methods as an alternative that is promising in the management of plant diseases in the post-harvest phase, with excellent results in crops of great economic importance. Thus, new ecologically sustainable alternatives demonstrate the possibility of the studied products to be used in the management of anthracnose in the post-harvest period.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Mycoses/prevention & control , Brazil , Cacao/microbiology , Review , Arecaceae/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 309-322, mayo 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396871

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the evaluation of the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from seeds and epicarps of Garcinia madruno; as well garcinol, morelloflavone and volkensiflavone isolated from the same species. In the preliminary test of bacterial susceptibility, hexane extracts from seeds and epicarps and the three compounds tested only displayed inhibitory growth effect against Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of extract and compounds ranging from 86.6 to 1253.4 µg/mL. The hemolytic activity was assessed; however, except for the methanol extract from seeds, none of the samples studied induced hemolysis. Thus, our results suggest that extracts and compounds from G. madruno have the potential to be used in the control of pathologies associated to Gram-positive bacteria. This is the first report of the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of extracts of different polarity obtained from seeds and epicarps of this edible species.


El presente artículo describe la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana y hemolítica de los extractos de hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol, obtenidos de la semilla y el epicarpio de Garcinia madruno; así como de garcinol, morelloflavona y volkensiflavona; aislados de la misma especie. En el ensayo de susceptibilidad bacteriana, tanto el extracto de hexano obtenido a partir de la semilla y el epicarpio, y los tres compuestos aislados, únicamente mostraron actividad inhibitoria del crecimiento contra bacterias Gram-positivas. La concentración mínima inhibitoria presentó valores entre 86.6 y 1253.4 µg/mL. También se estableció la actividad hemolítica; sin embargo, con excepción del extracto metanólico obtenido a partir de las semillas, ninguna de las muestras evaluadas indujo hemólisis. Por lo tanto, los resultados sugieren que los extractos y compuestos de G. madruno tienen el potencial de ser usados en el control de bacterias Gram-positivas asociadas a diversas patologías. Este es el primer reporte de actividad antimicrobiana y hemolítica de extractos de diferente polaridad obtenidos de las semillas y epicarpios de esta especie comestible.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Hemolytic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biflavonoids/analysis
20.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 44: e58431, mar. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1391277

ABSTRACT

Hesperozygis ringens (Lamiaceae), popularly known as espanta-pulga, is a threatened species endemic to rocky and sandy regions of the Pampa biome. One factor that can influence the low number of individuals of a species is a low seed germination rate influenced by temperature and/or light. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of light and temperature on the seed germination of H. ringens. The seeds of two lots were sown on a paper substrate and maintained in BOD chambers at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC in the presence and absence of light. The germination speed rate was evaluated every 3 days for 21 days. The experiment was completely randomized with treatments that had a 4 x 2 factorial design. The first visible sign (protrusion of the primary root) of germination was observed seven days after sowing. Germination occurred both in the presence and absence of light and the lowest temperatures significantly influenced the germination process and germination speed. For germinating the species, 15°C was the most favorable temperature compared to 20, 25 and 30°C. It can be concluded that a temperature of 15ºC favors the germination process of H. ringens seeds, which are insensitive to light.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/physiology , Temperature , Germination/physiology , Lamiaceae/physiology , Light Signal Transduction
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